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3 Gppt


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3 Gppt

  1. 1. 3 GENERATION
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>3G is the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology, superseding 2.5G. </li></ul><ul><li>3G networks enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Services include wide-area wireless voice telephony, video calls, and broadband wireless data, all in a mobile environment Mobile telephony allowed us to talk on the move. The internet turned raw data into helpful services that people found easy to use. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Evolution from 2G to 3G <ul><li>2G networks were built mainly for voice data and slow transmission. Due to rapid changes in user expectation, they do not meet today's wireless needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular mobile telecommunications networks are being upgraded to use 3G technologies from 1999 to 2010. Japan was the first country to introduce 3G nationally, and in Japan the transition to 3G was largely completed in 2006. Korea then adopted 3G Networks soon after and the transition was made as early as 2004. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 3G is designed to deliver <ul><li>A wide range of market-focused applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term market-driven creativity, an innovative value chain and real user benefits, driving genuine market demand. </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced, lightweight, easy-to-use terminals with intuitive interfaces · Instant, real-time multimedia communications. </li></ul><ul><li>Global mobility and roaming. </li></ul><ul><li>A wide range of vendors and operators, offering choice, competition and affordability. </li></ul><ul><li>High-speed e-mail and Internet access. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Speed <ul><li>3G improves the data transmission speed up to 144Kbps in a high-speed moving environment, 384Kbps in a low-speed moving environment, and 2Mbps in a stationary environment. </li></ul><ul><li>At present, maximum data transmission speed is 64Kbps and toward early 2001, 384Kbps will be possible. By around 2005 when 3G is in general use, a maximum speed of 2Mbps will be possible. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Phones and networks <ul><li>3G technologies enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>3G system with up to 300Mbps data transfer rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Network standardisation. </li></ul><ul><li>UMTS terminals. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>To achieve data transmission speeds of up to 300 Mbps Super 3G  uses up to four Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) antennas for both the base station (transmission side) and mobile station (receiving side). </li></ul><ul><li>During the experiment NTT DoCoMo will test the functionality of the Super 3G system for various voice, image, games, video and other applications for which Super 3G will be used in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>NTT DoCoMo expects to complete the development of the technology by 2009. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Network standardization <ul><li>The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) defined the demands for 3G mobile networks with the IMT-2000 standard. </li></ul><ul><li>An organization called 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has continued that work by defining a mobile system that fulfills the IMT-2000 standard. </li></ul><ul><li>This system is called Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). </li></ul>
  9. 9. UMTS Terminal (Universal Mobile Telecommunication system) <ul><li>UMTS Terminal series supports from 12 to 36 3G ports based on integrated Motorola 3G mobile phones </li></ul><ul><li>It is a realisation of a new generation of broadband multi-media mobile telecommunications technology. </li></ul><ul><li>The system provides superior voice technology. </li></ul>
  10. 10. International Tele comm. Union (ITU): consists six radio interfaces <ul><li>W-CDMA </li></ul><ul><li>CDMA </li></ul><ul><li>TD-CDMA / TD-SCDMA </li></ul><ul><li>UWC (often implemented with EDGE ) </li></ul><ul><li>DECT </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile WiMAX </li></ul>
  11. 11. W-CDMA <ul><li>Wideband Code Division Multiple Access is a wideband spread-spectrum 3G mobile telecommunication air interface that utilizes code division multiple access (or CDMA the general multiplexing scheme, not to be confused with CDMA the standard). It provides simultaneous support for a wide range of services with different characteristics on a common 5MHz carrier. </li></ul>
  12. 12. CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) <ul><li>CDMA refers to any of several protocols used in so-called second-generation (2G) and third-generation (3G) wireless communications. As the term implies, CDMA is a form of multiplexing, which allows numerous signals to occupy a single transmission channel, optimizing the use of available bandwidth. The technology is used in ultra-high-frequency (UHF) cellular telephone systems in the 800-MHz and 1.9-GHz bands. </li></ul>
  13. 13. TD-CDMA <ul><li>TD-CDMA is the primary air interface used by UMTS-TDD. It uses increments of 5MHz of spectrum, with each slice divided into 10ms frames containing fifteen time slots (1500 per second). The time slots are allocated in fixed percentage for downlink and uplink. Code Division Multiple Access is used within each time slot to multiplex streams from or to multiple transceivers. </li></ul>
  14. 14. UWC <ul><li>The UWC (Universal Wireless Communication) is a consortium of over 100 telecommunication carriers and vendors of wireless products and services. </li></ul><ul><li>EDGE is referred to as 136HS in the UWC standard. It has both a wide area and an indoor component to provide data rates of 384 kbps and 2 Mbps respectively. </li></ul>
  15. 15. DECT <ul><li>Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecom.: </li></ul><ul><li>(formerly Digital European Cordless Telephone) is for digital portable phones (cordless home telephones), commonly used for domestic or corporate purposes. DECT can also be used for wireless broadband data transfers. </li></ul><ul><li>DECT was developed by ETSI but has since been adopted by many countries all over the world. The original DECT frequency band (1880 MHz–1900 MHz) is used in all countries in Europe. </li></ul>
  16. 16. WiMAX <ul><li>WiMAX , meaning Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access , is a telecommunications technology that provides for the wireless transmission of data using a variety of transmission modes, from point-to-point links to portable internet access. </li></ul><ul><li>The technology provides up to 75 Mb/sec symmetric broadband speed without the need for cables. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Security <ul><li>3G networks offer a greater degree of security than 2G predecessors. By allowing the UE to authenticate the network it is attaching to, the user can be sure the network is the intended one and not an impersonator. 3G networks use the KASUMI block crypto instead of the older A5/1 stream cipher. However, a number of serious weaknesses in the KASUMI cipher have been identified. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the 3G network infrastructure security, end to end security is offered when application frameworks such as IMS are accessed, although this is not strictly a 3G property. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Issues <ul><li>Although 3G was successfully introduced to users across the world, some issues are debated by 3G providers and users: </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive input fees for the 3G service licenses. </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous differences in the licensing terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Large amount of debt currently sustained by many telecommunication companies, which makes it a challenge to build the necessary infrastructure for 3G. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of member state support for financially troubled operators </li></ul><ul><li>Expense of 3G phones. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of buy-in by 2G mobile users for the new 3G wireless services </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of coverage, because it is still a new service. </li></ul><ul><li>High prices of 3G mobile services in some countries, including Internet access (see flat rate). </li></ul><ul><li>Current lack of user need for 3G voice and data services in a hand-held device. </li></ul><ul><li>High power usage. </li></ul>