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MEDICINAL PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY UNIT 2, MPG, SEM 2.pptx

MEDICINAL PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY UNIT 2, MPG, SEM 2. NOTES Different tissue culture techniques: Organogenesis and embryogenesis, synthetic seed and monoclonal variation Protoplast fusion, Hairy root multiple shoot cultures and their applications. Micro propagation of medicinal and aromatic plants. Sterilization methods involved in tissue culture, gene transfer in plants and their applications.

MEDICINAL PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY UNIT 2, MPG, SEM 2.pptx

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S. PRITHIVIRAJAN., M. Pharm,
Dept. of Pharmacognosy, COP,
Madurai Medical College,
Madurai-20
MEDICINAL PLANT
BIOTECHNOLOGY
M PHARM - PHARMACOGNOSY SEM 2 UNIT 2
CONTENTS
• Different tissue culture techniques: Organogenesis and embryogenesis,
synthetic seed and monoclonal variation
• Protoplast fusion, Hairy root multiple shoot cultures and their
applications.
• Micro propagation of medicinal and aromatic plants.
• Sterilization methods involved in tissue culture, gene transfer in plants
and their applications.
Plant tissue culture
• Plant tissue culture technology is being widely used for large scale plant
multiplication.
• Small pieces of tissue (named explants) can be used to produce hundreds
and thousands of plants in a continuous process.
• A single explant can be multiplied into several thousand plants in relatively
short time period and space under controlled conditions, irrespective of the
season and weather on a year round basis.
• Endangered, threatened and rare species have successfully been grown and
conserved by micropropagation because of high coefficient of multiplication
and small demands on number of initial plants and space.
Different plant tissue culture techniques are discussed as follows,
MEDICINAL PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY UNIT 2, MPG, SEM 2.pptx
ORGANOGENISIS
• The process of development of plant organs such as shoot, flower, and root
system from either an ex-plant or from the callus of culture is known as
organogenesis in plants.
• A completely developed plant consists of organs specialized in a particular
function such as roots are responsible for absorbing nutrients and water
from the soil, leaves are necessary for photosynthesis, and flowers for
reproduction.
• Tissues such as meristem, cortex, phloem, and epidermis are organized
together to form these organs. Developing and initiating these organs is
called organogenesis.
• Meristematic cells are responsible for the development of plant organs like
the root system, flowers, and shoot system. Shoot apical meristem is
responsible for generating or developing organs above the root, later organ.
• . Shoot apical meristem ( SAM ) regenerated organs such as leaves, stems,
buds, flowers, etc. hold organogenesis capability on their edges. When these
cells are induced in-vitro a whole new plant grows from it. This whole
process is called organogenesis.
Steps involved in organogenesis.
• Dedifferentiation is a process that helps in the formation of callus from the
tissues of explant with acceleration in cell division. Cells multiply and
divide very quickly to grow their number to form undifferentiated cells, i.e.
callus, this process of dedifferentiation.
• Redifferentiation is the process of developing a permanent organ by
converting the cells that were formed during dedifferentiation. Cells lose
their capability to multiply and divide in this process so that they can be
converted into permanent tissue.

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MEDICINAL PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY UNIT 2, MPG, SEM 2.pptx

  • 1. S. PRITHIVIRAJAN., M. Pharm, Dept. of Pharmacognosy, COP, Madurai Medical College, Madurai-20 MEDICINAL PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY M PHARM - PHARMACOGNOSY SEM 2 UNIT 2
  • 2. CONTENTS • Different tissue culture techniques: Organogenesis and embryogenesis, synthetic seed and monoclonal variation • Protoplast fusion, Hairy root multiple shoot cultures and their applications. • Micro propagation of medicinal and aromatic plants. • Sterilization methods involved in tissue culture, gene transfer in plants and their applications.
  • 3. Plant tissue culture • Plant tissue culture technology is being widely used for large scale plant multiplication. • Small pieces of tissue (named explants) can be used to produce hundreds and thousands of plants in a continuous process. • A single explant can be multiplied into several thousand plants in relatively short time period and space under controlled conditions, irrespective of the season and weather on a year round basis. • Endangered, threatened and rare species have successfully been grown and conserved by micropropagation because of high coefficient of multiplication and small demands on number of initial plants and space. Different plant tissue culture techniques are discussed as follows,
  • 5. ORGANOGENISIS • The process of development of plant organs such as shoot, flower, and root system from either an ex-plant or from the callus of culture is known as organogenesis in plants. • A completely developed plant consists of organs specialized in a particular function such as roots are responsible for absorbing nutrients and water from the soil, leaves are necessary for photosynthesis, and flowers for reproduction. • Tissues such as meristem, cortex, phloem, and epidermis are organized together to form these organs. Developing and initiating these organs is called organogenesis. • Meristematic cells are responsible for the development of plant organs like the root system, flowers, and shoot system. Shoot apical meristem is responsible for generating or developing organs above the root, later organ.
  • 6. • . Shoot apical meristem ( SAM ) regenerated organs such as leaves, stems, buds, flowers, etc. hold organogenesis capability on their edges. When these cells are induced in-vitro a whole new plant grows from it. This whole process is called organogenesis. Steps involved in organogenesis. • Dedifferentiation is a process that helps in the formation of callus from the tissues of explant with acceleration in cell division. Cells multiply and divide very quickly to grow their number to form undifferentiated cells, i.e. callus, this process of dedifferentiation. • Redifferentiation is the process of developing a permanent organ by converting the cells that were formed during dedifferentiation. Cells lose their capability to multiply and divide in this process so that they can be converted into permanent tissue.
  • 7. Types of Organogenesis 1. Direct organogenesis • When buds and shoots are directly developed from tissue and there is no need for the callus stage then this process is known as direct organogenesis in plant tissue culture. • Direct organogenesis results in the development of planting material with no genetic variation therefore cloning. Uniformity in the planting material is ensured. This process is also useful in propagating plants with a better multiplication rate (the number of plants per explant is higher). • Direct organogenesis is more of an industrial process as it provides plants with better multiplication rates and cloning propagation where the genetic variation is zero.
  • 8. 2. Indirect organogenesis • In this process of indirect organogenesis, a plant’s organ is developed from the callus of an explant (tissue that developed at the site of a cut or wound). • The process of indirect organogenesis is more useful in the development of a transgenic plant. There are two ways that can be used to develop a transgenic plant in the indirect organogenesis method, 1) Transformed callus is used to regenerate a new transgenic plant . 2) A modified explant is used to develop callus in the shoot, transform explant is initially used. Direct Indirect
  • 9. Applications of Organogenisis 1) Organogenesis has major applications in the production of transgenic plants. 2) Propagation of plants using meristematic tissues is a great way to achieve viral-free plants. 3) Organogenesis is a powerful technique to understand cell and tissue-type differentiation, the mechanism of the action of hormones and other plant growth regulators, the initiation of the development of plant organs, and other molecular mechanisms of the plant. 4) It’s an effective technique to improve plants for the production of primary and secondary compounds for research and pharmaceutical purposes. 5) For mutagenic studies in sexually and vegetatively reproducing plants, organogenesis is an effective technique
  • 10. EMBRYOGENISIS The act of fertilization trigger the egg cell (called zygote after fertilization) to divide and develop into an embryo and the process of embryo development is known as embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis (Artificial – in vitro) In plant tissue culture, the process of embryo initiation and development from vegetative cell or non- gametic cell is known as somatic embryogenesis. Zygotic embryogenesis (Natural – invivo) It is the process in which female gamete fuse with the male gamete and form embryo is called zygotic embryogenesis.
  • 11. Somatic embryogenesis • Somatic embryogenesis is the process wherein somatic cells differentiate into somatic embryos. It is not a naturally occurring process, an artificial one wherein an embryo or plant is obtained from one somatic cell. • Somatic embryos take form from the cells of the plants, which usually do not take part in embryo development. Neither a seed coat nor endosperm is formed around the somatic embryo. • In the process, one cell or a cluster of cells initiates the developmental route, which results in reproducible regeneration of non-zygotic embryos, which can germinate for the formation of an entire plant.
  • 12. • The cells which are derived from potential source tissues are subject to a culture medium for the formation of an undifferentiated cluster of cells referred to as the callus. • In the tissue culture medium, the plant growth regulators can be formed for the induction of the formation of calluses and hence modified to induce the embryos for the formation of calluses.
  • 13. Types of Somatic Embryogenisis 1) Direct somatic embryogenesis It involves the development of the embryos in a direct way from the cells of the explants, without any intermediate callus stage. Embryos, in this case, are formed as a result of Pre-induced Embryogenic Determined Cells (PEDCs). 2) Indirect somatic embryogenesis In this process, the development of an embryo occurs with an intermediate callus growth stage. It includes the formation of somatic embryos by reiterating numerous cycles of cell divisions, and hence the process includes multiple steps. The cells which do not carry the pre-embryogenic determined cells are caused to differentiate for the formation of the embryo by revealing different treatments. The cells modify into IEDs (Induced Embryogenic pre- determined cells).
  • 14. Application of somatic embryogenesis • The process of somatic embryogenesis serves several purposes and involves multiple applications that are covered in this section. • It is a preferred in-vitro propagation method for woody plants. Here, it plays a critical role in clonal propagation, synthetic seed production, germplasm conservation, and cryopreservation. • It is used for rapid large-scale propagation of plants for the production of secondary compounds and drugs. • It is an ideal system for the basic studies of plant cell biology and embryo development. • It also provides a better system for the understanding of the differentiation and mechanism of totipotency expression in plant cells.
  • 15. SYNTHETIC SEEDS It is defined as encapsulated plant tissues, such as somatic embryos, shoot buds, axillary buds, shoot tips, cell aggregates, and any other micro propagules that have the potential to grow like a plant, under in-vivo or in-vitro conditions when sown as seeds. There are two types of synthetic seeds currently being developed 1) Desiccated synthetic seeds 2) Hydrated synthetic seeds. 1) Desiccated Synthetic Seeds This involves the encapsulation of multiple somatic embryos followed by desiccation. The encapsulating material used in this case is polyoxyethylene (Polyox). This material doesn’t allow for the growth of the microorganisms and is non-toxic to embryos.
  • 16. 2) Hydrated Synthetic Seeds • This involves the encapsulation of a single somatic embryo in hydrogel capsules. This technique is used in those plants which are recalcitrant for the somatic embryogenesis and sensitive to desiccation. • The most popular method of forming hydrated synthetic seeds is using Ca- alginate encapsulation. Types Of Tissues Used To Prepare Synthetic Seeds Synthetics seeds are mostly needed to improve the characteristics of new embryos, which makes them beneficial for storage for longer duration. Further, they also prevent the desiccation of somatic embryos or plant propagules in the natural environment. Some of the types of tissues used to prepare synthetic seeds as follows,
  • 17. • Somatic Embryos: Somatic embryos are produced from somatic or vegetative cells that help to produce genetically identical plants. Somatic embryos are also best when you want to bring any specific character in the plants by gene insertion (a genetic engineering process) into somatic cells. • Embryogenic tissues: These tissues are best when you want to proceed with clonal propagation and genetic transformation studies. But, their maintenance is labor-intensive and costly. • Axillary shoot buds and Apical shoot tips: These tissues do not possess root meristem so they need to be induced for root development after encapsulation. • Protocorms: These are mainly used in the case of orchids. The protocorms are encapsulated in sodium alginate gel to form synthetic seeds.
  • 18. Applications Of Synthetic Seeds Multiple plant species have been successfully grown using Synseed technology, including medicinal plants, vegetables, fruits, ornamentals, cereals, and forest trees. • The selection of genotypes and sterile unsteady genotypes • Germplasm preservation of elite planting materials • In vitro propagation of endangered, rare, and commercially important plants • Multiplication of transgenic plants • Germplasm preservation • Maintaining genetic uniformity and varieties of crops • Producing hybrid seed production
  • 19. Somaclonal Variation (Monoclonal variation) The genetic variation can occur in isolated protoplasts, undifferentiated cells, calli, and tissues of plants generate under in vitro conditions or tissue culture is known as Somaclonal variation. An important source of such variation is chromosomal rearrangements, which can result in both genotypic (at the genetic level) and phenotypic (at morphological or appearance level) differences. The variations at the genetic level can be either due to the alterations in the chromosome structure (translocations, deletions, insertions, and duplications), chromosome numbers (polyploidy and aneuploidy), or DNA sequence (base mutations). Mainly, the somaclonal variations arise from the mutations that occur during tissue culture.
  • 20. The mutations can occur due to variant stress factors including, hormonal imbalance in culture media, exposure of tissues to chemicals during surface sterilization, and wounding. In many cases, oxidative stress was found to be the main cause of somaclonal variation in tissue culture plants. The major causing factors are, 1) Explant 2) Effect of Genotype 3) Media components 4) Regeneration system 5) Duration and No. of Culture cycles Somaclonal variations in plants can be identified in plants by four methods, 1) Morphological Level - Variations can be identified at the level of appearances, such as differences in plant height, abnormal pigmentation, and leaf shape and size.
  • 21. For example, the stature of plants, tall plants, and dwarf plants, can always be easily identified when grown. However, these differences can also be induced due to changes in environmental factors. Thus, for the commercial production of plants, the technique is not considered an effective approach. 2) Physiological Level: Physiological responses are reactions of plants to certain stimuli. Analyzing plants at a physiological level for the presence of variations offers an effective approach to identifying the variants faster at the young stage ad reduces overall loss. Some examples of criteria that can be used for physiological monitoring include disturbances in gibberellic acid metabolism and level, photosynthetic activity, and pigment synthesis in plants.
  • 22. 3) Molecular Level: Changes in the plants at the molecular level include changes in the chromosome structure and number. Though, if present at a low concentration, these changes appear at the physical level. However, when the alterations are at a high level, molecular studies like restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) are used to identify the variations. 4) Cytological Level: Observing variations at the molecular level can be a tedious process. Thus, techniques like flow cytometry are used to count and examine chromosomes. The technique is convenient and rapid compared to other available techniques to identify somaclonal variations in tissue culture plants.
  • 23. PROTOPLAST FUSION Protoplast is defined as naked plant cells or plant cells without a cell wall. It consists of plasmalemma containing all the other cellular content or components in it. In tissue culture labs it’s used to regenerate a whole plant providing suitable artificial medium and environmental conditions. This process is known as protoplast culture. Protoplasts of different species are generally fused to produce hybrid plants. The process is known as somatic hybridization (or protoplast fusion). Protoplast fusion leads to the mix of genetic information. In protoplast culture, protoplasts isolated from any plant part, including root, shoot, leaves, or embryo, is cultured in an artificial media under artificial conditions favoring cell division and plant regeneration.
  • 26. Mechanism of fusion 1. Aggluttination Protoplasts have a net negative charge on the surface that causes it to to repel the surrounding protoplasts. Hence, the cell should be brought in close proximity of each other. 2. Adhesion Adhesion involves lipid-lipid interaction between the two cell membranes. 3. Fusion The final step involves rearrangement of the membranes to form pores which eventually expands and results into cytoplasmic mixing and hence the protoplast fusion.
  • 27. Applications 1. Disease resistance: Disease resistance genes from one plant have been transferred to many others with the aid of somatic hybridization. Example: Tomato hybrids have been made that are resistant to diseases such as TMV and spotted wilt virus. 2. Environmental tolerance: Plants have been hybridized to tolerate extreme environments such as cold, heat and salt. 3. Quality characters: Desirable characters such as high protein content have been hybridized in many plants. 4. Cytoplasmic male sterility: Many traits in the cells are controlled by the cytoplasm. Somatic hybridization has the advantage of introducing such traits in the hybrids, e.g, resistance to antibiotics, herbicides and male sterility.
  • 28. HAIRY ROOT CULTURE • Hairy root culture is a type of tissue culture technique in which explants or cultures are infected with a Gram-negative soil-borne bacterium, Agrobacterium rhizogenes. It’s also known as transformed root culture. • The technique is widely used to either produce secondary metabolites or other recombinant proteins and study plant metabolic processes in labs. Further, it’s also used in the studies of phytoremediation and understanding the genetic, molecular, and biochemical aspects of genetic transformation.
  • 31. Procedure • The explants are wounded using a sterile scalpel or needle and inoculated in a bacterial solution. • The explants are co-cultivated in a semisolid medium supplemented with suitable antibiotics such as carbenicillin disodium and cefotaxime sodium. This removes excess bacteria from the explant surface. • In 7-30 days, you will observe root induction from the wounded place. • Then, plants are subcultured in a plant growth regulator (PGR)-free medium and supplemented with ammonia, phosphate, nitrate, and other elicitors. It promotes secondary metabolism in cultures.
  • 32. Steps involved in the production of Hairy root cultures OD Value 0.5-0.8
  • 34. Applications Of Hairy Root Cultures Source of essential secondary metabolites: Hairy roots are a great source of secondary metabolites. Many known ones have been isolated using hairy root culture techniques, such as artemisinin from Artemisia, forskolin from Coleus, and indole alkaloids from Catharanthus. Metabolic engineering: It’s the process of producing transgenic plants with alien genes in their genome; especially in the region of enzymes that are responsible for the metabolic pathways. The method has been used to enhance alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus. Study of gene function: Transformation through A. rhizogenes has been used to study gene silencing, gene expression, and differential promoter expression levels under different conditions. .
  • 35. Biotransformation: Hairy root cultures provide low cost, genetic stability, and multi-enzyme biosynthetic potential for the biotransformation process. Some examples of the previous studies include reduction reaction in the case of HR cultures of Daucus carota and biotransformation of ethanol and methanol into β-D-ribo-hex-3-ulopyranosides and β-D-glucopyranosides in HR cultures of Coleus forskohlii
  • 36. MICROPROPAGATION • Micropropagation is the production of whole plant from small section of plant such as stem tip, node, meristem, embryo or even a seed. • It is a advanced vegetative propagation technology for producing large number genetically superior and pathogen free transplants in a limited time and space • Multiplication of genetically identical copies of a cultivar by asexual reproduction is called Clonal propagation.
  • 37. PROCEDURE 1. Selection & preparation of mother plant This stage was basically introduced to overcome the problem of contamination. Stock plants are grown under more hygienic conditions to reduce the risk of contamination. EXPLANT: Cell, Tissue or Organ of a plant that is used to start in vitro cultures. 2. Initiation of culture Explant isolation - any part of the plant can be used as explant like vegetative parts (Shoot tip, meristem, leaves, stems, roots) or reproductive parts (Anthers, pollen, ovules, embryo, seed, spores). Shoot tip and auxiliary buds are most often used.
  • 38. Surface sterilization - Explants are surface sterilized by treating it with disinfectant solution for a specific period. Ethyl alcohol, bromine water, mercuric chloride, silver nitrate, sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite etc can be used as disinfectant. Washing -Washed with water. Establishment of explant on appropriate medium - There is no one universal culture medium; Modifications of Murashige and Skoog basal medium are most frequently used. 3. Multiplication of shoots • Stage II mainly involves multiplication of shoots or rapid embryo formation from the explant. A growth chamber set at 20-24 °C is used, with a 2000- to 4000-lux light intensity, & a lighting period of 16 hours or so.
  • 39. 4. Rooting of regenerated shoots or germination of somatic embryos in vitro In this stage, shoots or shoot clusters from stage II are prepared to transfer to soil. Shoots are separated manually from clusters and transferred on a rooting medium containing an auxin. System used to regenerate plantlets by micropropagation 1. Cell suspension -Produced from friable callusMaintained in shaker cultures or bioreactors 2. Protoplast culture - Cell culture without cell walls (cellulose added to degrade cell walls) - Only Plasma membrane remains - Osmotic pressure is maintained to prevent cell walls from rupturing
  • 40. 5. Hardening - Transfer of plantlets to sterilized soil for hardening under greenhouse environment. Methods of micropropagation 1. Axillary bud proliferation - Meristem and shoot tip culture - Bud culture 2. Organogenesis - Indirect -Direct 3. EMBRYOGENESIS
  • 41. Applications of Micropropagation  Soma clonal variation  Germplasm conservation  Mutation breeding  Inducing mutation  Embryo culture  Haploid & Dihaploid production  Molecular farming  Invitro hybridisation- protoplast fusion  Production of disease free plants  Genetic engineering  Production of secondary metabolites
  • 42. STERLIZATION MEATHODS INVOLVED IN TISSUE CULTURE Plant tissue culture work requires strict maintenance of aseptic (Contamination free system) in on all operations. Particularly in commercial production units, the contamination of one batch of the cultures may result in heavy financial losses or even loss of culture of strain. Therefore, strict control measures are enforced to maintain the entry of the personnel and living materials. The basic rules and practices of aseptic are followed in all the tissue culture laboratories. Plant tissue culture media are rich in nutrients and very suitable for the growth of microorganisms also.
  • 43. These Microorganisms grow faster, consume nutrients rapidly and suppress the growth of plant tissues by over growth; this saprophytic unwanted growth of microorganisms is termed as contamination. There are many ways by which these microorganisms suppress the growth of plant cells and tissues like, • By releasing the enzymes and toxins • By selective absorption of specific nutrients • By infecting some tissues • To achieve success in cultivation of higher plant parts, it is essential to exclude the contaminating micro organisms and hence aseptic techniques must be employed to save cultures • All the areas, tools and working places should be free from microbial contamination.
  • 44. Following Care should be taken: 1. Minimize the air current in the working area so it is possible to avoid spores of contaminating microbes to move in along with the air current over the sterile areas, preferably all the places should be air-conditioned. 2. Store properly the prepared media, nutrients and tools in aseptic conditions. 3. Use Separate area for cleaning and washing and for the preparation of medium. 4. Inoculation chamber and culture room or growth chamber should be isolated and movement of personnel should be restricted. 5. Use of Positive air pressure, air curtain and removal of shoes outside the culture room, minimize the problem of contamination. 6. Use of apron, cap and mask help in preventing the contamination.
  • 45. Different apparatus and essentials of tissue culture require different procedures for their sterilization. A list of sterilization techniques and their uses is explained below. Sterilization by heat: dry heat and moist heat are used to sterilize the equipment. Autoclave works on the principle of moist heat and they can sterilize glass apparatus, solid or liquid media, distilled water, normal saline, discarded cultures, and contaminated media. Whereas, hot air ovens work on the principle of dry heat. They can sterilize glassware (like Petri dishes, flasks, pipettes, and test tubes), Powder (like starch, zinc oxide, and sulfadiazine), Materials that contain oils, Metal equipment (like scalpels, scissors, and blades)
  • 46. Sterilization by filtration: A liquid solution is forced through a membrane to sterilize it for microorganisms. The size of the pore in the filter decides what size of microorganisms will be filtered out. It is used to sterilize growth substances that are thermolabile such as Zeatine, Gibberellic acid (GA3), Abscisic acid (ABA), urea, and certain vitamins. Air sterilization: Laminar flow hood is the best example. It is equipped with HEPA filters and a blower that blows the air through the filters to prevent all sorts of microorganisms larger than 0.3 micrometers with 99% efficiency from the air. Tyndallization: It is used to kill heat-resistant endospore. In this technique, the medium is heated in a water bath for 1 hour for 3 consecutive days and then kept at room temperature after two incidents of successive boiling.
  • 47. Surface sterilization: This technique is used to sterilize the surface of the explant, you use in your tissue culture processes. Five common explant sterilization agents are, 1) Mercuric Chloride 2) Sodium Hypochlorite 3) Ethanol 4) Calcium Hypochlorite 5) Hydrogen Peroxide
  • 48. GENE TRANSFER IN PLANTS • “A transgenic plant is a modified organism where genes are transferred from one organism to another through genetic engineering techniques”. • The purpose of producing a transgenic plant is to obtain a species that has ideal traits, high yield and quality.
  • 49. Methods Used for Gene Transfer There are two methods majorly which are used to transfer genes in plants, 1. Agrobacterium mediates gene transfer • Agrobacterium tumifaciens is a plant pathogen. It is known to cause crown gall disease, which is swelling in plants just above the soil level. After infecting the plants, they transfer their genetic material to them, which eventually gets incorporated into the plant genome. • For genetic engineering, the bacterium is incorporated with a Ti plasmid with desirable genes and made to infect the plant. • The Ti plasmid is a tumour inducing circular plasmid, that transfers the host chromosomes to the plants and is also responsible for causing the swelling.
  • 50. 2. Particle bombardment / Gene gun method • As the name suggests, in this method, the desired gene is coated in a gold or tungsten particle and bombarded into the plant cells. Once bombarded, the sequence is incorporated into the plant cells, which can be proliferated by tissue culture methods. Applications of Gene transfer by Transgenic Plants • Resistance to biotic and abiotic stress: Biotic stress is imposed on plants as a result of the action of living beings such as viruses, bacteria, pests and pathogens. To relieve the plants from such stress they are incorporated with disease-resistant genes, which gives a better yield and quality to the crops.
  • 51. • Abiotic stress, as a result of changes in the environment, causes great damage to the plants. Soil composition, humidity, water level, and temperature are important factors for plant growth. Due to changes in the climate, all the factors seem to be altered. Thus, plants are incorporated with stress-tolerant genes for better production. • Increased nutritional value: Biofortification is the process of increasing the nutritional value of a crop. Malnutrition is a common problem in developing countries. As a solution, plants are engineered to produce crops of better nutritional value. • Factories for production of recombinant proteins: Vaccines and antibiotics have been obtained from transgenic plants. However, this application is still in the development stage and has not been commercialised yet.