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Fashion history of india


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how did fashion in India evolve? in this presentation i have covered costume history of India.
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Fashion history of india

  3. 3. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION • The Indus Valley Civilization known was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300–1300 BCE) in northwest Indian subcontinent including present day Pakistan, northwest India and also in some regions in northeast Afghanistan. • The Indus Civilization may have had a population of more than 5 million. • Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). • The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings. • The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India, and is now in Pakistan. 3
  4. 4. TEXTILES AND CLOTHING • Textiles are rarely preserved and Harappan figurines are usually unclothed, so there is not much evidence of Harappan clothing. • Small fragments of cloth preserved in the corrosion products of metal objects show that the Harappans wove a range of grades of cotton cloth. • Flax was grown and may have been used for fibres. • Native Indian species of silkworm may have been utilised for silk. • It is not known whether the Harappans raised woolly sheep, but their trade with Mesopotamia probably brought them abundant supplies of Mesopotamian woolen textiles. • The Harappans also probably continued the earlier tradition of making clothing from leather. • Dyeing facilities indicate that cotton cloth was probably dyed a range of colours, although there is only one surviving fragment of coloured cloth, dyed red with madder; it is likely that indigo and turmeric were also used as dyes. • The limited depictions of clothing show that men wore a cloth around the waist, resembling a modern dhoti and like it, often passed between the legs and tucked up behind. • The so-called "Priest-king" and other stone figures also wore a long robe over the left shoulder, leaving bare the right shoulder and chest. 4
  5. 5. • Some male figurines are shown wearing a turban. • Woman's clothing seems to have been a knee-length skirt they also used lipstick. • Figurines and finds in graves show that Harappans of both sexes wore jewellery: hair fillets, bead necklaces and bangles for men; bangles, earrings, rings, anklets, belts made of strings of beads, pendants, chokers and numerous necklaces for women, as well as elaborate hairstyles and headdresses. • Many bangles were worn by women - thick ones above the elbow and narrower ones below. For daily use they were made of terracotta. Gold and silver were valued equally, the more detailed or painstakingly made a piece of jewelry the more valuable. • Quite possibly dress may have been based on lengths of cloth that were folded and draped in different ways. • Such cloth could have been made of linen, cotton, or wool/animal hair. • Skins also may have been used for cold weather and to make items like belts, quivers, etc. Reeds/straw may have been woven for foot wear, although how often foot wear may have been used is not known. 5
  6. 6. • The fan shaped headdress originally had wide, cup-shaped extensions on either side of the head framed by braided tresses. • Four flowers are arranged on the front of her headdress. This style of headdress has been found only on figures from Harappa and it appears to have been most common during the final phases of the mature Harappan period, between 2200- 1900 BC. • Numerous strands of chokers and pendant bead necklaces drape over the breasts and extend to the waist. • Traces of bangles are visible at the broken ends of the arms which would have been covered with them. • The women is wearing a short skirt belted with three strands of beads. 6
  7. 7. • The less common male figurines and rare male statues wear their hair in a bun, divided horizontally like a headband reminiscent of a royal hairstyle in contemporary Sumer. • A few gold fillets have been found with holes at the end for fastening them with a cord. • Most men were bearded. • This male head shows the typical arrangement of the hair in a double bun, held in place by a thin fillet tied at the back. • The pattern of hair at the top of the head suggests that it is braided. • The "Priest King" wears an elaborately decorated robe, draped to expose his chest and right shoulder. This was possibly a garment worn only by rulers or senior priests. 7
  8. 8. Indus Valley gold, chiefly in jewellery, is very rare. The beads are hollow, and in the pendant, thin gold lies over an organic core. The pendant is in the form of a Indus River reed boat. All told, the necklace is about 43 cm in length and weighs only about 18 g Indus Valley craftsmen were renowned for their ability to produce fine beads, especially from stones such as carnelian (an orange to red quartz). Often the beads were etched using lime and heat. 8
  9. 9. VEDIC ERA • The Vedic period (1500–500 BCE) was the period in Indian history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. • During the early part of the Vedic period, the Indo-Aryans settled into northern India, bringing with them their specific religious traditions. • The associated culture was initially a tribal, pastoral society centred in the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent; it spread after 1200 BCE to the Ganges Plain, as it was shaped by increasing settled agriculture, a hierarchy of four social classes, and the emergence of monarchical, state-level polities. • The end of the Vedic period witnessed the rise of large, urbanized states as well as of shramana movements (including Jainism and Buddhism) which challenged the Vedic orthodoxy. • Around the beginning of the Common Era, the Vedic tradition formed one of the main constituents of the so-called "Hindu synthesis". 9
  10. 10. CLOTHING • The garments worn in Vedic times onwards did not fundamentally differ from those worn by Hindus in later times. • A single length cloth draped around the body, over the shoulders and fastened with a pin or a belt. This was a comfortable dress to be worn in a hot and humid climate which prevailed in India in comparison to the weather from where these people migrated. • Lower garment was called paridhana or vasana. It was usually such a cloth fastened around the waist with a belt or a string which is called mekhala or rasana. • Upper garment was called Uttaiya and worn like a shawl over the shoulders. This upper garment was usually discarded at home or in hot weather especially by the people belonging to lower strata. • Third garment called pravara was worn in cold season like cloak or a mantle. 10
  11. 11. • This was general garb of both sexes and varied only in size and in the manner of wearing. • Of poor people, sometimes the lower garment was a mere loincloth, but of rich was up to feet. • In many sculptures, the lower cloth is pleated in front and held with a long girdle. Sometimes the girdle appears to the end of cloth itself. • This might have been the precursor of the modernsari. • Sometimes the end of the cloth was drawn between the legs and fastened at the back in the manner of dhoti. • Stitching was not unknown as is evident from the depiction of women in jackets and bodices. 11
  12. 12. MEN: • Men too draped pieces of long clothing around them during the Vedic period. • The most initial attire of Vedic men were 'Dhotis', which are similar to a Dupatta but slightly longer. However, men draped the Dhoti around their waste and partitioned it with pleats. • There were no upper garments required by men in this era, therefore, the Dhoti was the only piece of clothing they wore. • Another similar garment worn by men was the 'Lungi', which was simply draped around the man's waist and pleated in the center, but is not partitioned. • However, when Vedic people learned to stitch, they made 'the Kurta' which is a loose shirt like upper body garment. • Then, came the 'Pajama' which resembled a loose trouser With these costumes from the early and later years, hope you have learned many new facts about the Indian culture and fashion. 12
  13. 13. WOMEN: • As the Vedic people were in the initial stages of stitching clothes, the easiest piece of clothing for women was 'the Sari'. Even though the initial styles of draping the Sari were very basic, they were later altered on a regional basis. • However, the most common manner of draping the sari was, wrapping one end of the cloth around the waist, and throwing the other end over the shoulder covering the bust area. • A blouse or a 'Choli' was later incorporated as a part of the sari, as an upper body garment with sleeves and a neck. • A sari is known to be the most elegant woman's clothing in the Indian culture. Another similar type of Vedic clothing is 'the Dupatta', which is the smaller version of the sari. • It is only a few meters long and was usually used in the later Vedic period as a part of sophisticated garments such as, 'Ghagra Choli', where the Ghagra is a long skirt worn with a blouse and the Dupatta. 13
  14. 14. CLOTHING • Women used to wrap it around their waist, pleated in front over the belly and drape it over their shoulder covering their bust area and fastened it with a pin at the shoulder. ‘Choli’ or blouse, as an upper garment was introduced in the later Vedic period with sleeves and a neck. • A new version of sari, little smaller than sari, called dupatta, was also incorporated later and it was used to wear along with ghaghara (frilled skirt up to feet Most initial attires of men in those times were dhoti and lungi. Dhoti is basically a single cloth wrapped around the waist and by partitioning at the center, is fastened at the back. • A dhoti is from four to six feet long white or colour strip of cotton. • Generally, in those times, no upper garment was worn and Dhoti was the only single clothing that men used to drape it over their bodies. • Later on, many costumes evolved like kurtas, pajamas, trousers, turbans, etc. • Wool, linen, diaphanous silks and muslin were the main fibres used for making cloth and patterns with grey strips and checks were made over clothes POST-VEDIC ERA 14
  15. 15. 15 SUNGA • The Shunga Empire was an ancient Indian Brahmin dynasty from Magadha that controlled vast areas of the Indian subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BCE. • The dynasty was established by Pushyamitra Shunga, after the fall of the Maurya Empire. Its capital was Pataliputra, but later emperors such as Bhagabhadra also held court at Besnagar (modern Vidisha) in eastern Malwa. • Pushyamitra Shunga ruled for 36 years and was succeeded by his son Agnimitra. • They fought the Kalinga, the Satavahana dynasty, the Indo-Greek Kingdom and possibly the Panchalas and Mathuras. • Art, education, philosophy, and other forms of learning flowered during this period including small terracotta images, larger stone sculptures, and architectural monuments such as the stupa at Bharhut, and the renowned Great Stupa at Sanchi.
  16. 16. CLOTHING OF MAURYA AND SUNGA Women:- • Women tied their antariya in different ways. • Originally opaque, it later became more and more transparent. • A simple small antariya or strip of cloth, langoti was attached to the kayabandh at the center front, and then passed between the legs and tucked in at the back. • A longer version of the antariya was the knee-length one, being first wrapped around and secured at the waist, the longer end then pleated and tucked in at the front, and the shorter end finally drawn between the legs, Kachcha style, and tucked in at the waist at the back. • Another version, the lehnga style, was a length of cloth wrapped around the hips tightly to form a tabular type of skirt. This was not drawn between the legs in the kachcha style. 16
  17. 17. • The uttariyas of upper-class women were generally of thin material decorated with elaborated borders and quite often worn as a head covering. • Their kayabandhs were very similar to those of the men. In addition, they sometimes wore a patka, a decorative piece of cloth attached to the kayabandh in front by tucking in one end at the waist. 17
  18. 18. Men:- • The main garment was the antariya of white cotton, linen or flowered muslin, sometimes embroidered in gold and precious stones. • For men, it was an unstitched length of cloth draped around the hips and between the legs in the kachcha style, extending from the waist to the calf or ankles or worn even shorter by peasants and commoners. • The antariya was secured at the waist by a sash or kayabandh, often tied in a looped knot at the center front of the waist. • The kayabandh could be simple sash, vethaka; one with drum-headed knot at the ends, muraja; a very elaborate band of embroidery, flat and ribbon-shaped, pattika; or a many-stringed one, kalabuka. • The third item of clothing called uttariya was another length of material, usually fine cotton, very rarely silk, which was utilized as a long scarf to drape the top half of the body. 18
  19. 19. • The uttariya was worn in several ways to suit the comforts of the wearer: very elegantly by those at court, who drape it on both shoulders or one shoulder, or diagonally across the chest and casually knotted at the waist, or it could even be worn loosely across the back and supported by the elbows or wrist, and in many other ways according to the whims of the weather. • But for the labourer and the craftsman, it was more a practical garment to be tied around the head as protection from sun, or tightly around the waist leaving the hands free for work, or again as a towel to mop the face when sweating. • Its uses were endless for the poor sections of the society and for them it would be made of coarse cotton. 19
  20. 20. HEADGEAR AND HAIRSTYLE WOMEN:- • Women generally covered their heads with the uttariya, worn straight or crosswise, often resplendent with beautiful borders. • The hair, centrally parted, was made into one or two plaits or in a large knot at the back. • The uttariya could be worn simply hanging down at the back or secured to the head with a headband, or with one end arranged in a fan at the top of the head. • Skullcaps were sometimes worn under or over the uttariya to keep it in place, or at times it could be decorated with a fringe or pendants. • Helmets too are seen as headgear for phrygian women who probably wore long-sleeved tunic with tight fitting trousers and a phrygian cap which was conical and had ear flaps. • In India, the Amazons wore in addition, the crossed-at-chest belt vaikaksha, with metal buckles, shield, and sword. 20
  21. 21. • Men:- • As regards male headgear, in the early Mauryan period there is no trace of the turban mauli, but in the Sunga period we find great emphasis on this form of male head dress. • These were remarkable headdresses in which the hair itself was often twisted into a braid along with the turban cloth. • This twisted braid was then arranged to form a protuberance at the front or the side of the head but never at the center top, as only priests could use this style. • Over the turban a band was sometimes used to hold it in place. In addition, decorative elements like a jewelled brooch or a jhalar could be attached to the turban, or one end folded in pleats and tucked in like a fan. 21
  22. 22. Military costume • Sewn garments which had been used by the Persian soldiers were sometimes utilized for military dress by the Mauryans. • This consisted of a sleeved tunic with cross straps across the chest to carry the quiver, and a leather belt with sword. • The lower garment was more often the Indian antariya rather than the Persian trousers. • The headgear was usually the turban or headband, whereas the Persians had worn the pointed cap. • The mixture of foreign and indigenous garments is interesting as it shows one of the early phases of evolution in the costumes of Indians. • This came about in the colder north, where the Persian garments were more suitable, climatically and functionally, in case of soldiers. • Although, coats of mail are mentioned in the Arthshastra there is no visual evidence of it in this period. 22
  23. 23. • Women wore Satlari - 7 stringed necklace Mekhala - 6 stringed necklace Paklari - 5 stringed necklace Chaulari - 4 stringed necklace Tillari - 3 stringed necklace Kantha- Short necklace Karnika - Earring in form of triratna or triple gem or Buddhist triad, pecular to Buddhists • Patna - Armlets of serpent shape • Karnika - Trumpet shape earrings • Baju Band - Simple leaf-patterned bangle 23
  24. 24. • Kangan - 3 bangles on each wrist • Atkan - Beads or pearl string worn over the • left Shoulder and under the right arm Lambanam - Very long chain necklace Kara - Anklets of twisted wire Sitara - Star-shape forehead ornament • The material used most frequently were gold and precious stones like corals, rubies, sapphires, agates, and crystals. Pearls too were used and beads of all kinds were plentiful including those made of glass. • Certain ornaments were common to both sexes, like earrings, necklaces, armlets, bracelets and embroidered belts. • Earring or karnika were of three types-a simple ring or circle called Kundala, a circular disc earring known as dehri and earrings with a flower-like shape known as Karnaphul. 24
  25. 25. TEXTILE • Weaving of fine and coarse varieties of cloth was well established. • Cotton, silk, wool, linen and jute fabrics were readily available. • Furs and the better varieties of wool and silk like tussar, called kausheya like Eri or Muga silk of Assam, yellowish in its natural color but when bleached called patrona, were used. • Kaseyyaka (High quality cotton or silk) and the bright red woolen blankets of Gandhara were worth a small fortune each. • A rain proof woolen cloth was available in Nepal. Resist dyeing and hand printing in a pattern on cloth has been mentioned by Greek visitors to the court of Chandragupta Maurya, as is the Indian glazed cotton cloth which was in common use by 400 BC. • Material similar to the khinkhwab (which is the interweaving of silk and gold or silver wires beautiful floral pattern) was in great demand and even exported to Babylon long before the Mauryas. • Cotton, wool and a fabric called karpasa were available in the north in both coarse and fine varieties. 25
  26. 26. • There were also fine muslins often embroidered in purple and gold and transparent like later-day material which came to be called shabnam (morning dew). • The coarse varieties were used by the populace. • Woolen cloth, avika, from the sheep’s wool was either pure white (bleached) or dyed pure red, rose, or black. • Blankets or kambala were either made by completing the edges with borders or braids, or woven wool strips were joined together. • The process of felting (pressing the fibers together, instead of weaving) was also making known. • All varieties of wool were available, coarse for making head-dresses, trappings and blankets for richer class. • Washer men were also dyers, rajaka, and they perfumed garments after washing them. • Four primary color were recognized in the dyeing of textiles: red (dyed with safflower and madder), white (through bleaching), yellow (natural color of yarn and saffron), and blue (indigo leaves). • Fabrics were also woven in patterns and printed for use as carpets, bedcovers, blankets, and clothes. 26
  27. 27. KUSHANS PERIOD • The Kushans established their empire in the first century AD and were contemporaneous with the Satavahana (Andhra) and western Satraps (Sakas) kingdoms during part of the second century AD. • Contact was established with many parts of western Asia and the Mediterranean by means of envoys. This naturally helped foreign trade, and the influx of foreigners, Kushans, Sakas, and Indo-Greeks, gave even more impetus to trade relations with these areas. 27
  28. 28. KUSHAN TEXTILES AND CLOTHING • The Buddhists represented there were dressed in the classical Greek and Roman garments, the chiton, rimation, stola, tunica, chlamys, etc. • The ordinary dress consisted as usual of an antariya, uttariya and kayabandh, with a turban for men. • Kushan costumes may be divided into five types: the costume worn by (i) indigenous people-theantariya, uttariya, and kayabandh, (ii) guardians and attendants of the harem-usually the indigenous and sewn kancuka, red-brown in color, (iii) foreign Kushan rulers and their entourage, and (iv) other foreigners such as grooms, traders, etc. There are fifth category- a mixture of foreign and indigenous garments. • The Kushan (Indo-scythian) dress had evolved from a nomad culture based on the use of the horse. • Scythian and Iranian races and resembled particularly that of the Parthians. It consisted of a ruched long-sleeves tunic with a slit for the neck opening, simple or elaborately decorated. The close-fitting knee-length tunic was sometimes made of leather, and with it could be worn a short cloak or a calf-length woolen coat or caftan, worn loose or crossed over from right to left and secured by a belt of leather or metal. 28
  29. 29. • Besides these two upper garments, occasionally a third garment the chugha was used. • The chugha was coat-like and decorated with a border down the chest and hemline, and had slits to facilitate movement. • The trousers could be of linen, silk or muslin in summer but were woolen or quilted in winter. These loose or close-fitting trousers, chalana, were tucked into soft padded boots with leather trappings, khapusa. • Along with this was worn the scythian pointed cap of felt, bashylk, or peaked helmet or head band with two long ends tied at the back. • Although, the clothes were simple, they were often adorned with stamped gold or metal plates, square, rectangular, circular, or triangular sewn in lines or at the central seams of the tunic. • Their purpose was not only decorative but functional as well, as they helped lift the tunic in the middle for riding, by gathering the cloth along the seams. • The latter is not passed between the legs as the kachcha style, but is worn crossed-over in the lehnga style. Simple stitched skirts, ghagri, with a side seam and nada or string to hold them up at the waist are also seen. They are gathered in folds from lengths about 6-8 feet, and have a decorative border at the hem and at the centre front seam. 29
  30. 30. • The tunic, stanamsuka, is form-fitting with long sleeves, a simple round neckline, and flaring at the hemline. Besides the above mentioned, the lehnga style antariya and uttariya is sometimes worn. • But very little in the way of elaborate jewellery is used. • There are also some figures of women wearing close fitting ruched trousers with a long- sleeved jacket and an uttariya. • The pravara or chaddar, a large shawl, continued to be worn by both sexes as protection against the cold and it was known to have been perfumed with bakul, jasmine and other scents. • The purely indigenous antariya, uttariys and kayabandh continued to be the main costumes of Indians with slight modifications. • The kayabandh became a more loosely worn informal piece of attire, and was a wide twisted sash used mainly by women in many delightful ways to enhance the suppleness of the waist. 30
  31. 31. • In central India textiles were of lightweight cotton, tulapansi. Both indigenous and foreign skills were plentiful but still very expensive. • Antariya were very rarely decorated and when they were, they appear to have been either embroidered, woven, or printed in diagonal check designs enclosing small circles. • Turban cloth for rich women were often diagonally striped with every third line made of pearls. • This bejewelled material was also used to cover beds and seats. • Many other geometric patterns of checks, stripes and triangles were also printed and woven. • It is only from literary sources that we know of the textiles and dyes available in the earlier period. 31 Kush Hand-Knotted Carpets o In a list compiled of fabrics recovered from the ancient silk route, fabrics in the following color were found: bright blue, light blue, dark blue- copper, dull gold buff, bronze-brown, dark bronze- green, crimson, pink, crimson brown, rich red, yellow, yellow-brown, yellow-green, rich dark yellow-brown.
  32. 32. Antariya : worn extremely short in kaccha style; the end that is passed between the legs has been tucked in at the back; the other piece is looped to mid-thigh in front and the end tucked in a small looped frill at the centre Kayabandh : there are two : one is a wide sash tied in a loop on both sides to the knees with steamers at each side of the hips hanging to floor length; the other iskakshyabandha, a thick jewelled roll worn aslant which has a large clasp at the left hip Mekhala : five-stringed pearl or jewelled hip belt, it holds the antariya and cloth kayabandh in place Hara : necklace of pearls, probably strung on thread or wire and worn between the breasts Kantha : Short necklace of beads with central pendant and looped chains Keyura : simple armlets, of looped design in gold or silver Valaya : bracelets of two kinds : the central one consists of a series of rings like a wrist band; on both sides are larger rigid bracelets Kundala : square earrings decorated with a flower motif and with pearls suspended Nupura : anklets-wide rings with an elaborate design Anguliya : finger rings of solid gold Mukuta : bejewelled crown on the head and a head band Hairstyle : small symmetrical curls at the forehead, hair tied in a looped knot projecting vertically at the back COURT LADY [Begram] 32
  33. 33. Ghagri : simple narrow calf-length skirt stitched at the centre-front border, it has either a drawstring through it to is rolled over a string; this is an example of the earliest form of a stitched lower garment for women kantha : short flat necklace with decorative design Keyura : armlets of same decorative design as forkantha Valaya : simple ring-type bangles Kundala :simple ring-type earrings She rests her pitcher on a head-rest probably of cane, like an inverted basket. MILK MAID[Mathura] Tunic : Kushan type with long ruched sleeves Antariya : could bechalana-Kushan loose trousers Kayabandh : twisted sash Hara : long necklet worn between the breasts Valaya : three bangles are visible on the right hand Nupura : heavy ring-type anklets Hairstyle : hair at the front is divided into three portions, the central one is made into roll, the two at the side are combed downwards with tassels suspended She carries a long spear and round embossed shield. A mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. FEMALE GUARD[Gandhara] 33
  34. 34. Antariya : worn in lehnga style, simply wrapped around and tucked in at the left Uttariya : thrown casually over the shoulders Tunic : with front opening, held at the neck by button; long ruched sleeves have ruching held by jewelled bands or buttons; tunic is form-fitting Mekhala : four-stringed girdle with clasp and decorative leaf at the centre Hara : one long pearl necklace worn between the breasts and one short one with a pendant Kundala : large ring-type earrings Head-dress : chaplet of leaves or turban with a central flower worn around the top knot of hair Sitara : round ornament on the forehead YAKSHI: FEMALE DOOR-KEEPER[Gandhara] Anatriya : sari-like, worn in the kachcha style, the other end being taken across the body and over the left shoulder Kayabandh : simple sash, twisted in parts Uttariya : worn across the back and over both shoulders, the left end is loosely tucked in at the waist Hara : pearl necklace worn between the breasts Kundala : simple disc-like earrings Nupura : heavy double rings on the ankles Hairstyle : chaplet of leaves FEMALE[Gandhara] 34
  35. 35. Tunic : calf-length and heavy quilted, with braid at the bottom edge Chugha : a coat which is longer than the tunic, worn open at centre front; it has a decorative braid at the centre front and hem with probably long gathered-up sleeves Belt : of metallic decorative plaques Boots : padded, with straps around ankle and under the boot held together by a decorative clasp; either the boots are calf length or baggy trousers (chalana) have been inserted into short boots This is the dress of Kushan for foreigner of Saka-Parthian origin. He holds two swords in decorative scabbards. KING KANISHKA[Mathura] Chugha : calf-length with a wide richly embroidered border down the centre-front opening, hem and edge of long sleeves (probably ruched); the material of the coat has small rosettes and a V-neck and there is a round motif on the right sleeve Tunic : Kurta-like undergarment visible at the neck Chalana : baggy trousers tucked into calf-length padded boots; there is a wide band of vine pattern at the centre from toe to top (not visible in drawing); straps around the ankle and instep Kantha : short necklace with pendant KUSHAN KING[Mathura] 35
  36. 36. Antariya : worn in kachcha style Armour : chain armour made of scale or rhombus-patterned plaques, fastened together with strings (like a Japanese or Tibetan armour); the end of the sleeves, waist and hem are strengthened with cording; the skirt portion is made of parallel rows of rectangular plaques Mauli : turban made of twisted roll of cloth Equipment : round shield and spear This is a mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. The armour is Graeco-Roman. SOLDIER[Gandhara] Antariya : worn in kachchastyle up to the ankles Tunic : knee-length, a fully quilted garment with thick cording at the waist, neck and hem. Quilted upper garments are still worn in north India in winter. Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. GUARD[Gandhara] Antariya : transparent calf-length and worn in thelehnga style Armour : scale armour with V-neck and short sleeves; the skirt portion is of square-linked design and of mid-thigh length Tunic : Visible at the hem and sleeves Equipment : sword belt with flat, short sword; strap across the chest, probably for quiver; round shield with patterned design Mauli : turban wound several times and tied at the right side SOLDIER[Gandhara] 36
  37. 37. SATVAHANA PERIOD 37 • The Sātavāhana Empire was an Indian dynasty based from Dharanikota and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh as well as Junnar (Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra. • The territory of the empire covered much of India from 230 BCE onward. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted about 450 years, until around 220 CE. • The Satavahanas are credited for establishing peace in the country, resisting the onslaught of foreigners after the decline of the Mauryan Empire. • The Satavahanas declared independence some time after the death of Ashoka (232 BCE), as the Maurya Empire began to weaken. • They were not only worshipers of Vishnu and Shiva but also other incarnations of Gauri, Indra, the sun and moon.
  38. 38. Early Satavahana Costume [200-100 B.C.] • In the first Century BC we find tunics, Kancuka in the stripes or beehive design worn by attendants or hunters. • The kancuka are of mid-thigh length with short or long sleeves; in some the opening is on the left side, and in others it is at the front. • The tunic worn by a king in hunting dress has no discernible opening at the neck, so it is probably at the back. • Necklines too differed in that some were V-shaped and others were round in shape. • An elaborate turban ushnisa, intertwined with the long black hair of the aborigine wearers was also worn. • The Dravidians aboriginal village women too changed their costume using short antariyas, large uttariyas with elaborate board borders covering the head and back, tikkas on the forehead and a series of conch or ivory bangles on the arms. • Except for the skirt, they looked very much like the Lambadis who are a gypsy tribe of Deccan today. 38
  39. 39. • In the royal court dress of the Mauryan-Sunga people the female attendant wore transparent long antariyas with loose kayabandhs tied in a knot at the centre having beautiful ornamental tips. • Their many –stringed girdles or mekhala were made of beads. Shoulder-length hair held by fillets or top knots tied at the centre of the head seems to denote that these attendants were foreigners, although nothing in the garments worn seems foreign. • The king and most of his courtiers wore indigenous antariya, short and informal at home, with the longer style worn in a variety of ways on ceremonial occasions. With this the decorative kayabandhwas tied in different styles and knots. • The kayabandh could be tied like a thick cord or be worn looped in a semi-circle at the front with conspicuous side tassels, or be made of thick twisted silk. The ushnisa was always worn and a crown or tiara was used when necessary. 39
  40. 40. Textiles and Dyes :- • Coarse and fine varieties of cotton were in great demand. • Silk formed an important part of rich person’s wardrobe. • A very cheap material made of hemp was worn by the weavers and by labourers of all kinds. • Wool was not need much in the part of India ruled by Satavahanas, which had a warm climate, but it was used in the form of chaddarsor blankets in winter. • There was a variety of Dyes available from Vedic times, indigo, yellow, crimson, magenta, black and turmeric. Varieties and mixtures of colors known to those countries with which the Satavahanas did a great deal of trade, like China, Persia and Rome, must also have been incorporated to extend their range of colored textiles. • Printed and woven designs on textile were plentiful and embroidery in gold was also common among the richer classes. • The uttariya, in particular, was very often of silk and embroidered with flowers all over, or had a pattern of birds along with flowers. • Precious stones were often used in the borders of these uttariyas or they were dyed blue or red, but a spotless white remained the favourite with men. 40
  41. 41. Military Costume :- • Soldiers wore short-sleeved tunics or jackets, with elaborate headgear consisting of either a turban with a topknot, chin band and earflaps or two topknots with a turban. • They were equipped with axes, and bows and arrows, or carried sickles. • Palace guards however wore the antariya with a heavy cloak draped over the left shoulder. 41
  42. 42. Headgear and Hairstyles :- • The aboriginal jungle women wore rolls and headbands with peacock feathers attached. Village women and commoners wore their hair in a simple knot at the nape covered by a large uttariya, which, at times, had elaborate broad borders. Court attendants and women of the richer classes wore their hair more fashionably, either in a topknot on the right side with a loop of flowers suspended or in a plait. A fillet, simple or gold embroidered could be worn to hold it in place. • the long hair of men was worn intertwined with lengths of cloth to form an ushnisa in a variety of ways. Frequently it had a knot - the original top knot of the aboriginal-covered with the cloth of the turban. This knot could be at centre front or protrude over the forehead in a conch-shell shape, or the tuft of hair could be visible on top of the turban. 42
  43. 43. Jewellery :- • Jewellery in this period had a massive primitive character in strong contrast to that worn in the later Satavahana period. When indigenous garments are shown on men, whether at court or in villages, all wear some form of jewellery. But when the foreign dress, the kancuka or tunic, is worn by hunters, attendants and soldiers, very little or no jewellery is seen. Most often it consists of just earrings of the wheel pattern type. • Indigenous jewellery however, consisted of Lambanam, earrings, and a pair of kangan and bajuband for the males. Women did not wear the baju band but wore a large number of bangles made of conch or ivory, disc-type earrings, the lambanam, and tikka on the forehead. Women attendants at court wore, in addition, the mekhala. 43
  44. 44. Late Satavahana [100 B.C - A.D. 250] Male costume :- • The uttariya for both men and women was usually white and of cotton or silk. It was however, at times, of beautiful colors and embroidered. • Men could wear it across the back and over both shoulders are merely thrown over the chest, and they seldom wore it as a head covering. • The antariya was still worn by both sexes in the kachcha fashion, which meant that one end was passed between the legs and tucked in behind, but this way of draping had its own fanciful fashions. For men it was normally to the knees or even shorter . • A stitched skirt-like foreign garment called the kancuka was frequently used by attendants, grooms, guards and so on in the king’s court. 44
  45. 45. Female costume :- • The antariya appeared to have been made of almost transparent cloth and was worn very tight and clinging in the case of women. It is almost invisible in the early Andhra sculptures with only double incised lines to show the drape. • The kayabandh tied in a bow-shaped knot was worn by both sexes to give further support to the uttariya at the waist. This item was worn in a variety of ways. • The kayabandh in the form of a simple sash was called the vethaka. • The women also wore the pattika, which was made of flat ribbon- shaped pieces of cloth, usually silk. Thekalabuka was a girdle made of many strips plaited together, and the muraja had drum-headed knots at the ends instead of tassels. • A stitched skirt-like foreign garment called the kancuka was frequently used by attendants, grooms, guards and so on in the king’s court, and an indigenous long tunic was worn by eunuchs and other attendants in the women’s apartments in the palace. Women too wore the short kancuka with an indigenous antariya, or when calf-length it was worn with a kayabandh and uttariya, and in many other ways. 45
  46. 46. Headgear and Hairstyles :- • The ushnisa of the men was generally wrapped around three or four times after covering the topknot of hair with one end. It was normally white but could also be of dyed cloth, and simple turbans were held in position by ornamental gold strips or pattabandha. Gold turbans were worn on special occasions. Kirta or crowns were also in use, of which one type was a short cylindrical cap studded with gems and ornamented with designs. • The maulibandha was an elaborated turban wound with the hair which itself was decorated with strings of pearls or flowers wreaths. • The turban normally covered the hair, which was arranged in a large topknot at centre front, and could have jewelled clasp or maulimani at the centre to hold in place the folds of the turban. • This topknot could also be pear-shaped or elliptical to give it variety. Without the turban, the hair could be worn in one or two topknots, or one loop and one topknot. Short hair parted in the middle and reaching the neck was fairly prevalent, especially among the common people. 46
  47. 47. • Women wore their hair in several ways. • One was in the form of a plait, praveni, at the back, decorated with jewelled strips and tassels, as Bharat Natyam dancers do today. • Another common style was the coil with five delicate plaits dangling from it, a favourite with all classes of women. In the kesapasa style the hair was looped close to the head in an elongated knot at the back of the head or lower downs at the nape. • This could have veni, a small fillet of flowers, around it or a short garland of flowers dangling from it. If the hair was made in a simple knot it was known as kabaribandha. • Special ornaments were designed to be worn in the hair. • The chudamani was lotus-shaped, its petals composed of pearls and precious stones. It was worn normally in the centre of the knotted hair. 47
  48. 48. Military Costume :- • Saka foreign soldiers were employed by some of the Andhra kings in the royal bodyguard. • They wore a heavy tunic with ruched sleeves which reached to the knees or mid-thigh. With it was worn a form of churidar or ruched trousers, and their helmet or sirastra had earflaps. • A wide sash was worn at the waist. Sometimes a short quilted tunic was worn with a heavy drape over the left shoulder along with a turban-a mixture of the foreign and indigenous garment. • Footwear was not incumbent for soldiers and was probably worn by foreign rather than indigenous troops. • The equipment of a trained fighter was mainly his sword, shield, bow, axe and spear; sometimes the mace, club, and javelin were used. • Swords were either curved or straight and could have sharp edge on one or both sides. There were 30 inches long and beautiful crafted. Handles of Ivory or horn and hilts of precious metals encrusted with jewels were carried by those in command, and simpler ones of bamboo or wood were used by the common soldier. 48
  49. 49. Jewellery :- • Strands of pearls were the main motif in all forms of jewellery particularly in the late period of the Satavahana empire. Both men and women wore earring, bracelets, armlets and necklaces as in previous periods, particularly the indigenous people. The more common design in earring was the kundala shaped like a coil, which could be simple or decorative. • The talapatra originated from a small strip of palm leaf rolled and inserted into the lobe. This shape was later made from ivory or gold and could be gem-studded. A full- blown lotus design the kanaka- kamala set in rubies is still popular in South India, and a couple of generations ago the karnika or jimiki continued to be in use. 49
  50. 50. • Necklaces or hara were mainly strung with pearls, sometimes consisting of only a single string called ekavali. A necklace of gems and gold beads was called yashti, the central bead being often larger than the others. Several of these necklaces could be worn together. Sometimes three or five slab-like gems, phalaka, were inserted at regular intervals. These held together the several strings of which a necklace was composed, and whole was called a phalakahara. • A simple perfumed cotton-thread necklace was known to have been in use, and tiger claws were strung around the necks of children probably to ward off the evil eye. 50
  51. 51. • Armlets or keyura for both sexes were close-fitting and could be engraved or set with jewels, or be in the shape of a snake; also they could be straight-edged or have an angular top edge. Jewelled girdles of one or many strings, mekhala, were worn only by women. These were made in several varieties from the tinkling kanci with bells to the rasana style made of a linked chain or strung with pearls, beads or precious stones. • Anklets, worn again only by women, had an astonishing variety. The manjira was hollow and light, coiling several times around the ankles loosely, and tinkling when in motion as it had gems inserted in the hollow. 51
  52. 52. GUPTA PERIOD (320 CE-750 BC) 52 • The Gupta empire was founded in northern India at the beginning of the fourth century AD after a long period of chaos which ensued when the Kushan empire ended in the middle of the third century. • It is only with the foundation of Gupta Empire, that there was once again unity and peace over almost the whole of North India. • The Gupta empire lasted for more than two centuries and was vast: it stretched over the major part of north India and to Balkh in the east. • Known as the ‘Golden Age’ and the ‘Classical Period’, in the age of the Guptas a degree of balance and harmony in all the arts and an efficient system of administration was achieved. • Most probably the Guptas is that the Guptas came from Bengal. At the beginning of the 4th century the Guptas ruled a few small Hindu kingdoms in Magadha and around modern-day Uttar Pradesh.
  53. 53. Gupta Empire Clothing Male Clothing: • Clothing in Gupta period was mainly cut and sewn garments. • A long sleeved brocaded tunic became the main costume for privileged people like the nobles and courtiers. • The main costume for the king was most often a blue closely woven silk antariya, perhaps with a block printed pattern. • In order to tighten the antariya, a plain belt took the position of kayabandh. • Mukatavati (necklace which has a string with pearls), kayura (armband), kundala (earring), kinkini (small anklet with bells), mekhala (pendant hung at the centre, also known as katisutra), nupura (anklet made of beads) were some of the ornaments made of gold, used in that time. • There was an extensive use of ivory during that period for jewellery and ornaments. 53 King
  54. 54. 54 Gupta Empire Male Clothing MINISTER GUARD CHAMBERLAIN HORSE MAN
  55. 55. 55 Female Clothing: • Stitched garments became very popular in this period only. Stitched garments became the sign of royalty. But antariya, uttariya, and other clothes still were in use. • Gradually, the antariya worn by the women turned into gagri, which has many swirling effects exalted by its many folds. That’s why, dancers used to wear it a lot. • As it is evident from many Ajanta paintings, women used to wear only the lower garment in those times, leaving the bust part bare. • Later on, various kinds of blouses (Cholis) evolved. • Some of them had strings attached leaving the back open while others was used to tie from front side, exposing the midriff. • Calanika was an antariya which could be worn as kachcha and lehnga style together. • Women sometimes wore antariya in saree style, throwing one end of it over the shoulder, but the main feature is that they did not use it to cover their heads as it was prominent in earlier periods. PRINCESS
  57. 57. 57 Gupta Empire Female Clothing MAID SERVANT YASODA OLD WOMAN VOTARY FIGURE
  58. 58. 58 Military Clothing: • In early period the Gupta soldier had worn the antariya with his bare chest inadequately covered by the six jewel-striped channavira. This evolved into the more efficient foreign-influenced kancuka with trousers or short drawers, jhangia, and high boots, with a helmet or cap, and sometimes a fillet to tie back the hair. • Later the soldier’s uniform was either a short-or-long-sleeved knee- length tunic, kancuka, which had a centre front opening with V- shaped or round neck. • The tunics were sometimes spotted with black aloe wood paste, which could be a type of tie-dye, or bandhni as it is known today. • This may have been their version of the camouflage on military uniforms. • The leaders or chieftains of the various contingents in the army were decked in pearl-embroidered tunics made from the famous stavarkha cloth of Sassanian origin and chaddars of many colors, or in the complete Central Asian outfit consisting of a dark blue quilted tunics with a V-shaped neck and long full sleeves with soft dark trousers and a saffron turban of Indian origin instead of Central Asian conical cap. Guard
  59. 59. • Armour was worn as further protection. It was known as the cinacola, probably of Chinese origin. • It was sleeveless covering the front and back, and was made of metal. • A helmet for soldiers was known as sirastrajala. • Bows were of two kinds: the simple one-piece bow and the classic double- curved bow probably made of three pieces. soldier 59
  60. 60. Gupta Period Headgear & Hairstyles Female Headgear & Hairstyles: • Female hair is worn with a centre parting which is covered by a decorative ornament attached to the mukuta (tiara) at the forehead and the jewelled braid at the left side of the nape; the braid then continues like a fillet around the crown of the head. • Highly decorative in embossed gold or silver, has little pendants suspended from it at the forehead. • Female votary's hair is worn in a large pompadour style on the crown of the head with tiny curls along the forehead. • From the elaborate tiara-like ornament around the head, strands of pearls form a net over the hair-style; there is a central ornament at the forehead from which are suspended strands of pearls. • Large flowers above the ears are used as further ornamentation to the hairs 60
  61. 61. 61 Male Headgear & Hairstyles: • For men, a tiara or crown with a band inset with pearls and something festooned with garlands replaced the turban. • This slowly became more common for the king when informally dressed in indigenous garments; attendants wore this as well with shoulder-length hair. • In royal entourage, the turban continued to be worn by high officials, like the chamberlain, ministers, military officers, civic officials and so on, where it had become a distinctive symbol of their respective ranks. • It could be of fine muslin tied over a large knot of hair at the centre of the forehead or a striped turban worn flat and twisted giving a rope-like effect to the cloth when wound. • The ministers were often Brahmins with all their hair shorn keeping only the ritual top knot. • Generally, hair was worn loose by men, shoulder-length and curled, in the gurnakuntala style, sometimes with a head band to hold it in place, or adorned with a strand of pearls. king Prince Young men
  62. 62. Gupta Empire Jwellery • Gold or hirana was more commonly used than ever before, especially in the Deccan where there were gold mines. • Gold ornaments for both men and women were exquisitely made, acquiring a new delicacy as beaten work, filigree work and twisted wire was skillfully combined with jewels-particularly pearls. • Kundala was the general term for earrings, which were mainly for two types, both of which were circular. • One was a large ring type and other was a button type, karnaphul, with a plain or decorated surface. • The sutra was a chain for the neck. • When made of gold with precious stones in the centre, it was called hemasutra. • But this was the era of the pearls necklaces or muktavali a single strand of small pearls was the haravsti, one of big pearls, the tarahara, and one with gem in the centre of the pearl was known as sudha ekavali. 62
  63. 63. 63 • The mekhala or girdle was worn by women quite low on the hips and suspended from the katisutra. • The latter was probably a string tied at the waist and hidden under the upper edge of the antariya, in which it was rolled. • The mekhala hung in a seductive clasp at the centre from this string, over or under which hung a small pleated frill of cloth. This is still seen in the Bharata Natyam dancer’s costume of today. • Men to hold the antariya used a simple straight belt or sometimes above it, which could have a buckle either square, round, rosette-shaped, or rectangular. • On the women’s ankles the kinkini, with its small bells, tinkled as they moved, or there nupura (anklet) could be made from jewelled beads, maninupura. Although women of all classes wore anklets, they are not seen on the feet of goddesses in sculpture. • Flowers in the form of necklaces, mala, were worn on the head, entwined in the hair, and looped around the neck or waist or worn crosswise in garlands on the chest.
  64. 64. Textiles And Dyes • In the Gupta age the finest textiles were available, printed, painted, dyed, and richly patterned in weaves or embroidery the art of calico printing improved considerably and many of the traditional prints of today originated in this period. • There were checks, stripes, and bird and animal motifs, for example geese, swans, deer, elephants, and so on. • Delicate embroidery on muslins, consisting of hundreds on. • Delicate embroidery on muslins, consisting of hundreds of different varieties of flowers and birds, was skillfully executed, along with intricately woven brocades, which continued to be in vogue. • These brocades with floral designs from the Deccan and Paithan were like the Jamiwar andHimru fabrics of today. • The former is a silk floral design on a wool background and the latter has cotton for its main wrap. • Gauze from Decca was noted for its transparency and was said to be so fine that the only evidence of its presence was the delicate gold edging of cloth. This had led to the further sophistication of wearing a transparent garment over a brightly colored one. • Before this, the transparency of the cloth had only accentuated the nudity below. 64
  65. 65. • Gold and silver woven brocades of Benares, which had a very ancient tradition, were still used, and in the north and the north-west the art of embroidery reached the highest peak of development. • Silk was woven in black and white check patterns especially for cushions, which had handsome covers of, gold, silver or dark-colored cloth embroidered or patterned in silver stars or four-petalled flowers, or of striped materials with chess-patterned bands. • Special bedcovers known as nicola and pracchadapata, and rugs or floor carpets known as rallaka and kambala were made. • Dyeing too was very sophisticated and the diagonal stripes, which were popular, merged in each other in places as soft and dark tones. This beautiful effect was created by the resist dye technique. • Tie dying of Gujarat and Rajasthan, in many different patterns, was called pulakabandha and was used a great deal in the upper garments of women. The process of bleaching was perfected, and all thin brocades, which had been the prerogative of rich now, percolated to form the festive and bridal attire of the poorer classes, for which a special cheaper variety known, as rasimal was available. • Special costly silken fabric known as stavaraka was originally manufactured in Persia and is known to have been imported into India. This was a cloth studded with clusters of bright pearls and worn by royalty. 65
  66. 66. MUGHAL EMPIRE • The Mughal Empire was an empire established and ruled by a Persianate dynasty of Chagatai Turco-Mongol origin that extended over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan. • The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the founder Babur's victory over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). 66
  67. 67. Mughal Costume • The ladies and gents of the Mughal empire wore beautiful and expensive clothes made from the finest materials and adorned themselves with jewellery from head to toe. • The garments of Mughal ladies were made of the finest muslins, silks, velvets and brocades. • The muslins used for their clothes were of three types: Ab-e- Rawan (running water), Baft Hawa (woven air) and Shabnam (evening dew). • Muslins called Shabnam were brought from Dacca and were famous as Dhaka malmal. 67
  68. 68. Mughal Men's Clothing: • The Jama: The Yaktahi Jama (an unlined Jama) originated in Persia and Central Asia, where it was worn both short and long, over a pai-jama to form an outfit known as the "Bast Agag". In Persian, the word "Jama" means garment, robe, gown or coat. The definition of the Mughal Jama is a side- fastening frock-coat with tight-fitting bodice, nipped-in waist and flared skirt, reaching the knees. • The Chogha: This is a very ancient garment which we have seen all throughout the Persian, Mongolian and other areas. The word Chogha in Mughal times referred to a long sleeved coat, open down the front, usually down to hip length or knee length. 68
  69. 69. • Dhoti and Paijama :- During the Akbari period, men wore trousers invariably with their jamas (in this context, coats), and there is no artistic evidence to suggest that dhotis were ever worn in combination with the coats. Therefore, while Rajpal may have worn a dhoti in the privacy of his home, in public he wore trousers. Paintings of the period indicate that the paijamas were loose and flowing from the waist to the knee, where they became snug down to the ankle. Often the fabric on the lower legs is wrinkled, suggesting that the paijamas were longer than the leg itself and pushed up, just like the sleeves of the jama, in a display of conspicuous consumption. At no time do the paijamas match the jama in colour, and solid colours appear to have been the fashion during Akbar’s reign. 69
  70. 70. • The Patka : - Around the waist of the Jama, a long piece of fine fabric was tied like a sash. This was the Patka, from which a jeweled sword could be suspended. Patkas were hand-woven with complex designs, or embroidered, or hand-painted or printed. Many made for royalty showed textile craftsmanship at it's best. • Pagri or Turban :- The most important accessory for an Indian man was his turban, which proclaimed his status, religion, caste and region of origin. To submit a turban to anybody was a sign of total subjugation and the removal of a turban was the most humiliating punishment that could be inflicted on any man. 70
  71. 71. Mughal women’s clothing : • Peshwaz : - Loose jama-like robe, fastened at the front, with ties at the waist. Usually high - waisted and long-sleeved. • Sometimes several fine transparent muslin peshwaz were worn, for a layered look. Sometimes a choli (blouse) was worn under the Peshwaz. • Yalek :- A long under-tunic reaching to the floor, usually with short sleeves or sleevelss. • Pai-Jama :- This is a compound of two Persian words "pai" meaning legs or feet and "jama" meaning cover. Drawstring pai-jamas have been worn in Persia since very ancient times. From about 1530 onwards, several types of pai-jama were worn in India. 71
  72. 72. • Churidar :- Cut on the bias, much longer than the leg, so that folds fall at the ankle, worn by men and women. • Shalwar :- A triangularly cut pai-jama with a quilted band at the ankle (poncha) worn by men and women. • Dhilja :- A woman's pai-jama made of silk, cut wide and straight. • Garara :- A woman's pai-jama cut loose to the knee and adding gathers. • Farshi :- A woman's pai-jama cut without folds to the knees, and then gathered into pleats to the floor. 72
  73. 73. Head Wear :- • Turban :- Mughals tied their turbans, then added decoration by way of bejeweled bans, pin jewellery or other ornamentation. • Caps: Caps worn were heavily ornamented and in a variety of styles. The Chau-goshia, made in four segments The Qubbedar, dome-shaped The Kashi ti Numa, boat-shaped The Dupalli, small narrow cap with front and back points The Nukka Dar, for nobles, heavily embroidered The Mandil, usually black velvet embroidered with gold or silver thread 73
  74. 74. • Mughal Ornaments: - The Mughal ladies loaded themselves with a large variety of ornaments. Most of the traveler agree that ornaments were the very joy of their hearts. Different types of head ornaments, ear ornaments, nose ornaments, necklaces, hand ornaments, waist belts and ankle/foot ornaments were used in the Mughal Empire. 74
  75. 75. • Footwear :- Ornamented shoes with turned up toes (Jhuti) were Persian in style, and were worn by men and women. Some other footwear were: • The Kafsh, worn by nobles and kings The Charhvan, with a curling tongue fixed to the toe The Salim Shahi, decorated in gold The Khurd Nau, very lightweight, made of kid leather Lucknow was most famous for it's footwear in Mughal times, and the art of Aughi, embroidery on leather and velvet footwear, was very popular. 75
  76. 76. RAJPUT EMPIRE • The Rajput population and the former Rajput states are found spread through much of the subcontinent, particularly in north, west and central India. • Populations are found in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Jammu, Punjab, Sindh, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar. 76
  77. 77. TEXTILES AND CLOTHING • The state records of Jaipur mention special departments in charge of royal costumes While the Ranghkhana and the Chhapakhana are departments that took care of dyeing and printing the fabrics respectively. • The siwankhana ensured its immaculate tailoring Two special sections, the toshakhanaand the kapaddwadra, took care of the daily wear and formal costumes of the king. • Rasjasthani daily wear such as Saris, Odhnis and Turbans are often made from textiles using either blockprinted (above) or tie-and-dye techniques. • The Rajput kings, owing to their close proximity to the Mughal court style in their formal dress. • Richly brocaded material from Banaras and Gujarat, Embroidered and woven Kashmiri shawls and delicate cottons from Chanderi and Dhaka were procured at great cost. • This formal dress made for Maharaja Bane Singh of Alwar (1815-57) shows a strange mixture of Mughal and Traditional styles. 77
  78. 78. MEN’S CLOTHING: • Rajput's main costumes were the aristocratic dresses (court-dress) which includes angarkhi, pagdi, chudidar pyjama and a cummerbund (belt). • Angarkhi (short jacket) is long upper part of garments which they used to wear over a sleeveless close fitting cloth. • Nobles of Rajputs generally attired themselves in the Jama, Shervani as an upper garment and Salvar, Churidar-Pyjama (a pair of shaped trousers) as lower garments. • The Dhoti was also in tradition in that time but styles were different to wear it. Tevata style of dhoti was prominent in Desert region and Tilangi style in the other regions. 78
  79. 79. Turbans: • Varying styles of turban denote region and caste. • These variations are known by different names such as Pagari and Safa. • A Pagari is usually 82 feet long and 8 inches wide. • A safa is shorter and broader. • The common man wears turbans of one color, while the elite wear designs and colors according to the occasion. 79 o Achieving different styles with just a length of material requires great skill. o Specialists in this art, called pagribands, were employed by the royal courts, but Rajasthanis generally take pride in practicing and perfecting the art of turban- tying themselves.
  80. 80. WOMEN’S CLOTHING: • "To capture the sensuality of the female figures in Rajput paintings, women were depicted wearing transparent fabrics draped around their bodies". • Rajput women's main attire was the Sari (wrapped over whole body and one of the end thrown on the right shoulder) or Lengha related with the Rajasthani traditional dress. • On the occasion (marriage) women preferred Angia. • After marriage of Kanchli, Kurti, and angia were the main garb of women. • The young girls used to wear the Puthia as an upper garment made of pure cotton fabric and the Sulhanki as lower garments (loose pyjama). 80
  81. 81. • Widows and unmarried women clothed themselves with Polka (half sleeved which ends at the waist) and Ghaghra as a voluminous gored skirt made of line satin, organza or silk. • Other important part of clothing is Odhna of women which is worked in silk. • Jewellery preferred by women were exquisite in the style or design. One of the most jewellery called Rakhdi (head ornament), Machi-suliya (ears) and Tevata, Pattia, and the aad (all is necklace). • Rakhdi, nath and chuda shows the married woman's status. • The footwear is same for men and women and named Juti made of leather. 81
  82. 82. NIZAMS OF HYDERABAD • The Nizam-ul-Mulk of Hyderabad, popularly known as the Nizam of Hyderabad, was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into the states of Telangana, Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, was the title of the sovereigns of Hyderabad State was the premier Prince of India., since 1724, belonging to the Asaf Jah dynasty. • Hyderabad was the largest and most prosperous of all princely states in India. Hyderabad State had its own army, airline, telecommunication system, railway network, postal system, currency and radio broadcasting service. In spite of the overwhelming Hindu majority, Hindus were severely under-represented in government, police and the military. 82
  83. 83. CLOTHING Female The Khada Dupatta or Khara Dupatta(uncut veil) is an outfit composed of a kurta (tunic), chooridaar (ruched pair of pants), and 6 yard dupatta (veil) and is traditionally worn by Hyderabad brides. Sometimes the kurta is sleeveless and worn over a koti resembling a choli. The bride also wears a matching ghoonghat (veil) over her head. • Jewellery They used to wear jewellery as follows , tika , Jhoomar , Nath , Chintaak also known as Jadaoo Zevar, Kan phool , Satlada , Ranihaar , Jugni , Gote , Payal , Gintiyan. 83
  84. 84. Male:- • The Sherwani is the traditional men's garb of Hyderabad. • It is a coat-like tunic with a tight-fitting collar (hook & eyelet fastening), close-fitting in the upper torso and flaring somewhat in its lower half. • It usually has six or seven buttons, often removable ones made from gold sovereigns for special occasions. • The material is usually silk or wool. • A groom may use gold brocade for his wedding sherwani, but otherwise good taste dictates understated colors, albeit with rich and textured fabrics. • The sherwani is usually worn over a silk or cotton kurta (long shirt) and pyjamas (baggy pants with a drawstring at the waist). • The sherwani is closely associated with Hyderabad, although it has spread since to the rest of India and to Pakistan. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru adapted its design and turned it into his trademark Nehru Jacket, further popularizing the garment. 84
  85. 85. Clothing of Nizam of Hyderabad 85
  86. 86. Textile And Dyes • Remarkable for their robust design, lavish materials and bold workmanship, these textiles represent the quintessential qualities of the arts of the Deccan. • India’s court embroideries transformed simple fabrics in to powerful decorative objects by a profuse layering of precious metals. • Traditionally neary all types of metallic embroidery were worked on a wooden frame, karchob. • Gold and silver thread, kalabattu, sequins, sitara, coiled wires, salma/dabka/ghizai; twisted pairs of badla, gokhru and the domed sequin, katori as well as silver, gilt and colored foil were applied to highlight the designs and create richly dimensional and reflective surfaces. 86
  87. 87. BRITISH RAJ (1700-1947) • The history of the British Raj refers to the period of British rule on the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947. • The system of governance was instituted in 1858 when the rule of the East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria (who in 1876 was proclaimed Empress of India). • It lasted until 1947, when the British provinces of India were partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan, leaving the princely states to choose between them. • The two new dominions later became the Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (the eastern half of which, still later, became the People's Republic of Bangladesh). • The province of Burma in the eastern region of the Indian Empire had been made a separate colony in 1937 and became independent in 1948. 87
  88. 88. CLOTHING • The British entered India as traders, but they stayed back as rulers and ruled the country for almost 200 years. • They came with their own cultural values and identity, very British clothing and fashion statements, leaving the Indians admiring the GORA SAHIBS and the MEMSAHIBS. • The average Indian wanted to look special and thus wanted to copy their styles. • Fashion is a representation of cultural identity. This cultural identity was changing. • The modern Indian was convent educated, secular, patriotic, wanted to belong to INDIA and not to a particular religion, state or culture. • Women curled their hair, wore Indian sires, but with foreign blouses and petticoats. 88
  90. 90. EFFECT OF BRITISH SAHIBS AND MEMSAHIBS • The Royal Men and women of India were the first to adopt the “western Fashion Statements”, but curiously always shifted to their traditional garb, during celebrations and ceremonies like birth, marriage and death. • They felt that they were modern and had to have tastes like the British to reflect that. • It was in fashion to dress up like the modern British, read English literature, smoke the pipe, and wear. • A hat and shoes emulating the English. • Eating with fork and knife was considered classic, and people who ate with their fingers were labeled barbarians. 90
  91. 91. EFFECT OF BRITISH RAJ ON INDIAN CUSTOMS • The influence of the British also broke down traditional norms which dictated that only one or another caste could wear a certain style or piece of clothing, promulgating the spread of western fashion through all ranks of society. • Indians employed as labourers or servants by the British were often required to wear western attire, and yet this was generally not seen as derogatory treatment but instead as a privilege. • It was a chance that the Dalits, or lower caste people or new coverts to Christianity got to dress up like the westerners, to eradicate any class differences. • Thus they voluntarily gave up the loin cloth for trousers. It may be noted that while Gandhi gave up his western attire during the struggle of independence to drive his point home, Baba Sahib Ambedkar (who shaped India's constitution, but was from the lower caste), is always seen in the Western Suit, as it gave him the feeling of power. 91
  92. 92. • The Indian cotton was exported to Britain and manufactured garments from Britain were imported in India. • These were mass produced, mill made garments and were much cheaper than anything that Indians had seen before.The result was as expected. • Indians started buying these cheaper garments and rejected their traditional garments completely. • The economy was at a decline. • It was at this time that mahatma Gandhi introduced home spun khadi and encouraged people to make and wear their own clothing, boycotting the foreign products. • Slowly and steadily even after the Indian independence the majority of Indian men and women changed their dressing habits at least in public, to the modern western styles in order to appear forward thinking and forward moving. 92
  93. 93. WAR COSTUME 93
  94. 94. • The British as tradesmen imported lots of textiles from India, calico, chintz, cashmere to name but a few. India was one of the richest countries and had maximum textile export in the 17th and 18th Century Indian Fabrics were treated as exotic and the British fell in love with cotton and indigo. • These Indian textiles influenced British tastes before the Raj. But once the British started ruling, everything changed, a new culture emerged and so did a new cultural identity. • The textiles being manufactured in India were also anglicised, this can be seen by the drastic change in the motifs from Lotuses to Tulips, and the style of depiction very Victorian. • “By the beginning of the Eighteenth Century most of the flowering trees are displaying exuberant Baroque Curves 94
  95. 95. 95 THANK YOU