ROOT & STEM MORPHOLOGY

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INCLUDING MODIFICATIONS

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ROOT & STEM MORPHOLOGY

  1. 1. Root & stEMmoRPHOLOGY<br />(including MODIFICATIONS)<br />Made by-<br />V.V.S.S.PREETI<br />Sr. MEDICON -1<br />Roll no- 33<br />
  2. 2. WHAT IS MORPHOLOGY?<br />Morphology is the study of –<br />External features of plants,<br />Arrangement,<br />Relationship<br />Of organs.<br />The underground part of flowering plant is the root system while the portion above the ground forms the shoot system.<br />Plant has vegetative and reproductive organs <br />
  3. 3. Vegetative Organs<br />Roots<br />Stems<br />Leaves<br />
  4. 4. THE ROOT<br />LOCATION- grows underground<br />TYPES OF ROOTS-<br />1) Primary- formed directly from axis of embryo plant.<br />2) Lateral- arises from primary.<br />
  5. 5. TYPES OF ROOT SYSTEMSG<br />
  6. 6. Function of roots<br />Anchor the plant<br />Absorb water and minerals from soil<br />Storage<br />
  7. 7. Fig. 38.21<br />
  8. 8. STORAGE ROOTS<br />SWOLLEN ADVENTIOUS ROOTS<br />SWOLLEN TAP roots<br />FUSIFORM-eg:raddish<br />NAPIFORM-eg:beetroot<br />CONICAL -eg;carrot<br /><ul><li>FASICULATED-eg asparagus
  9. 9. NODULATED -eg: ginger
  10. 10. MONILIFORM-eg: grasses
  11. 11. Sweet potato</li></li></ul><li>PROP ROOTS<br />IN BANYAN TREE,<br />Branches give off roots that grow into the soil & support the branches<br />
  12. 12. STILT ROOTS <br />IN SCREWPINE short roots grow obliquely downward from near base of stem<br />
  13. 13. CLIMBING ROOTS <br />IN climbers like PEPPER & BETEL NUT,<br />adventitious roots are formed at nodes which help in climbing.<br />
  14. 14. EPIPHYTIC ROOTS<br />IN VANDA,<br />Base of tissue grows spongy tissue termed velamen that absorbs moisture from the air<br />
  15. 15. CONTRAC TILE ROOTS<br />IN COLACASIA,<br />They posses roots that contract so underground roots are kept at proper levels.<br />
  16. 16. FLOATING ROOTS<br />IN JUSSIAEA<br />roots are white, spongy filled with air.<br />Help plants to float<br />
  17. 17. BREATHING ROOTS<br />IN <br />AVICENNIA,<br />Roots grow into vertical branches that have openings called <br />Pneumetaphores<br /> for root aeration.<br />
  18. 18. REORODUCTIVE ROOTS<br />Exposed roots of MURRAYA<br />Have adventitious buds which grow into new plants.<br />
  19. 19. PARASITIC ROOTS<br />IN CUSCUTA<br />Haustoria<br />Penetrate into host stem & enter vascular bundles which absorb materials.<br />
  20. 20. ASSIMILATORY ROOTS<br />IN <br />TRAPA,<br />Adventious roots with chlorophyllous tissue capable of photosynthesis.<br />
  21. 21. FOLIAR ROOTS<br />IN<br />BRYOPHYLLUM<br />Roots arise from lamina, petiole,veins<br />
  22. 22. TUBERCULAR ROOTS<br />IN <br />SWEET POTATO<br />Lateral roots are swollen &<br />Without definite shape.<br />
  23. 23. THE STEM<br />The stem grows erect<br />& lifts the leaves , exposing them to sunlight.it also conducts materials from roots to leaves. Based on nature of stem,plants are divided into herbs,shrubs & trees<br />
  24. 24. Function of Stems<br />support leaves to maximize light absorption<br />part of conduit for transport of water, minerals, and organic solutes<br />storage<br />
  25. 25. UNDERGROUND MODIFICATIONS OF STEM<br /><ul><li>BULB</li></ul>Dry scale leaves,<br />Tunicated,<br />Stem is small reduced & disk shaped.<br /><ul><li>RHIZOMES</li></ul>Grows horizontally,<br />Elongated.stem nature is evident from CATAPHYLLS.<br />
  26. 26. AMORPHOPHYLLUS<br />POTATO<br /><ul><li>STEM TUBER</li></ul>In potato,<br />An aerial branch grows downward &stores food<br /><ul><li> CORM</li></ul>In amorphophyllus<br />Stem is massive,swollen,<br />Held in position by contractile roots<br />
  27. 27. SUBARIEL MODIFICATIONS FOR VEGETATIVE PROPOGATION<br /><ul><li>RUNNER</li></ul>In Strawberry<br />Axillary buds from lowest leaves give rise to modified branches.<br /><ul><li>STOLON</li></ul>They grow upwards<br />Like ordinary branches & arch down to meet soil.<br />STOLON<br />
  28. 28. EICHHORNIA<br />MENTHA arvensis<br /><ul><li>SUCKER</li></ul>In mentha<br />It goes up & forms a daughter plant after striking root<br /><ul><li>OFFSET</li></ul>It is shorter & thicker<br />Found in aquatic plants<br />SUCKER<br />OFFSET<br />
  29. 29. ARIEL MODIFICATIONS OF STEM<br /><ul><li>TENDRILS</li></ul>IN grapes<br />Axillary bud is modified into tendrils.<br /><ul><li>CLADOPHYLL /</li></ul>PHYLLOCLADE<br />The entire shoot is flattend & leaf like.<br />
  30. 30. BULBIL<br />CLADODE <br /><ul><li>CLADODE</li></ul>Branch of a single internode which is flattened to stimulate a leaf like.<br /><ul><li>BULBIL</li></ul>INDIOSCOREA It is a modified floral bud which becomes vegetative.<br />ACACIA<br />DIOSCOREA<br />
  31. 31. THE END<br /> THANK YOU!<br />

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