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Diarrhea WHO

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Diarrhea WHO

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Diarrhea WHO

  1. 1. Two types of emergencies regarding acute diarrhoea exist: Cholera = acute watery diarrhoea and Shigella dysentery = acute bloody diarrhoea Both are transmitted by contaminated water, unsafe food, dirty hands and vomit or stools of sick people. Other causes of diarrhoea may produce severe illness for the patient, but will not produce outbreaks which represent an immediate threat to the community. First steps for managing an outbreak of acute diarrhoea 1. Is this the beginning of an outbreak? You might be facing an outbreak very soon if you have seen an unusual number of acute diarrhoeal cases this week and the patients have the following points in common: • they have similar clinical symptoms (watery or bloody diarrhoea) • they are living in the same area or location • they have eaten the same food (at a burial ceremony for example) • they are sharing the same water source • there is an outbreak in the neighbouring community or You have seen an adult suffering from acute watery diarrhoea with severe dehydration and vomiting If you have some statistical information from previous years or weeks verify if the actual increase of cases is unusual over the same period of time. 2. Is the patient suffering from cholera or shigella? Acute diarrhoea could be a common symptom. Therefore it is important to differentiate between shigella or cholera in order to improve case management and to estimate needed supplies • Establish a clinical diagnosis for the patient you have seen (Table1) • Do the same for the other family members who are suffering from acute diarrhoea • Try to take stool samples and send them for immediate analysis. If it is not possible to send the samples immediately, collect stool specimens in Cary Blair or TCBS transport medium and refrigerate. Don’t wait for laboratory results to start treatment and to protect the community. Not all the cases need to be laboratory confirmed. THE FIRST TWO QUESTIONS ARE: 1. Is this the beginning of an outbreak? 2. Is the patient suffering from cholera or shigella? Be prepared to face a sudden increase in number of cases WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL DON’T FORGET … PROTECT YOURSELF FROM CONTAMINATION ■ Wash your hands with soap before and after taking care of the patient ■ Cut your nails ISOLATE CHOLERA PATIENTS ■ Stools, vomit and soiled clothes of patients are highly contagious ■ Latrines and patients’ buckets need to be washed and disinfected with chlorine ■ Cholera patients have to be in a special ward, isolated from other patients CONTINUOUS PROVISION OF NUTRITIOUS FOOD is important for all patients, especially for those with shigella dysentery ■ Provide frequent small meals with familiar foods during the first two days rather than infrequent large meals ■ Provide food as soon as the patient is able to take it ■ Breastfeeding of infants and young children should continue For more information: cholera@who.int http://www.who.int/cholera ■ Inform and ask for help The outbreak can evolve quickly and the rapid increase of cases may prevent you from doing your daily activities • Inform your supervisor about the situation • Ask for more supplies if needed (see Box) • Ask for help to control the outbreak among and outside the community WHAT TO DO IF YOU SUSPECT AN OUTBREAK ■ Inform and ask for help ■ Protect the community ■ Treat the patients WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL WHO/CDS/CSR/NCS/2003.7 Rev.2 Collect data on the patients Note carefully the following data that will help to investigate the outbreak N° Name Address Symptoms Age Sex Date Outcome (<5 or (male M) or of onset >5 years) (female F) WHOGLOBALTASKFORCEONCHOLERACONTROL © World Health Organization 2010 All rights reserved Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; e-mail: permissions@who.int). The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL THIS LEAFLET AIMS AT GUIDING YOU THROUGH THE VERY FIRST DAYS OF AN OUTBREAK Check the supplies you have and record available quantities ➥ IV fluids (Ringer Lactate is the best) ➥ Drips ➥ Nasogastric tubes ➥ Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) ➥ Antibiotics (see Table 2) ➥ Soap ➥ Chlorine or bleaching powder ➥ Rectal swabs and transport medium (Cary Blair or TCBS) for stool samples ➥ Safe water is needed to rehydrate patients and to wash clothes and instruments TABLE 1 Symptoms Cholera = Shigella = acute watery acute bloody diarrhoea diarrhoea Stool > 3 loose > 3 loose stools per day, stools per day, watery like with blood rice water or pus Fever No Yes Abdominal cramps Yes Yes Vomiting Yes a lot No Rectal pain No Yes
  2. 2. Two types of emergencies regarding acute diarrhoea exist: Cholera = acute watery diarrhoea and Shigella dysentery = acute bloody diarrhoea Both are transmitted by contaminated water, unsafe food, dirty hands and vomit or stools of sick people. Other causes of diarrhoea may produce severe illness for the patient, but will not produce outbreaks which represent an immediate threat to the community. First steps for managing an outbreak of acute diarrhoea 1. Is this the beginning of an outbreak? You might be facing an outbreak very soon if you have seen an unusual number of acute diarrhoeal cases this week and the patients have the following points in common: • they have similar clinical symptoms (watery or bloody diarrhoea) • they are living in the same area or location • they have eaten the same food (at a burial ceremony for example) • they are sharing the same water source • there is an outbreak in the neighbouring community or You have seen an adult suffering from acute watery diarrhoea with severe dehydration and vomiting If you have some statistical information from previous years or weeks verify if the actual increase of cases is unusual over the same period of time. 2. Is the patient suffering from cholera or shigella? Acute diarrhoea could be a common symptom. Therefore it is important to differentiate between shigella or cholera in order to improve case management and to estimate needed supplies • Establish a clinical diagnosis for the patient you have seen (Table1) • Do the same for the other family members who are suffering from acute diarrhoea • Try to take stool samples and send them for immediate analysis. If it is not possible to send the samples immediately, collect stool specimens in Cary Blair or TCBS transport medium and refrigerate. Don’t wait for laboratory results to start treatment and to protect the community. Not all the cases need to be laboratory confirmed. THE FIRST TWO QUESTIONS ARE: 1. Is this the beginning of an outbreak? 2. Is the patient suffering from cholera or shigella? Be prepared to face a sudden increase in number of cases WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL DON’T FORGET … PROTECT YOURSELF FROM CONTAMINATION ■ Wash your hands with soap before and after taking care of the patient ■ Cut your nails ISOLATE CHOLERA PATIENTS ■ Stools, vomit and soiled clothes of patients are highly contagious ■ Latrines and patients’ buckets need to be washed and disinfected with chlorine ■ Cholera patients have to be in a special ward, isolated from other patients CONTINUOUS PROVISION OF NUTRITIOUS FOOD is important for all patients, especially for those with shigella dysentery ■ Provide frequent small meals with familiar foods during the first two days rather than infrequent large meals ■ Provide food as soon as the patient is able to take it ■ Breastfeeding of infants and young children should continue For more information: cholera@who.int http://www.who.int/cholera ■ Inform and ask for help The outbreak can evolve quickly and the rapid increase of cases may prevent you from doing your daily activities • Inform your supervisor about the situation • Ask for more supplies if needed (see Box) • Ask for help to control the outbreak among and outside the community WHAT TO DO IF YOU SUSPECT AN OUTBREAK ■ Inform and ask for help ■ Protect the community ■ Treat the patients WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL WHO/CDS/CSR/NCS/2003.7 Rev.2 Collect data on the patients Note carefully the following data that will help to investigate the outbreak N° Name Address Symptoms Age Sex Date Outcome (<5 or (male M) or of onset >5 years) (female F) WHOGLOBALTASKFORCEONCHOLERACONTROL © World Health Organization 2010 All rights reserved Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; e-mail: permissions@who.int). The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL THIS LEAFLET AIMS AT GUIDING YOU THROUGH THE VERY FIRST DAYS OF AN OUTBREAK Check the supplies you have and record available quantities ➥ IV fluids (Ringer Lactate is the best) ➥ Drips ➥ Nasogastric tubes ➥ Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) ➥ Antibiotics (see Table 2) ➥ Soap ➥ Chlorine or bleaching powder ➥ Rectal swabs and transport medium (Cary Blair or TCBS) for stool samples ➥ Safe water is needed to rehydrate patients and to wash clothes and instruments TABLE 1 Symptoms Cholera = Shigella = acute watery acute bloody diarrhoea diarrhoea Stool > 3 loose > 3 loose stools per day, stools per day, watery like with blood rice water or pus Fever No Yes Abdominal cramps Yes Yes Vomiting Yes a lot No Rectal pain No Yes
  3. 3. ■ Protect the community WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL If NO THEN If NO THEN ■ Treat the patients Summary of the treatment A. Rehydrate with ORS or IV solution depending on the severity B. Maintain hydration and monitor frequently the hydration status C. Give antibiotics for severe cholera cases and for shigella cases A. Rehydrate depending on severity 80% of the cases can be treated using only Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL B. Maintain hydration and monitor the patient Reassess the patient for signs of dehydration regularly during the first six hours: • Number and quantity of stools and vomit in order to compensate for the loss of body fluids • Radial pulse: if it remains weak, IV rehydration has to be continued. WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL C. Give antibiotics if needed When is it useful to give antibiotics? ➥ For cholera cases with severe dehydration only. ➥ Ideally for all of Shigella dysenteriae cases, but as a priority for the most vulnerable patients: children under five, elderly, malnourished, patients with convulsions. If YES THEN ▲ ▲ Is the patient dehydrated? • The patient is losing a lot of fluids because of diarrhoea and vomiting. • Does he have two or more of the following signs? The lack of water in his body results in: — sunken eyes — absence of tears — dry mouth and tongue — the patient is thirsty and drinks eagerly — the skin pinch goes back slowly ▲ There is severe dehydration • Put an IV drip to start intravenous rehydration • In case this is not possible, rehydrate with ORS • In any case, refer the patient to the higher level and rehydrate as shown in Box 4 ▲ There is NO dehydration: Give Oral Rehydration Salt (Box 2) ▲ There is some dehydration: • Give Oral Rehydration Salt in the amount recommended in Box 3 • Nasogastric tubes can be used for rehydration when ORS solution increases vomiting and nausea or when the patient cannot drink • Monitor the patient frequently ▲ ▲ If YES, check if the dehydration is very severe Is the dehydration very severe? When dehydration is very severe in addition to the above mentioned signs: • The patient is lethargic, unconscious or floppy • He is unable to drink • His radial pulse is weak • The skin pinch goes back very slowly HOW TO PROTECT THE COMMUNITY ■ Isolate the severe cases ■ Provide information — on how to avoid cholera through simple messages — on the outbreak ■ Disinfect water sources with chlorine ■ Promote water disinfection at home using chlorine ■ Avoid gatherings Stool and vomit are highly contagious GIVE SIMPLE MESSAGES TO THE COMMUNITY To avoid cholera and shigella ■ Wash your hands with soap — after using toilets and latrines — before preparing food — before eating ■ Boil or disinfect the water with chlorine solution ■ Only eat freshly cooked food ■ Do not defecate near the water sources ■ Use latrines and keep them clean In case of acute diarrhoea ■ Start oral rehydration with ORS (see Boxes 1 and 2) before going to the health centre ■ Go to the health centre as soon as possible PRECAUTIONS FOR FUNERALS ■ Disinfect corpses with chlorine solution (2%) ■ Fill mouth and anus with cotton wool soaked with chlorine solution ■ Wash hands with soap after touching the corpse ■ Disinfect the clothing and bedding of the deceased by stirring them in boiling water or by drying them thoroughly in the sun BOX 1. HOW TO PREPARE HOME-MADE ORS SOLUTION • If ORS sachets are available: dilute one sachet in one litre of safe water • Otherwise: Add to one litre of safe water: — Salt 1/2 small spoon (2.5 grams) — Sugar 6 small spoons (30 grams) And try to compensate for loss of potassium (for example, eat bananas or drink green coconut water) BOX 2. THERE IS NO SIGN OF DEHYDRATION When there is NO sign of dehydration: give ORS solution (see Box 1) after each stool • Child less than 2 years old: 50–100 ml (1/4–1/2 cup) ORS solution. Up to approximately 1/2 litre a day. • Child between 2 and 9 years old: 100–200 ml. Up to approximately 1 litre a day. • Patient of 10 years of age or more as much as wanted, up to approximately 2 litres a day. BOX 3. THERE IS SOME SIGN OF DEHYDRATION Approximate amount of ORS solution to give in the first 4 hours Age Less than 4–11 12–23 2–4 5–14 15 years 4 months months months years years or older Weight Less than 5–7.9 kg 8–10.9 kg 11–15.9 kg 16–29.9 kg 30 kg 5 kg or more ORS solution in ml 200–400 400–600 600–800 800–1200 1200–2200 2200–4000 BOX 4. THERE IS SEVERE DEHYDRATION Give IV drips of Ringer Lactate or if not available cholera saline (or normal saline) • 100 ml/kg in three-hour period (in 6 hours for children aged less than 1 year) • Start rapidly (30ml/kg within 30 min) and then slow down. Total amount per day: 200 ml/kg during the first 24 hours TABLE 2. WHICH ANTIBIOTICS CAN BE GIVEN? Cholera Doxycycline single dose 300 mg or tetracycline 12,5 mg/kg 4 time/day for 3 days Young children: erythromycin 12,5 mg/kg 4 time/day for 3 days • for children below 6 months of age: 10 mg daily for 10 days add zinc • for children 6 months to 5 years of age: 20mg daily for 10 days add zinc Note : There is an increasing resistance to doxycycline, tetracycline and TMP-SMX. Shigella Adults : ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice a day for 3 days Enfant : ciprofloxacin 250 mg/15 kg twice a day for 3 days • for children below 6 months of age: 10 mg daily for 10 days add zinc • for children 6 months to 5 years of age: 20 mg daily for 10 days add zinc Note : Rapidly evolving antimicrobial resistance is a real problem. Shigella is usually resistant to ampicillin and TMP-SMX.
  4. 4. ■ Protect the community WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL If NO THEN If NO THEN ■ Treat the patients Summary of the treatment A. Rehydrate with ORS or IV solution depending on the severity B. Maintain hydration and monitor frequently the hydration status C. Give antibiotics for severe cholera cases and for shigella cases A. Rehydrate depending on severity 80% of the cases can be treated using only Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL B. Maintain hydration and monitor the patient Reassess the patient for signs of dehydration regularly during the first six hours: • Number and quantity of stools and vomit in order to compensate for the loss of body fluids • Radial pulse: if it remains weak, IV rehydration has to be continued. WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL C. Give antibiotics if needed When is it useful to give antibiotics? ➥ For cholera cases with severe dehydration only. ➥ Ideally for all of Shigella dysenteriae cases, but as a priority for the most vulnerable patients: children under five, elderly, malnourished, patients with convulsions. If YES THEN ▲ ▲ Is the patient dehydrated? • The patient is losing a lot of fluids because of diarrhoea and vomiting. • Does he have two or more of the following signs? The lack of water in his body results in: — sunken eyes — absence of tears — dry mouth and tongue — the patient is thirsty and drinks eagerly — the skin pinch goes back slowly ▲ There is severe dehydration • Put an IV drip to start intravenous rehydration • In case this is not possible, rehydrate with ORS • In any case, refer the patient to the higher level and rehydrate as shown in Box 4 ▲ There is NO dehydration: Give Oral Rehydration Salt (Box 2) ▲ There is some dehydration: • Give Oral Rehydration Salt in the amount recommended in Box 3 • Nasogastric tubes can be used for rehydration when ORS solution increases vomiting and nausea or when the patient cannot drink • Monitor the patient frequently ▲ ▲ If YES, check if the dehydration is very severe Is the dehydration very severe? When dehydration is very severe in addition to the above mentioned signs: • The patient is lethargic, unconscious or floppy • He is unable to drink • His radial pulse is weak • The skin pinch goes back very slowly HOW TO PROTECT THE COMMUNITY ■ Isolate the severe cases ■ Provide information — on how to avoid cholera through simple messages — on the outbreak ■ Disinfect water sources with chlorine ■ Promote water disinfection at home using chlorine ■ Avoid gatherings Stool and vomit are highly contagious GIVE SIMPLE MESSAGES TO THE COMMUNITY To avoid cholera and shigella ■ Wash your hands with soap — after using toilets and latrines — before preparing food — before eating ■ Boil or disinfect the water with chlorine solution ■ Only eat freshly cooked food ■ Do not defecate near the water sources ■ Use latrines and keep them clean In case of acute diarrhoea ■ Start oral rehydration with ORS (see Boxes 1 and 2) before going to the health centre ■ Go to the health centre as soon as possible PRECAUTIONS FOR FUNERALS ■ Disinfect corpses with chlorine solution (2%) ■ Fill mouth and anus with cotton wool soaked with chlorine solution ■ Wash hands with soap after touching the corpse ■ Disinfect the clothing and bedding of the deceased by stirring them in boiling water or by drying them thoroughly in the sun BOX 1. HOW TO PREPARE HOME-MADE ORS SOLUTION • If ORS sachets are available: dilute one sachet in one litre of safe water • Otherwise: Add to one litre of safe water: — Salt 1/2 small spoon (2.5 grams) — Sugar 6 small spoons (30 grams) And try to compensate for loss of potassium (for example, eat bananas or drink green coconut water) BOX 2. THERE IS NO SIGN OF DEHYDRATION When there is NO sign of dehydration: give ORS solution (see Box 1) after each stool • Child less than 2 years old: 50–100 ml (1/4–1/2 cup) ORS solution. Up to approximately 1/2 litre a day. • Child between 2 and 9 years old: 100–200 ml. Up to approximately 1 litre a day. • Patient of 10 years of age or more as much as wanted, up to approximately 2 litres a day. BOX 3. THERE IS SOME SIGN OF DEHYDRATION Approximate amount of ORS solution to give in the first 4 hours Age Less than 4–11 12–23 2–4 5–14 15 years 4 months months months years years or older Weight Less than 5–7.9 kg 8–10.9 kg 11–15.9 kg 16–29.9 kg 30 kg 5 kg or more ORS solution in ml 200–400 400–600 600–800 800–1200 1200–2200 2200–4000 BOX 4. THERE IS SEVERE DEHYDRATION Give IV drips of Ringer Lactate or if not available cholera saline (or normal saline) • 100 ml/kg in three-hour period (in 6 hours for children aged less than 1 year) • Start rapidly (30ml/kg within 30 min) and then slow down. Total amount per day: 200 ml/kg during the first 24 hours TABLE 2. WHICH ANTIBIOTICS CAN BE GIVEN? Cholera Doxycycline single dose 300 mg or tetracycline 12,5 mg/kg 4 time/day for 3 days Young children: erythromycin 12,5 mg/kg 4 time/day for 3 days • for children below 6 months of age: 10 mg daily for 10 days add zinc • for children 6 months to 5 years of age: 20mg daily for 10 days add zinc Note : There is an increasing resistance to doxycycline, tetracycline and TMP-SMX. Shigella Adults : ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice a day for 3 days Enfant : ciprofloxacin 250 mg/15 kg twice a day for 3 days • for children below 6 months of age: 10 mg daily for 10 days add zinc • for children 6 months to 5 years of age: 20 mg daily for 10 days add zinc Note : Rapidly evolving antimicrobial resistance is a real problem. Shigella is usually resistant to ampicillin and TMP-SMX.
  5. 5. ■ Protect the community WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL If NO THEN If NO THEN ■ Treat the patients Summary of the treatment A. Rehydrate with ORS or IV solution depending on the severity B. Maintain hydration and monitor frequently the hydration status C. Give antibiotics for severe cholera cases and for shigella cases A. Rehydrate depending on severity 80% of the cases can be treated using only Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL B. Maintain hydration and monitor the patient Reassess the patient for signs of dehydration regularly during the first six hours: • Number and quantity of stools and vomit in order to compensate for the loss of body fluids • Radial pulse: if it remains weak, IV rehydration has to be continued. WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL C. Give antibiotics if needed When is it useful to give antibiotics? ➥ For cholera cases with severe dehydration only. ➥ Ideally for all of Shigella dysenteriae cases, but as a priority for the most vulnerable patients: children under five, elderly, malnourished, patients with convulsions. If YES THEN ▲ ▲ Is the patient dehydrated? • The patient is losing a lot of fluids because of diarrhoea and vomiting. • Does he have two or more of the following signs? The lack of water in his body results in: — sunken eyes — absence of tears — dry mouth and tongue — the patient is thirsty and drinks eagerly — the skin pinch goes back slowly ▲ There is severe dehydration • Put an IV drip to start intravenous rehydration • In case this is not possible, rehydrate with ORS • In any case, refer the patient to the higher level and rehydrate as shown in Box 4 ▲ There is NO dehydration: Give Oral Rehydration Salt (Box 2) ▲ There is some dehydration: • Give Oral Rehydration Salt in the amount recommended in Box 3 • Nasogastric tubes can be used for rehydration when ORS solution increases vomiting and nausea or when the patient cannot drink • Monitor the patient frequently ▲ ▲ If YES, check if the dehydration is very severe Is the dehydration very severe? When dehydration is very severe in addition to the above mentioned signs: • The patient is lethargic, unconscious or floppy • He is unable to drink • His radial pulse is weak • The skin pinch goes back very slowly HOW TO PROTECT THE COMMUNITY ■ Isolate the severe cases ■ Provide information — on how to avoid cholera through simple messages — on the outbreak ■ Disinfect water sources with chlorine ■ Promote water disinfection at home using chlorine ■ Avoid gatherings Stool and vomit are highly contagious GIVE SIMPLE MESSAGES TO THE COMMUNITY To avoid cholera and shigella ■ Wash your hands with soap — after using toilets and latrines — before preparing food — before eating ■ Boil or disinfect the water with chlorine solution ■ Only eat freshly cooked food ■ Do not defecate near the water sources ■ Use latrines and keep them clean In case of acute diarrhoea ■ Start oral rehydration with ORS (see Boxes 1 and 2) before going to the health centre ■ Go to the health centre as soon as possible PRECAUTIONS FOR FUNERALS ■ Disinfect corpses with chlorine solution (2%) ■ Fill mouth and anus with cotton wool soaked with chlorine solution ■ Wash hands with soap after touching the corpse ■ Disinfect the clothing and bedding of the deceased by stirring them in boiling water or by drying them thoroughly in the sun BOX 1. HOW TO PREPARE HOME-MADE ORS SOLUTION • If ORS sachets are available: dilute one sachet in one litre of safe water • Otherwise: Add to one litre of safe water: — Salt 1/2 small spoon (2.5 grams) — Sugar 6 small spoons (30 grams) And try to compensate for loss of potassium (for example, eat bananas or drink green coconut water) BOX 2. THERE IS NO SIGN OF DEHYDRATION When there is NO sign of dehydration: give ORS solution (see Box 1) after each stool • Child less than 2 years old: 50–100 ml (1/4–1/2 cup) ORS solution. Up to approximately 1/2 litre a day. • Child between 2 and 9 years old: 100–200 ml. Up to approximately 1 litre a day. • Patient of 10 years of age or more as much as wanted, up to approximately 2 litres a day. BOX 3. THERE IS SOME SIGN OF DEHYDRATION Approximate amount of ORS solution to give in the first 4 hours Age Less than 4–11 12–23 2–4 5–14 15 years 4 months months months years years or older Weight Less than 5–7.9 kg 8–10.9 kg 11–15.9 kg 16–29.9 kg 30 kg 5 kg or more ORS solution in ml 200–400 400–600 600–800 800–1200 1200–2200 2200–4000 BOX 4. THERE IS SEVERE DEHYDRATION Give IV drips of Ringer Lactate or if not available cholera saline (or normal saline) • 100 ml/kg in three-hour period (in 6 hours for children aged less than 1 year) • Start rapidly (30ml/kg within 30 min) and then slow down. Total amount per day: 200 ml/kg during the first 24 hours TABLE 2. WHICH ANTIBIOTICS CAN BE GIVEN? Cholera Doxycycline single dose 300 mg or tetracycline 12,5 mg/kg 4 time/day for 3 days Young children: erythromycin 12,5 mg/kg 4 time/day for 3 days • for children below 6 months of age: 10 mg daily for 10 days add zinc • for children 6 months to 5 years of age: 20mg daily for 10 days add zinc Note : There is an increasing resistance to doxycycline, tetracycline and TMP-SMX. Shigella Adults : ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice a day for 3 days Enfant : ciprofloxacin 250 mg/15 kg twice a day for 3 days • for children below 6 months of age: 10 mg daily for 10 days add zinc • for children 6 months to 5 years of age: 20 mg daily for 10 days add zinc Note : Rapidly evolving antimicrobial resistance is a real problem. Shigella is usually resistant to ampicillin and TMP-SMX.
  6. 6. ■ Protect the community WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL If NO THEN If NO THEN ■ Treat the patients Summary of the treatment A. Rehydrate with ORS or IV solution depending on the severity B. Maintain hydration and monitor frequently the hydration status C. Give antibiotics for severe cholera cases and for shigella cases A. Rehydrate depending on severity 80% of the cases can be treated using only Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL B. Maintain hydration and monitor the patient Reassess the patient for signs of dehydration regularly during the first six hours: • Number and quantity of stools and vomit in order to compensate for the loss of body fluids • Radial pulse: if it remains weak, IV rehydration has to be continued. WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL C. Give antibiotics if needed When is it useful to give antibiotics? ➥ For cholera cases with severe dehydration only. ➥ Ideally for all of Shigella dysenteriae cases, but as a priority for the most vulnerable patients: children under five, elderly, malnourished, patients with convulsions. If YES THEN ▲ ▲ Is the patient dehydrated? • The patient is losing a lot of fluids because of diarrhoea and vomiting. • Does he have two or more of the following signs? The lack of water in his body results in: — sunken eyes — absence of tears — dry mouth and tongue — the patient is thirsty and drinks eagerly — the skin pinch goes back slowly ▲ There is severe dehydration • Put an IV drip to start intravenous rehydration • In case this is not possible, rehydrate with ORS • In any case, refer the patient to the higher level and rehydrate as shown in Box 4 ▲ There is NO dehydration: Give Oral Rehydration Salt (Box 2) ▲ There is some dehydration: • Give Oral Rehydration Salt in the amount recommended in Box 3 • Nasogastric tubes can be used for rehydration when ORS solution increases vomiting and nausea or when the patient cannot drink • Monitor the patient frequently ▲ ▲ If YES, check if the dehydration is very severe Is the dehydration very severe? When dehydration is very severe in addition to the above mentioned signs: • The patient is lethargic, unconscious or floppy • He is unable to drink • His radial pulse is weak • The skin pinch goes back very slowly HOW TO PROTECT THE COMMUNITY ■ Isolate the severe cases ■ Provide information — on how to avoid cholera through simple messages — on the outbreak ■ Disinfect water sources with chlorine ■ Promote water disinfection at home using chlorine ■ Avoid gatherings Stool and vomit are highly contagious GIVE SIMPLE MESSAGES TO THE COMMUNITY To avoid cholera and shigella ■ Wash your hands with soap — after using toilets and latrines — before preparing food — before eating ■ Boil or disinfect the water with chlorine solution ■ Only eat freshly cooked food ■ Do not defecate near the water sources ■ Use latrines and keep them clean In case of acute diarrhoea ■ Start oral rehydration with ORS (see Boxes 1 and 2) before going to the health centre ■ Go to the health centre as soon as possible PRECAUTIONS FOR FUNERALS ■ Disinfect corpses with chlorine solution (2%) ■ Fill mouth and anus with cotton wool soaked with chlorine solution ■ Wash hands with soap after touching the corpse ■ Disinfect the clothing and bedding of the deceased by stirring them in boiling water or by drying them thoroughly in the sun BOX 1. HOW TO PREPARE HOME-MADE ORS SOLUTION • If ORS sachets are available: dilute one sachet in one litre of safe water • Otherwise: Add to one litre of safe water: — Salt 1/2 small spoon (2.5 grams) — Sugar 6 small spoons (30 grams) And try to compensate for loss of potassium (for example, eat bananas or drink green coconut water) BOX 2. THERE IS NO SIGN OF DEHYDRATION When there is NO sign of dehydration: give ORS solution (see Box 1) after each stool • Child less than 2 years old: 50–100 ml (1/4–1/2 cup) ORS solution. Up to approximately 1/2 litre a day. • Child between 2 and 9 years old: 100–200 ml. Up to approximately 1 litre a day. • Patient of 10 years of age or more as much as wanted, up to approximately 2 litres a day. BOX 3. THERE IS SOME SIGN OF DEHYDRATION Approximate amount of ORS solution to give in the first 4 hours Age Less than 4–11 12–23 2–4 5–14 15 years 4 months months months years years or older Weight Less than 5–7.9 kg 8–10.9 kg 11–15.9 kg 16–29.9 kg 30 kg 5 kg or more ORS solution in ml 200–400 400–600 600–800 800–1200 1200–2200 2200–4000 BOX 4. THERE IS SEVERE DEHYDRATION Give IV drips of Ringer Lactate or if not available cholera saline (or normal saline) • 100 ml/kg in three-hour period (in 6 hours for children aged less than 1 year) • Start rapidly (30ml/kg within 30 min) and then slow down. Total amount per day: 200 ml/kg during the first 24 hours TABLE 2. WHICH ANTIBIOTICS CAN BE GIVEN? Cholera Doxycycline single dose 300 mg or tetracycline 12,5 mg/kg 4 time/day for 3 days Young children: erythromycin 12,5 mg/kg 4 time/day for 3 days • for children below 6 months of age: 10 mg daily for 10 days add zinc • for children 6 months to 5 years of age: 20mg daily for 10 days add zinc Note : There is an increasing resistance to doxycycline, tetracycline and TMP-SMX. Shigella Adults : ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice a day for 3 days Enfant : ciprofloxacin 250 mg/15 kg twice a day for 3 days • for children below 6 months of age: 10 mg daily for 10 days add zinc • for children 6 months to 5 years of age: 20 mg daily for 10 days add zinc Note : Rapidly evolving antimicrobial resistance is a real problem. Shigella is usually resistant to ampicillin and TMP-SMX.
  7. 7. Two types of emergencies regarding acute diarrhoea exist: Cholera = acute watery diarrhoea and Shigella dysentery = acute bloody diarrhoea Both are transmitted by contaminated water, unsafe food, dirty hands and vomit or stools of sick people. Other causes of diarrhoea may produce severe illness for the patient, but will not produce outbreaks which represent an immediate threat to the community. First steps for managing an outbreak of acute diarrhoea 1. Is this the beginning of an outbreak? You might be facing an outbreak very soon if you have seen an unusual number of acute diarrhoeal cases this week and the patients have the following points in common: • they have similar clinical symptoms (watery or bloody diarrhoea) • they are living in the same area or location • they have eaten the same food (at a burial ceremony for example) • they are sharing the same water source • there is an outbreak in the neighbouring community or You have seen an adult suffering from acute watery diarrhoea with severe dehydration and vomiting If you have some statistical information from previous years or weeks verify if the actual increase of cases is unusual over the same period of time. 2. Is the patient suffering from cholera or shigella? Acute diarrhoea could be a common symptom. Therefore it is important to differentiate between shigella or cholera in order to improve case management and to estimate needed supplies • Establish a clinical diagnosis for the patient you have seen (Table1) • Do the same for the other family members who are suffering from acute diarrhoea • Try to take stool samples and send them for immediate analysis. If it is not possible to send the samples immediately, collect stool specimens in Cary Blair or TCBS transport medium and refrigerate. Don’t wait for laboratory results to start treatment and to protect the community. Not all the cases need to be laboratory confirmed. THE FIRST TWO QUESTIONS ARE: 1. Is this the beginning of an outbreak? 2. Is the patient suffering from cholera or shigella? Be prepared to face a sudden increase in number of cases WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL DON’T FORGET … PROTECT YOURSELF FROM CONTAMINATION ■ Wash your hands with soap before and after taking care of the patient ■ Cut your nails ISOLATE CHOLERA PATIENTS ■ Stools, vomit and soiled clothes of patients are highly contagious ■ Latrines and patients’ buckets need to be washed and disinfected with chlorine ■ Cholera patients have to be in a special ward, isolated from other patients CONTINUOUS PROVISION OF NUTRITIOUS FOOD is important for all patients, especially for those with shigella dysentery ■ Provide frequent small meals with familiar foods during the first two days rather than infrequent large meals ■ Provide food as soon as the patient is able to take it ■ Breastfeeding of infants and young children should continue For more information: cholera@who.int http://www.who.int/cholera ■ Inform and ask for help The outbreak can evolve quickly and the rapid increase of cases may prevent you from doing your daily activities • Inform your supervisor about the situation • Ask for more supplies if needed (see Box) • Ask for help to control the outbreak among and outside the community WHAT TO DO IF YOU SUSPECT AN OUTBREAK ■ Inform and ask for help ■ Protect the community ■ Treat the patients WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL WHO/CDS/CSR/NCS/2003.7 Rev.2 Collect data on the patients Note carefully the following data that will help to investigate the outbreak N° Name Address Symptoms Age Sex Date Outcome (<5 or (male M) or of onset >5 years) (female F) WHOGLOBALTASKFORCEONCHOLERACONTROL © World Health Organization 2010 All rights reserved Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; e-mail: permissions@who.int). The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL THIS LEAFLET AIMS AT GUIDING YOU THROUGH THE VERY FIRST DAYS OF AN OUTBREAK Check the supplies you have and record available quantities ➥ IV fluids (Ringer Lactate is the best) ➥ Drips ➥ Nasogastric tubes ➥ Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) ➥ Antibiotics (see Table 2) ➥ Soap ➥ Chlorine or bleaching powder ➥ Rectal swabs and transport medium (Cary Blair or TCBS) for stool samples ➥ Safe water is needed to rehydrate patients and to wash clothes and instruments TABLE 1 Symptoms Cholera = Shigella = acute watery acute bloody diarrhoea diarrhoea Stool > 3 loose > 3 loose stools per day, stools per day, watery like with blood rice water or pus Fever No Yes Abdominal cramps Yes Yes Vomiting Yes a lot No Rectal pain No Yes
  8. 8. Two types of emergencies regarding acute diarrhoea exist: Cholera = acute watery diarrhoea and Shigella dysentery = acute bloody diarrhoea Both are transmitted by contaminated water, unsafe food, dirty hands and vomit or stools of sick people. Other causes of diarrhoea may produce severe illness for the patient, but will not produce outbreaks which represent an immediate threat to the community. First steps for managing an outbreak of acute diarrhoea 1. Is this the beginning of an outbreak? You might be facing an outbreak very soon if you have seen an unusual number of acute diarrhoeal cases this week and the patients have the following points in common: • they have similar clinical symptoms (watery or bloody diarrhoea) • they are living in the same area or location • they have eaten the same food (at a burial ceremony for example) • they are sharing the same water source • there is an outbreak in the neighbouring community or You have seen an adult suffering from acute watery diarrhoea with severe dehydration and vomiting If you have some statistical information from previous years or weeks verify if the actual increase of cases is unusual over the same period of time. 2. Is the patient suffering from cholera or shigella? Acute diarrhoea could be a common symptom. Therefore it is important to differentiate between shigella or cholera in order to improve case management and to estimate needed supplies • Establish a clinical diagnosis for the patient you have seen (Table1) • Do the same for the other family members who are suffering from acute diarrhoea • Try to take stool samples and send them for immediate analysis. If it is not possible to send the samples immediately, collect stool specimens in Cary Blair or TCBS transport medium and refrigerate. Don’t wait for laboratory results to start treatment and to protect the community. Not all the cases need to be laboratory confirmed. THE FIRST TWO QUESTIONS ARE: 1. Is this the beginning of an outbreak? 2. Is the patient suffering from cholera or shigella? Be prepared to face a sudden increase in number of cases WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL DON’T FORGET … PROTECT YOURSELF FROM CONTAMINATION ■ Wash your hands with soap before and after taking care of the patient ■ Cut your nails ISOLATE CHOLERA PATIENTS ■ Stools, vomit and soiled clothes of patients are highly contagious ■ Latrines and patients’ buckets need to be washed and disinfected with chlorine ■ Cholera patients have to be in a special ward, isolated from other patients CONTINUOUS PROVISION OF NUTRITIOUS FOOD is important for all patients, especially for those with shigella dysentery ■ Provide frequent small meals with familiar foods during the first two days rather than infrequent large meals ■ Provide food as soon as the patient is able to take it ■ Breastfeeding of infants and young children should continue For more information: cholera@who.int http://www.who.int/cholera ■ Inform and ask for help The outbreak can evolve quickly and the rapid increase of cases may prevent you from doing your daily activities • Inform your supervisor about the situation • Ask for more supplies if needed (see Box) • Ask for help to control the outbreak among and outside the community WHAT TO DO IF YOU SUSPECT AN OUTBREAK ■ Inform and ask for help ■ Protect the community ■ Treat the patients WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL WHO/CDS/CSR/NCS/2003.7 Rev.2 Collect data on the patients Note carefully the following data that will help to investigate the outbreak N° Name Address Symptoms Age Sex Date Outcome (<5 or (male M) or of onset >5 years) (female F) WHOGLOBALTASKFORCEONCHOLERACONTROL © World Health Organization 2010 All rights reserved Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; e-mail: permissions@who.int). The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. WHO • GLOBAL TASK FORCE ON CHOLERA CONTROL THIS LEAFLET AIMS AT GUIDING YOU THROUGH THE VERY FIRST DAYS OF AN OUTBREAK Check the supplies you have and record available quantities ➥ IV fluids (Ringer Lactate is the best) ➥ Drips ➥ Nasogastric tubes ➥ Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) ➥ Antibiotics (see Table 2) ➥ Soap ➥ Chlorine or bleaching powder ➥ Rectal swabs and transport medium (Cary Blair or TCBS) for stool samples ➥ Safe water is needed to rehydrate patients and to wash clothes and instruments TABLE 1 Symptoms Cholera = Shigella = acute watery acute bloody diarrhoea diarrhoea Stool > 3 loose > 3 loose stools per day, stools per day, watery like with blood rice water or pus Fever No Yes Abdominal cramps Yes Yes Vomiting Yes a lot No Rectal pain No Yes

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