ObjectivesChapter TopicsDefinition PracticeEnd of ChapterExercisesAssignments
Objectives2. Define data and information3. Explain the principal components of the computerand their use4. Describe the use of magnetic disks, USB flashdrives, and other storage media
What Is A Computer?A computer is an electronic device, operating under thecontrol of instructions stored in its own memory that canaccept data (input), process the data according to specifiedrules (process), produce results (output) and store the results(storage) for future use.
extWhat Does A Computer Do?Computers perform four basic operations –• Input• Process• Output• StorageThese operations comprise the information processing cycle.Collectively, these operations change data into informationand store it for future use.
How Does a Computer Know What to Do?For a computer to perform operations, it must be given a detailed set ofinstructions that tells it exactly what to do. These instructions are calleda computer program, or software.Before processing for a specific job begins, the computer programcorresponding to that job is stored in the computer.Once the program is stored, the computer can begin to operate byexecuting the program’s first instruction.The computer executes one program instruction after another until thejob is complete.
Input DevicesAn input device is any hardwarecomponent that allows you to enterdata, programs, or commands.
The KeyboardThe keyboard is an input device that contains keys you press to enter datainto the computer. A desktop computer keyboard typically has 101 to 105keys.
The Mousewheelbutton laserThumbbuttoncontrolsSlideshowandmediaForwardbuttonwheelbuttonbackbuttonOpticalsensor
The System UnitThe system unit is a case thatcontains electronic componentsof the computer used toprocess data. System units areavailable in a variety of shapesand sizes. The system unit, alsocalled the chassis, is made ofmetal or plastic and protectsthe internal electronic partsfrom damage.The motherboard sometimescalled a system board is themain circuit board of thesystem unit.
ProcessorThe processor is also called the central processing unit (CPU).The Arithmetic/logic unit performs the logical and arithmeticprocesses.
MemoryMemory, also called random access memory, orRAM, consists of electronic components thattemporarily store instructions waiting to beexecuted by the processor, data needed by thoseinstructions, and the results of processed data(information). Memory consists of chips on amemory module.Terms to know: Megabyte (MB)Memory LocationBYTE
Output DevicesOutput devices make the informationresulting from processing available foruse.
Display DevicesA display device, like amonitor, visually conveystext, graphics, and videoinformation.
Storage DevicesA storage device is used to store instructions, data,and information when they are not being used inmemory. Four common types of storage devices,sometimes called storage media, are magnetic disks,optical discs, tape, and miniature mobile storagemedia.
Hard DisksHard Disks: A hard disk, also called a harddisk drive, is a storage device that containsone or more inflexible, circular platters thatmagnetically store data, instructions, andinformation.
Optical DiscsAn optical disc is a portable storage medium that consists of aflat, round, portable disc made of metal, plastic, and lacquerthat is written and read by a laser.Terms to know: CD-ROM - CD- ROM Drive - CD-R - CD-RWDVD-ROM - DVD-ROM Drive - DVD-RDVD+R - Blu-ray (BD-ROM) – HD-DVDBD-RE - HD DVD-RW
Various Flash Memory CardsCompactFlashDigital cameras, PDAs, smart phones, photo printers,portable media players, notebook computers,desktop computersSecureDigitalDigital cameras, digital video cameras, PDAs, smartphones, photo printers, portable media playersxD PictureCardMemoryStickDigital Cameras, photo printersDigital cameras, digital video cameras, PDAs, photoprinters, smart phones, handheld game consoles,notebook computers
System SoftwareSystem software consists of programs to control the operationsof computer equipment.Terms to know: System SoftwareBootingGraphical User Interface (GUI)Windows XP Windows VistaWindows 7 Windows 8Apple Linux
Application SoftwareApplication Software consists of programs designed to makeusers more productive and/or assist them with personal tasks.
Word ProcessingWord processing software is used tocreate, edit, format and print documents.A key advantage of word processingsoftware is that users easily can makechanges in documents, such as correctingspelling, changing margins, and adding,deleting, or relocating entire paragraphs.
SpreadsheetSpreadsheet Software allowsthe user to add, subtract andperform user-definedcalculations on rows andcolumns of numbers.
NextPresentation Graphics Presentation Graphics Softwareallows the user to create slides for usein a presentation to a group. Usingspecial projection devices, the slidesare projected directly from thecomputer.
Networks and The InternetA network is a collection of computersand devices connected together, oftenwirelessly, via communications devicesand transmission media. When acomputer connects to a network, it isonline.Terms to know:Local Area Network (LAN)Wide Area Network (WAN)
The InternetThe world’s largest network is the Internet, which is aworldwide collection of networks that connectsmillions of businesses, government agencies,educational institutions and individuals.Terms to know: ISP (Internet service provider)OSP (Online service provider)WISP (Wireless Internet service provider
The World Wide WebOne of the more popular segments of the Internet isthe World Wide Web, also called the Web, whichcontains billions of documents called Web pages.Terms to know: Web PageWeb SiteWeb BrowserURL (Uniform Resource Locator)
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