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Brunelleschi, Alberti &     Perspective     Professor Will Adams       Valencia College           Fall 2011
THE INVENTION OF LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
WHAT IS LINEAR PERSPECTIVE?   A system for    representing three-    dimensional space on    a two-dimensional flat    su...
DEVELOPMENT OF LINEAR PERSPECTIVE   Filippo Brunelleschi    (1377-1446) was the    sculptor and architect    who demonstr...
BRUNELLESCHI’S “PEEP SHOW”   To demonstrate the fact that his    painting was indeed an exact    replica that could fool ...
BRUNELLESCHI’S “PEEP SHOW”                     By holding up the panel                      and pressing the hole to     ...
LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI (1404-72)   Architect and writer who    was the first to formulate    rules that artists could    f...
LEON BATISTA ALBERTI•    Based his system on the height of the human figure, being 3 braccia tall•    Drew a rectangular p...
APPLICATION OF LINEAR PERSPECTIVE                  Brunelleschi devised the method                   of perspective for a...
BRUNELLESCHI’S PROPOSAL DRAWINGOF SANTO SPIRITO, DATED 1543      INTERIOR OF SANTO SPIRITO TODAYAPPLICATION OF LINEAR PERS...
ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE
PERSPECTIVE   Linear Perspective:      Based on the way the human eye sees the       world.      Objects that are close...
PERSPECTIVE   Horizon Line       The place where the land and the sky meet.   Vanishing Point       The single point o...
PERSPECTIVE         The red line is the Horizon Line.
PERSPECTIVE      Can you locate the vanishing point?
IN ONE POINT  PERSPECTIVE, THEVANISHING POINT CAN BE AT ANY LOCATIONALONG THE HORIZON LINE; WHERE IS THE VANISHING POINT I...
MISSING VANISHING POINTS?   Sometimes the vanishing points can be    obscured by subjects within the composition    or pl...
IN THIS PAINTING, LITTLE STREET, BY VERMEER, THE VANISHINGPOINT IS HIDDEN BY THE BUILDING ITSELF; CAN YOU LOCATE THIS     ...
TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE
In two-point perspective, there are 2 vanishing points            located along the horizon line.
• Notice how the corner of the  building is facing the viewer.  This is a simple example of  2 point perspective.• Where a...
• A building can be reduced to a simple shape…..a box.• All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners.• Notice h...
PERSPECTIVE
PERSPECTIVE  • Objects seen at an angle would be drawn with two-    point perspective using two vanishing points.  • Artwo...
PERSPECTIVE     • Lines leading to the vanishing points are                 called orthogonals.
PERSPECTIVE  In two-point perspective, the front edge of the form is                 seen as the closest point.
CLASS ACTIVITY
PERSPECTIVE    Draw a horizon line towards the top of your paper.
PERSPECTIVE Make sure the end of the ruler (or side of the triangle) is flushwith the edge of the paper. If lines are not ...
PERSPECTIVE     Draw two vanishing points on the horizon line near                      the page edges.
PERSPECTIVE   Now draw a vertical line: this is your front edge. Draw   it in near the bottom-middle of the page, so you h...
PERSPECTIVE    Now connect the both ends of the front edge to both   vanishing points. These are orthogonals. Draw lightly...
PERSPECTIVE  Draw two vertical lines between the orthogonals where      you want the back edges of your form to appear.
PERSPECTIVE   Now join the back and top corners to the opposite    vanishing point to complete the top of the form.
PERSPECTIVE   Erase the extra orthogonals. Now you have a form           drawn in two-point perspective!
PERSPECTIVE
PERSPECTIVE              Your First Assignment:               Create a drawing of              boxes in 2-point          ...
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT: DUE OCTOBER 27TH                               Your Final                              Assignment    ...
Hum1020 1030 brunelleschi alberti & perspective
Hum1020 1030 brunelleschi alberti & perspective
Hum1020 1030 brunelleschi alberti & perspective
Hum1020 1030 brunelleschi alberti & perspective
Hum1020 1030 brunelleschi alberti & perspective
Hum1020 1030 brunelleschi alberti & perspective
Hum1020 1030 brunelleschi alberti & perspective
Hum1020 1030 brunelleschi alberti & perspective
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Hum1020 1030 brunelleschi alberti & perspective

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Hum1020 1030 brunelleschi alberti & perspective

  1. 1. Brunelleschi, Alberti & Perspective Professor Will Adams Valencia College Fall 2011
  2. 2. THE INVENTION OF LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
  3. 3. WHAT IS LINEAR PERSPECTIVE? A system for representing three- dimensional space on a two-dimensional flat surface Developed in Florence, Italy in the early 15th century by Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Batista Alberti
  4. 4. DEVELOPMENT OF LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) was the sculptor and architect who demonstrated the principles of perspective through mathematics In 1415, Brunelleschi painted his picture of the Baptistery on the surface of a small mirror, right on top of its own reflection. The Baptistery in Florence
  5. 5. BRUNELLESCHI’S “PEEP SHOW” To demonstrate the fact that his painting was indeed an exact replica that could fool the eye, Brunelleschi drilled a small hole in the mirror and then stood directly in front of the Baptistery, looking through the peephole to see the real building. He then held up a second, clean mirror in front of his painted panel. The second mirror blocked the view of the real building, but now reflected his painted version on the original mirror.
  6. 6. BRUNELLESCHI’S “PEEP SHOW”  By holding up the panel and pressing the hole to one eye while holding a mirror with the other hand, the viewer could see the painting’s reflection.  A viewer standing in the cathedral doorway could check the painted illusion against the real view.
  7. 7. LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI (1404-72) Architect and writer who was the first to formulate rules that artists could follow Imagined the picture surface as an “open window” through which a painted world is seen Showed how a perspective “checkerboard pavement” is created within the picture space - in which the receding parallel lines represent the visual rays connecting the spectator’s eye to a spot in the distance
  8. 8. LEON BATISTA ALBERTI• Based his system on the height of the human figure, being 3 braccia tall• Drew a rectangular picture area, imagined as an open window• Divided the ground line into scaled braccia• Fixed the central vanishing point by drawing a vertical line three braccia high from the center of the ground line• Drew diagonals – orthogonals - joining the ground line to the vanishing point
  9. 9. APPLICATION OF LINEAR PERSPECTIVE  Brunelleschi devised the method of perspective for architectural purposes.  He is said to have made a ground plan for the Church of Santo Spirito on the basis of which he produced a perspective drawing to show his clients how it would look after it was built.  We can compare this drawing with a modern photo of the actual church.
  10. 10. BRUNELLESCHI’S PROPOSAL DRAWINGOF SANTO SPIRITO, DATED 1543 INTERIOR OF SANTO SPIRITO TODAYAPPLICATION OF LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
  11. 11. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE
  12. 12. PERSPECTIVE Linear Perspective:  Based on the way the human eye sees the world.  Objects that are closer appear larger, more distant objects appear smaller.  To create the illusion of space the artists creates a vanishing point on the horizon line.  Objects are drawn using orthogonal lines, which lead to the vanishing point.
  13. 13. PERSPECTIVE Horizon Line  The place where the land and the sky meet. Vanishing Point  The single point on the horizon where all the lines on the ground level seem to come together Orthogonal Line  Lines that connect to the vanishing point
  14. 14. PERSPECTIVE The red line is the Horizon Line.
  15. 15. PERSPECTIVE Can you locate the vanishing point?
  16. 16. IN ONE POINT PERSPECTIVE, THEVANISHING POINT CAN BE AT ANY LOCATIONALONG THE HORIZON LINE; WHERE IS THE VANISHING POINT IN THIS EXAMPLE?
  17. 17. MISSING VANISHING POINTS? Sometimes the vanishing points can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself.
  18. 18. IN THIS PAINTING, LITTLE STREET, BY VERMEER, THE VANISHINGPOINT IS HIDDEN BY THE BUILDING ITSELF; CAN YOU LOCATE THIS POINT?
  19. 19. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE
  20. 20. In two-point perspective, there are 2 vanishing points located along the horizon line.
  21. 21. • Notice how the corner of the building is facing the viewer. This is a simple example of 2 point perspective.• Where are the vanishing points?• Sometimes vanishing points are not on the picture plane at all!
  22. 22. • A building can be reduced to a simple shape…..a box.• All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners.• Notice how the “walls” of the box are straight up &down.
  23. 23. PERSPECTIVE
  24. 24. PERSPECTIVE • Objects seen at an angle would be drawn with two- point perspective using two vanishing points. • Artwork with two-point perspective often has vanishing points "off the page".
  25. 25. PERSPECTIVE • Lines leading to the vanishing points are called orthogonals.
  26. 26. PERSPECTIVE In two-point perspective, the front edge of the form is seen as the closest point.
  27. 27. CLASS ACTIVITY
  28. 28. PERSPECTIVE Draw a horizon line towards the top of your paper.
  29. 29. PERSPECTIVE Make sure the end of the ruler (or side of the triangle) is flushwith the edge of the paper. If lines are not exactly vertical your drawing will be crooked.
  30. 30. PERSPECTIVE Draw two vanishing points on the horizon line near the page edges.
  31. 31. PERSPECTIVE Now draw a vertical line: this is your front edge. Draw it in near the bottom-middle of the page, so you have plenty of room to add more forms to your building.
  32. 32. PERSPECTIVE Now connect the both ends of the front edge to both vanishing points. These are orthogonals. Draw lightly so you can erase!
  33. 33. PERSPECTIVE Draw two vertical lines between the orthogonals where you want the back edges of your form to appear.
  34. 34. PERSPECTIVE Now join the back and top corners to the opposite vanishing point to complete the top of the form.
  35. 35. PERSPECTIVE Erase the extra orthogonals. Now you have a form drawn in two-point perspective!
  36. 36. PERSPECTIVE
  37. 37. PERSPECTIVE Your First Assignment:  Create a drawing of boxes in 2-point perspective.  Stack Forms on top of each other  Add Design or Texture to your box forms.
  38. 38. HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  39. 39. HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT: DUE OCTOBER 27TH Your Final Assignment • Create a fantasy city using two-point perspective! • Sketch out in pencil first • Add forms and details to create your city • Outline with black marker or pen • Paint with watercolor, colored pencil or marker to complete your city

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