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Looking South from Syene Egypt Latitude: 24º N Scorpius Looking South from Athens Greece Latitude: 38º N Scorpius
Earth Shadow during Lunar Eclipse Multiple Exposure Photograph
Cyrene Tropic of Cancer Syene Alexandria
Syene Alexandria Earth 7  14 / 60 º Sunlight
North Pole South Pole Equator
South Pole North Pole Equator
Meridian North Pole South Pole Equator
South Pole North Pole Meridian Equator
South Celestial Pole North Celestial Pole Celestial  Sphere Celestial Equator
SCP NCP Celestial Meridian CEq Declination
Local Sky N W E S Horizon Zenith
SCP NCP CEq Z Below the Horizon N S E W Visible Half of the Sky
Measuring Latitude Horizon Latitude N W E S NCP CEq Zenith
N S W E Z NCP Equator Z NCP N S W E 40º N Latitude Z NCP North Pole
Zenith W E S N NCP CEq Never Sets Above Horizon  for 12 h Above Horizon for > 12 h Above Horizon for < 12 h Never Rises
SCP NCP Obliquity of  the Ecliptic CEq Ecliptic ~23.5º
 
SCP NCP CEq Winter Solstice Summer Solstice Ecliptic
SCP NCP CEq Winter Solstice Summer Solstice Vernal Equinox Autumnal Equinox Ecliptic
W E S N NCP Summer Solstice Vernal & Autumnal Equinoxes Winter Solstice Z CEq
W E S N NCP CEq Summer Solstice Vernal & Autumnal Equinoxes Winter Solstice Z
December March June September
Equinoxes: March 20 & Sept. 22 Northern Spring/Fall Southern Fall/Spring
December 21: Winter Solstice Northern Winter Southern Summer
June 21: Summer Solstice Northern Summer Southern Winter
1 KW/m 2 1 KW/m 2 1 m 2 2 m 2
2000 Dec 21: Winter Solstice 2001 June 21: Summer Solstice 2001 Mar 20: Vernal Equinox 2001 Sept 22: Autumnal Equinox Wint...
Draco Ursa Minor Cepheus Thuban Polaris 2000 AD 2700 BC
Precession of the Equinoxes
Moon at Perigee Moon at Apogee
New Moon Full Moon Waning Crescent Last Quarter Waning Gibbous Waxing Gibbous Waxing Crescent First Quarter
Moonrise & Moonset at 1 st  Quarter Sunset Sunrise Midnight Moonset Noon Moonrise
Moonrise & Moonset at Full Moon Sunset Moonrise Moonrise Sunrise Midnight Noon
Moonrise & Moonset at Last Quarter Sunset Sunrise Midnight Moonrise Noon Moonset
Sidereal  vs.  Synodic Months New Moon T=0 d T=27.3 d (Sidereal) T=29.5 d (Synodic)
Penumbra Sun Earth Umbra
Sunlight Uneclipsed Moon Penumbral Eclipse Total Lunar Eclipse Partial Lunar Eclipse
Total Lunar Eclipse   (Note the ruddy scattered sunlight) Partial Lunar Eclipse
Moon Earth Sunlight Umbra Penumbra
SCP NCP CEq Ecliptic 4th 1st 2nd 3rd Cross-Quarter Days Winter Solstice Summer Solstice Vernal Equinox Autumnal Equinox
Solar & Sidereal Days T=0 h Not to Scale Noon T=23 h  56 m  04 s (Sidereal Day) T=24 h (Solar day) Noon
Earth Inferior Conjunction Superior Conjunction
Earth Maximum  Eastern Elongation Maximum Western Elongation
Conjunction Opposition Earth
Opposition Conjunction Earth Eastern Quadrature Western Quadrature
Mars Retrograde Motion in 1994/95 1995 Jan 2 1995 Mar 24 1994 Sept 24 1995 July 4
Saturn & Jupiter 4/1999 - 6/2000 Saturn Jupiter Mars  11/1998-10/1999 Venus  6-11/1999 Mercury 10-12/1999
SCP NCP Celestial Sphere (Daily E-W Motion) Ecliptic Sphere (Annual W-E Motion 23.5º tilt) Planetary Spheres (Retrograde M...
Less Time More Time Not to Scale First Quarter Last Quarter
Earth Deferent Epicycle
Earth Equant Center
Ptolemaic System Saturn Mars Jupiter Sun Mercury Venus Earth
Earth Venus Mercury Sun Solar System Mars Jupiter Saturn
Earth Mars Retrograde Motion
Venus Maximum  Eastern Elongation 1 AU D Venus 46º
F 1 F 2 Semimajor Axis Center
T=0 d Equal Areas in Equal Times T=10 d T=0 d T=10 d
Jan 10 Jan 11 Jan 12 Jan 13 Jan 19 Jan 18 Jan 15 Jan 16
Io Europa Ganymede Callisto
Copernican System Ptolemaic System 3 3 4 4 2 2 1 1 5 5 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
Falling Apple : Changing  Speed (gets faster as it falls) Same  Direction (always falls down)
Ball Swung around on a String : Same  Speed, (in uniform circular motion) Changing  Direction (swinging around the circle)
Donut Swung around on a String Force Acceleration
Equal and Opposite Force from the Table Net Force is Zero,  No Net Motion Force = (apple’s mass)    (acceleration due to ...
M 1 M 2 d M 1 M 2 2d M 1 M 2 d/2
2M 1 M 2 d M 1 M 2 d 2M 1 2M 2 d
 
Conic Section Curves Parabola Hyperbola Circle Ellipse
Parabola v = v E Hyperbola v>v E Ellipse v C <v<v E Circle v = v C Ellipse v<v C
Columbus, Ohio 40º N: 1280 km/h Arctic Circle 66.5º N: 666 km/h Equator 1670 km/h
 
6 hours later Towards Sirius
Frequency (f)  (# waves/second) Wavelength (  ) Speed (c)
B=1 B=1/9 B=1/4 d=1 d=2 d=3
Doppler Effect in Sound High Pitch (short waves) Low Pitch (long waves)
Half-Life = 35 sec T=0 s 0 popped 16 unpopped T=35 s 8 popped 8 unpopped
Hot Gas Faster Average Speeds Cool Gas Slow Average Speeds
Prisms disperse light into its component colors Prism Spectrum White Light
Continuum Source Continuous Spectrum Absorption-line Spectrum Emission-line Spectrum Cloud of  Hydrogen Gas
Hydrogen Helium Oxygen Neon Iron
Continuum Source Cloud of  Hydrogen Gas Lamp Light Absorbed by  Hydrogen Atoms in the Cloud Lamp emits light at all energies
Energy Level  Diagram of  1 H Continuum n=1 (Ground State) n=3 (2 nd  excited state) n=2 (1 st  excited state) n=4 n=5 n= 
Larger Jump = More Energy = Bluer Wavelength n=1 (Ground State) n=3 (2 nd  excited state) n=2 (1 st  excited state) n=4 n=...
Photons of all other energies (wavelengths) are  ignored and pass on by unabsorbed. n=1 (Ground State) n=3 (2 nd  excited ...
Spectrum of a Fluorescent Light Mercury
Lens Retina Collecting Area
Simple Refracting Telescope Objective Lens Secondary Lens  (Eyepiece) Focus
Primary Mirror Prime  Focus Secondary  Mirror Cassegrain  Focus
4.5 Billion Years Ago 238 U 206 Pb 235 U 207 Pb 238 U 206 Pb 235 U 207 Pb Today 1 half-life 6.3 half-lives 50% left 1.2% l...
Seismic Station Lower Mantle Core Upper Mantle Crust Seismic Station P-waves Surface Waves S waves P & S waves Earthquake!
Two Faces of the Moon Near Side Far Side Maria Impact Basin Cratered Highlands
Apollo and Luna Landing Sites A12 A14 A15 A17 A11 A16 L24 L20 L16
Mars Earth Venus Mercury Pluto Neptune Uranus Saturn Jupiter
Pluto Ecliptic
Molecular Hydrogen Metallic Hydrogen Jupiter Interior “ Ice” Rock
Molecular Hydrogen Metallic  Hydrogen “ Ice” Saturn Interior Rock
Interiors of Uranus & Neptune Uranus Neptune Rocky Cores Slushy “ Ice”Mantles Molecular Hydrogen
Metallic Hydrogen Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Earth
S S P P Star’s spectrum shifts  redward Star’s spectrum shifts  blueward
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Ast161art

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Ast161art

  1. 1. Looking South from Syene Egypt Latitude: 24º N Scorpius Looking South from Athens Greece Latitude: 38º N Scorpius
  2. 2. Earth Shadow during Lunar Eclipse Multiple Exposure Photograph
  3. 3. Cyrene Tropic of Cancer Syene Alexandria
  4. 4. Syene Alexandria Earth 7 14 / 60 º Sunlight
  5. 5. North Pole South Pole Equator
  6. 6. South Pole North Pole Equator
  7. 7. Meridian North Pole South Pole Equator
  8. 8. South Pole North Pole Meridian Equator
  9. 9. South Celestial Pole North Celestial Pole Celestial Sphere Celestial Equator
  10. 10. SCP NCP Celestial Meridian CEq Declination
  11. 11. Local Sky N W E S Horizon Zenith
  12. 12. SCP NCP CEq Z Below the Horizon N S E W Visible Half of the Sky
  13. 13. Measuring Latitude Horizon Latitude N W E S NCP CEq Zenith
  14. 14. N S W E Z NCP Equator Z NCP N S W E 40º N Latitude Z NCP North Pole
  15. 15. Zenith W E S N NCP CEq Never Sets Above Horizon for 12 h Above Horizon for > 12 h Above Horizon for < 12 h Never Rises
  16. 16. SCP NCP Obliquity of the Ecliptic CEq Ecliptic ~23.5º
  17. 18. SCP NCP CEq Winter Solstice Summer Solstice Ecliptic
  18. 19. SCP NCP CEq Winter Solstice Summer Solstice Vernal Equinox Autumnal Equinox Ecliptic
  19. 20. W E S N NCP Summer Solstice Vernal & Autumnal Equinoxes Winter Solstice Z CEq
  20. 21. W E S N NCP CEq Summer Solstice Vernal & Autumnal Equinoxes Winter Solstice Z
  21. 22. December March June September
  22. 23. Equinoxes: March 20 & Sept. 22 Northern Spring/Fall Southern Fall/Spring
  23. 24. December 21: Winter Solstice Northern Winter Southern Summer
  24. 25. June 21: Summer Solstice Northern Summer Southern Winter
  25. 26. 1 KW/m 2 1 KW/m 2 1 m 2 2 m 2
  26. 27. 2000 Dec 21: Winter Solstice 2001 June 21: Summer Solstice 2001 Mar 20: Vernal Equinox 2001 Sept 22: Autumnal Equinox Winter Summer Summer Winter Spring Autumn Autumn Spring
  27. 28. Draco Ursa Minor Cepheus Thuban Polaris 2000 AD 2700 BC
  28. 29. Precession of the Equinoxes
  29. 30. Moon at Perigee Moon at Apogee
  30. 31. New Moon Full Moon Waning Crescent Last Quarter Waning Gibbous Waxing Gibbous Waxing Crescent First Quarter
  31. 32. Moonrise & Moonset at 1 st Quarter Sunset Sunrise Midnight Moonset Noon Moonrise
  32. 33. Moonrise & Moonset at Full Moon Sunset Moonrise Moonrise Sunrise Midnight Noon
  33. 34. Moonrise & Moonset at Last Quarter Sunset Sunrise Midnight Moonrise Noon Moonset
  34. 35. Sidereal vs. Synodic Months New Moon T=0 d T=27.3 d (Sidereal) T=29.5 d (Synodic)
  35. 36. Penumbra Sun Earth Umbra
  36. 37. Sunlight Uneclipsed Moon Penumbral Eclipse Total Lunar Eclipse Partial Lunar Eclipse
  37. 38. Total Lunar Eclipse (Note the ruddy scattered sunlight) Partial Lunar Eclipse
  38. 39. Moon Earth Sunlight Umbra Penumbra
  39. 40. SCP NCP CEq Ecliptic 4th 1st 2nd 3rd Cross-Quarter Days Winter Solstice Summer Solstice Vernal Equinox Autumnal Equinox
  40. 41. Solar & Sidereal Days T=0 h Not to Scale Noon T=23 h 56 m 04 s (Sidereal Day) T=24 h (Solar day) Noon
  41. 42. Earth Inferior Conjunction Superior Conjunction
  42. 43. Earth Maximum Eastern Elongation Maximum Western Elongation
  43. 44. Conjunction Opposition Earth
  44. 45. Opposition Conjunction Earth Eastern Quadrature Western Quadrature
  45. 46. Mars Retrograde Motion in 1994/95 1995 Jan 2 1995 Mar 24 1994 Sept 24 1995 July 4
  46. 47. Saturn & Jupiter 4/1999 - 6/2000 Saturn Jupiter Mars 11/1998-10/1999 Venus 6-11/1999 Mercury 10-12/1999
  47. 48. SCP NCP Celestial Sphere (Daily E-W Motion) Ecliptic Sphere (Annual W-E Motion 23.5º tilt) Planetary Spheres (Retrograde Motions)
  48. 49. Less Time More Time Not to Scale First Quarter Last Quarter
  49. 50. Earth Deferent Epicycle
  50. 51. Earth Equant Center
  51. 52. Ptolemaic System Saturn Mars Jupiter Sun Mercury Venus Earth
  52. 53. Earth Venus Mercury Sun Solar System Mars Jupiter Saturn
  53. 54. Earth Mars Retrograde Motion
  54. 55. Venus Maximum Eastern Elongation 1 AU D Venus 46º
  55. 56. F 1 F 2 Semimajor Axis Center
  56. 57. T=0 d Equal Areas in Equal Times T=10 d T=0 d T=10 d
  57. 58. Jan 10 Jan 11 Jan 12 Jan 13 Jan 19 Jan 18 Jan 15 Jan 16
  58. 59. Io Europa Ganymede Callisto
  59. 60. Copernican System Ptolemaic System 3 3 4 4 2 2 1 1 5 5 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
  60. 61. Falling Apple : Changing Speed (gets faster as it falls) Same Direction (always falls down)
  61. 62. Ball Swung around on a String : Same Speed, (in uniform circular motion) Changing Direction (swinging around the circle)
  62. 63. Donut Swung around on a String Force Acceleration
  63. 64. Equal and Opposite Force from the Table Net Force is Zero, No Net Motion Force = (apple’s mass)  (acceleration due to gravity)
  64. 65. M 1 M 2 d M 1 M 2 2d M 1 M 2 d/2
  65. 66. 2M 1 M 2 d M 1 M 2 d 2M 1 2M 2 d
  66. 68. Conic Section Curves Parabola Hyperbola Circle Ellipse
  67. 69. Parabola v = v E Hyperbola v>v E Ellipse v C <v<v E Circle v = v C Ellipse v<v C
  68. 70. Columbus, Ohio 40º N: 1280 km/h Arctic Circle 66.5º N: 666 km/h Equator 1670 km/h
  69. 72. 6 hours later Towards Sirius
  70. 73. Frequency (f) (# waves/second) Wavelength (  ) Speed (c)
  71. 74. B=1 B=1/9 B=1/4 d=1 d=2 d=3
  72. 75. Doppler Effect in Sound High Pitch (short waves) Low Pitch (long waves)
  73. 76. Half-Life = 35 sec T=0 s 0 popped 16 unpopped T=35 s 8 popped 8 unpopped
  74. 77. Hot Gas Faster Average Speeds Cool Gas Slow Average Speeds
  75. 78. Prisms disperse light into its component colors Prism Spectrum White Light
  76. 79. Continuum Source Continuous Spectrum Absorption-line Spectrum Emission-line Spectrum Cloud of Hydrogen Gas
  77. 80. Hydrogen Helium Oxygen Neon Iron
  78. 81. Continuum Source Cloud of Hydrogen Gas Lamp Light Absorbed by Hydrogen Atoms in the Cloud Lamp emits light at all energies
  79. 82. Energy Level Diagram of 1 H Continuum n=1 (Ground State) n=3 (2 nd excited state) n=2 (1 st excited state) n=4 n=5 n= 
  80. 83. Larger Jump = More Energy = Bluer Wavelength n=1 (Ground State) n=3 (2 nd excited state) n=2 (1 st excited state) n=4 n=5 n=3  2 6  2 5  2 4  2 n=6
  81. 84. Photons of all other energies (wavelengths) are ignored and pass on by unabsorbed. n=1 (Ground State) n=3 (2 nd excited state) n=2 (1 st excited state) n=4 n=5 n=2  3 2  6 2  5 2  4 n=6
  82. 85. Spectrum of a Fluorescent Light Mercury
  83. 86. Lens Retina Collecting Area
  84. 87. Simple Refracting Telescope Objective Lens Secondary Lens (Eyepiece) Focus
  85. 88. Primary Mirror Prime Focus Secondary Mirror Cassegrain Focus
  86. 89. 4.5 Billion Years Ago 238 U 206 Pb 235 U 207 Pb 238 U 206 Pb 235 U 207 Pb Today 1 half-life 6.3 half-lives 50% left 1.2% left
  87. 90. Seismic Station Lower Mantle Core Upper Mantle Crust Seismic Station P-waves Surface Waves S waves P & S waves Earthquake!
  88. 91. Two Faces of the Moon Near Side Far Side Maria Impact Basin Cratered Highlands
  89. 92. Apollo and Luna Landing Sites A12 A14 A15 A17 A11 A16 L24 L20 L16
  90. 93. Mars Earth Venus Mercury Pluto Neptune Uranus Saturn Jupiter
  91. 94. Pluto Ecliptic
  92. 95. Molecular Hydrogen Metallic Hydrogen Jupiter Interior “ Ice” Rock
  93. 96. Molecular Hydrogen Metallic Hydrogen “ Ice” Saturn Interior Rock
  94. 97. Interiors of Uranus & Neptune Uranus Neptune Rocky Cores Slushy “ Ice”Mantles Molecular Hydrogen
  95. 98. Metallic Hydrogen Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Earth
  96. 99. S S P P Star’s spectrum shifts redward Star’s spectrum shifts blueward

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