EDUCATION AT THE SECONDARY
SUBMITTED TO SUBMITTED BY
MS. ANISHA PAHAL PREETI
THE TERMS VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ,
VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION , OCCUPATIONAL
EDUCATION , JOB-ORIENTED EDUCATION AND
EDUCATION FOR THE WORLD OF WORK , ETC.ARE
USED INTERCHANGEABLY EXCEPT WHERE SPECIAL
MENTION IS MADE OF A PARTICULAR TYPE OF
EDUCATION IN A PARTICULAR OR ENVIRONMENT.
1. The American Educator `s Encyclopaedia (1982)
2. Carter V. Good In ‘Dictionary of Education’ (1973)
3. UNESCO 
4. The National Working Group
‘Eat the bread at the sweat of the brow ’ , thus goes a
…The Education Commission
…The Adiseshiah Committee 1978
…The National Policy on Education
The Policy pointed out of the following merits:-
1.Enhancement of Employability
2.Reduction in Mismatch
4.Dignity of Labour
5.Self – Employment
7.Maximum Utilisation Of Resources
TARGET SET AND ACHIVED IN NPE
• Target Set in NPE, 1986
• Target Set in NPE, 1992
• Present Position
SLOW PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS OF
1.General indifference to Vocational pursuits.
2.Vocational courses as dumping ground.
3.Lack of equipment.
4.Lack of trained vocational teachers.
5.Non- determination of equivalence of vocational
6.Limited choice of vocational courses.
7.Inadequate guidance and counselling facilities.
8.Lack of research.
9. Lack of systamatic vocational set up.
SUGGESTIONS FOR ACCELERATING
• Vocational institutions not to be regarded as dumping ground for
drop-outs and educationally background pupils.
• Vocational courses should be terminal in characters.
• Training of village worker for agriculture extension programme.
• Compulsory introduction of work experience in all primary and
• Pre- occupation education and vocational guidance.
• Placement or organised transfer from vocational schools to
• Part- time vocational courses for self- employed persons.
• Provision of building and equipment .
• Training of vocational teachers.
• Low fees for vocational courses.
• Study of manpower needs.
• District and state vocational committees.
• School industry link.
• Problems related to reorientation and training .
• Problems related to evaluation .
• Redesigning of Teacher Training Courses.
• Problems related to the determination of equivalence of
diplomas/certificate and degrees.
• Problems related to research.
• Easy loans.
• Work benches and practice schools.