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Brain fingerprinting


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Brain fingerprinting

  1. 1. SEMINAR ON Presentation by PRIYODARSHINI DHAR ROLL: 2010-1041
  2. 2. What is Brain Fingerprinting? Brain fingerprinting is a computer based technology designed to determine hidden information in individual’s brain by measuring electrical brain wave responses to words, phrases, or pictures presented on a computer screen. Brain fingerprints are measured by an EEG event-related potential, a P300-MERMER.
  3. 3. P300: Specific, measurable brain response emitted by the brain of a subject who has the relevant information stored in his brain. It is based on Oddball Paradigm. MERMER : Memory and Encoding Related Multifaceted Electroencephalographic response. It is a patented device and comes along with a head gear. FIG : Showing the experimental setup
  4. 4. OPERATING MECHANISM : Picture/word shown to an individual (Stimulus) Triggers neurons of brain Generates brainwave (P300) Electrical Potentials Accumulate in brain (MERMER) Headgear fitted with Electrodes placed on scalp Study Found Guilty/ Not guilty the data Using a computer program EEG amplifier Generates analog signals P300 –MERMER (an scalp ERP EEG) Measures brainwaves
  5. 5. Types of Stimuli Used • Probes – Life-experience related – Relevant to the investigated event -recognizable and noteworthy only for the subjects who had participated in the event (MERMER) • Targets – Push a button to indicate known image – Contains relevant information – Creates a baseline • Irrelevant Stimuli – information relevant to the crime that the suspect claims to have no knowledge of
  6. 6. How Brain Waves are used to detect guilt? A suspect is tested by looking at three kinds of information represented by different colored lines : RED : Information the suspect is expected to know It arises due to target type stimulus. GREEN: Information not to suspect. The irrelevant stimuli is responsible for this type of brain waves. BLUE: Information of the crime that only perpetrator would know. This occurs due to probes.
  7. 7. In this figure the red and blue lines are closely correlated, suspect has knowledge of crime Information regarding the crime is not known.
  8. 8. Phases of Brain Fingerprinting There are four stages to Brain Fingerprinting: 1. Crime Scene Evidence Collection: Gathering evidences from crime scenes 2. Brain Evidence Collection: A specialist checks whether the crime scene evidence matches evidence stored in brain. 3. Computer Evidence Analysis: Computerized analysis is done on the brain evidences and statistical methods are applied to move to the next phase. 4. Scientific Result: Finding whether the person is guilty or not guilty
  9. 9. Features of Brain Fingerprinting The interpretation in brain fingerprinting is to look for P300 as response to stimuli related to crime in question, e.g. a murder weapon or a victim’s face. It is based on EEG signals, the system does not require the testee to issue a verbal response to questions or stimuli It uses cognitive brain responses, and it does not depend on the emotions of the subject, nor is it affected by emotional responses It is different from polygraph(lie-detector), which measures emotion-based physiological signals such as heart rate, sweating and blood pressure Unlike polygraph testing, it does not attempt to determine whether the subject is lying or telling the truth.
  10. 10. • The entire Brain Fingerprinting System is under computer control. The computer control includes: Presentation of the stimuli Recording of electrical brain activity Mathematical data analysis algorithm that compares the responses of the 3 stimulus Determination of information present or information absent
  11. 11. Case Studies • Macon County, Missouri Sheriff Robert Dawson engaged Dr. Farwell to conduct a Brain Fingerprinting test on murder suspect James B. Grinder. The test proved that the record stored in Grinder’s brain matched the scene of the murder of Julie Helton. • Brain Fingerprinting could detect trained terrorists even before they strike.
  12. 12. References • Farwell LA, Donchin E., “The brain detector: P300 in the detection of deception. Psychophysiology” • Kumar Ravi, “Brain Fingerprinting”, Compusoft -An international journal of advanced computer technology, 1 (2), Dec-2012 (VolumeI, Issue-II) • Farwell LA, Donchin E., “Brain Fingerprinting” • Wikipedia Brain Fingerprinting
  13. 13. • THANK YOU !