Business in England: A Study
of Cultural Aspects
CROSS-CULTURAL MANAGEMENT END TERM
ASSIGNMENT, GROUP 7
PRITAM SAHA (1311034), SIDDHANT MISHRA (1311055), DEEPIKA
(1311083), GOPI G (1311159), ARUN K B (1311218)
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions:............................................................................................2
National Holiday – Guy Fawkes Night: .................................................................................5
Leadership Style: .....................................................................................................................7
Cultural Nuances – Implications on Expatriation and HR Management:.........................7
Expatriation Issues: .................................................................................................................7
Human Resource Issues: .........................................................................................................8
Exhibit I: Audio transcript: Ms. Shah.................................................................................11
Exhibit II: Interview excerpt: Dr. Saha and Ms. Shah ......................................................11
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions:
A comparative analysis of Indian1
culture through Hofstede’s Dimensions:
Power Distance: Power distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of
organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed
unequally. UK’s low score indicates a society that believes in inequality reduction, whereas
India’s considerably high score reveals an appreciation for hierarchy in Indian culture
characterized by obedience and respect for seniors. People look up to their leaders for direction.
Individualism: The degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. India’s moderate
score of 48 indicates both collectivist and individualistic traits. While the collectivism is
derived from traditional Indian family values, the individualist traits are a result of the dominant
religion Hinduism which propounds that people are individually responsible for the life they
lead and the impact it will have upon their rebirth. In contrast, UK has one of the most
individualistic societies and the British are very private people. Children are taught from an
early age to think for themselves, to find out their unique purpose in life and to uniquely
contribute to society.
Hofstede, G. (n.d.). What about the UK? Retrieved from http://geert-hofstede.com/india.html
Hofstede, G. (n.d.). What about the UK? Retrieved from http://geert-hofstede.com/united-kingdom.html
Power Distance Individualism Masculinity Uncertainty
United Kingdom India
Masculinity: The distribution of emotional roles between the genders. Though England scores
slightly above India in this dimension, both India and England are masculine societies
indicating that members are driven by competition, achievement and success. Work is the
centre of life in both these cultures.
Uncertainty Avoidance: A society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. Both India and
England score low on this dimension indicating that people are comfortable in ambiguous
situations. Yet one difference is – while the British does not have too many rules, those that
are there are adhered to. In contrast, Indians rely on innovative methods to bypass the rules in
place. In terms of work, the planning may not be detail oriented, but the end goal will be clear
due to high “Masculinity”.
Pragmatism/Long-term Orientation: It describes societies' time horizon. Both India and
England have a moderate score of 51 indicating no dominant preference for either maintenance
of time-honoured traditions and norms or towards a more pragmatic approach that encourages
thrift and efforts in modern education. There is still a preference for long-term pragmatism.
Indulgence: The extent to which members of a society try to control their desires and impulses.
UK has a high score of 69, meaning people are willing to realise their impulses and desires and
are more optimistic. In contrast, with a low score of 26, the Indian culture is more pessimistic
and puts less emphasis on leisure time or on gratification of their desires.
Etiquette indicates a culturally-specific code of behaviour that delineates expectations for
social behaviour according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class,
or group, thus enabling and streamlining cross-cultural dealings. Appointments well scheduled
in advance are much appreciated and it is expected of businessmen to decline appointment
requests on short notice. Punctuality is different in business and social settings – where one is
expected to arrive 15 minutes later than the mentioned time. Though not strictly monochronic,
one is expected to be on time, apologize on one’s delay and to inform in advance if the delay
is more than a few minutes. This is in line with the public transportation services in the country
which run a little later than schedule. Business meetings are more structured. The vacation
period for most of the British, especially those with children, is in July and August. 8 national
holidays per year is the lowest in Europe.
Greeting Norms: When one meets someone, a handshake that doesn’t last long and a “How
do you do?” is considered enough. It is the same for women to men meetings as well, but
women are expected to extend their hands first. Use the courtesy titles to address, like Mr. and
Mrs. until one is asked to use first names. Business card exchanges are perfunctory and it is
expected to keep them in the pocket with just a cursory glance. Gifts are usually avoided in the
first meeting (a few organizations prohibit gifts) and conclusion of successful negotiations
provide ideal ground for gifts. Expensive gifts are better avoided as they imply bribes. But gifts
from one’s native country and invitations to cultural or Cricket events are appreciated3.
Wrapped gifts are opened immediately and acknowledged. When one is invited to someone’s
home, appropriate gifts are flowers (white lilies for funerals and red roses for romantic
intentions are to be avoided), wine and chocolates.
Dining Norms: One should expect to be shown one’s seat and eating habits are Continentall4
with fork in the left and knife in the right hand. When these cutleries are laid down in parallel,
it implies one has finished one’s food.
Behavioural Norms: The British are famous for their politeness with many appropriate
niceties and subtleties in their communication, especially the humour. The stiff upper lip and
the subtleties are very peculiar and it would be wise to pay attention to their facial expressions
and gestures and not to attempt at any humour or gestures unless you are very much aware of
Business etiquette. (n.d.). Retrieved August 18, 2014 from http://businessculture.org/northern-europe/uk-
UK - Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette. (n.d.). Retrieved August 18, 2014 from
it. A few examples are: the V shape made using index and middle fingers (which means victory
in some cultures) means obscenity while tapping twice on the forehead (which means smartness
for some) means stupidity for the British. Personal space is appreciated with scarce physical
touching and maintenance of 2-3 feet distance during personal communications5. Direct eye
contact, but not a prolonged one (as staring is considered rude), with the speaker is expected
and looking away while speaking would mean disrespect. Loud talking is looked down upon
and asking personal questions like someone’s age, weight and marital status is avoided.
National Holiday – Guy Fawkes Night:
Introduction: This holiday, also known as “Bonfire night” and “Firework Night” is an annual
memorial British festival celebrated annually on 5th
of November .The event is accompanied
by the ceremonial effigy-burning, lighting of bon-fire and display of fireworks6
Context: During the rule of Queen Elizabeth I and King James, several laws were enforced
against Roman Catholics. Such atrocities led to formation of small group of 13, led by Robert
Catesby with the belief that violent action was the only answer to all such incidents. They
planned to kill King James and blow up the members of Parliament who enforced all the laws
across England. The King’s forces foiled the plot and captured, tortured and executed Guy
Fawkes, who was guarding the explosives in the cellar beneath the parliament.
Tangible Aspects: Special dishes are cooked on Guys Fawkes day. These include potatoes
cooked on bon-fire (Roasters), a gooey cake mix (Parkin Cake), sausages, toffees and black
peas with vinegar7
. Lewes, in East Sussex, is called the “Bonfire Capital of the world”
consistently attracting thousands of people from across the globe every year to participate.
Edenbridge Bonfire Society in Kent, England organizes a torch lit procession each year.
England Personal Space & Touching. (n.d.). Retrieved August 18, 2014 from
Guy Fawkes and Bonfire Night. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.bonfirenight.net/
Barrow Mandy. (2010). Bonfire Night in England. Retrieved from http://resources.woodlands-
Expressed Values and Impact8: The mask (ref: Figure 1) is now a symbol of revolt against
tyranny in the modern era. Most rebellious groups with an anarchic mind-frame use this mask
to express dissonance. Warner Brothers earn royalty from Rubies Costume Company which
sells around 100,000 a year worldwide of the Guy Fawkes mask, the top selling mask on
Amazon. The mask and the act of bombing the parliament can now be seen in various media
esp. in movies (V for Vendetta (ref: Figure 2), Sherlock Holmes (ref: Figure 3)), in literature
(Poems: John Milton - Remember Remember the 5th
of November, Paradise Lost; Books:
Remember Remember – A Cultural History of Guy Fawkes Day by James Sharpe (2005)) and
in music (Toulose by Nicky Romero (ref: Figure 4)).
Do’s and Don’ts9: The visitors to UK are expected to partake in the festivities such as ‘walking
the Guy’ across streets, bon-fire dinners hosted by locals and singing of rhymes. However, one
must note the history of the festival and that the fireworks are inadvertently meant to celebrate
the execution of a Catholic rebel. It is advisable to exercise caution and be sensitized while
reveling in the festivities10
. The masks nowadays epitomize anti-establishment sentiments.
Public endorsement of the same could invite trouble with the authorities11
British companies are prone to develop generalists rather than specialists and thus the British
prefer to be seen as part of the team. Organizations are becoming flat systems and managers
tend to have holistic interest in the project rather than just the assigned roles. The colleagues
address each other through first names which creates companionship in the workplace.
Taylor Adam. (2013, Nov 5). How Guy Fawkes Inadvertently Created The Word 'Guy'. Business Insider.
Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.in/How-Guy-Fawkes-Inadvertently-Created-The-Word-
9 Adams John. (2013, Nov 4). 10 Dos and Don'ts for Bonfire Night. The Huffington Post UK. Retrieved from
Tom de Castella, (2012, Nov 6), Has Halloween now dampened Bonfire Night?, retrieved from
Philip Moon, (2010, Jul 02), 8 Historic Symbols That Mean The Opposite of What You Think, retrieved from
British managers are expected to have excellent team-management skills rather than being
specialized in a particular field. The ability to manage and resolve interpersonal issues facing
the team and a hands-on approach will be highly regarded by the subordinates12
. They are
diplomatic, helpful and seek to be fair13
. Often the instructions are not given explicitly, but in
an indirect way, showing preference for assistance requests. Managers generally delegate
responsibilities and promote inputs and ideas from team members. More often managers try to
arrive at a win-win solution rather than behave competitively14
. Managers can be forceful and
be willing to take independent decisions when necessary.
Cultural Nuances – Implications on Expatriation and HR Management:
In our bid to understand through exploratory research the cross cultural differences and points
to note for expats to UK, we spoke to the following people in our professional circles.
Dr. Dipak Saha, Consultant Radiologist, Basildon University Hospital, Essex, UK
Ms. Mona Shah, Pricing Manager, GlaxoSmithkline, Hounslow, London, UK
The insights yielded can be categorized into two buckets (ref: Exhibit I & Exhibit II)
Setting up shop & meeting collaborators: The British are adaptable and listen well. While
meeting locals for establishing office, one should send an agenda before-hand as it prepares
them well and allows them to invite someone who is more suited for the conversation. They
note down the action points and send out mails communicating the same. However, no minutes
are drafted. British are used to copy to senior people to avoid critical issues getting unattended.
Taleghani1, G & Salmani, D & Taatian, A. (2010). Survey of leadership styles in different cultures. Iranian Journal of
Management Studies (IJMS) Vol 3. No.3
Transparency in deals: Most UK companies have an anti-bribery law and are very
transparent. When deals are closed, all legal clauses are applied to check for suitability.
Relationship building: Card exchanges are common. People in business development tend to
be more relationship focused. Functions such as supply chain, marketing and analytics involve
more of task oriented negotiations.
Mannerism: The British expected people to dress up appropriately as per the weather. They
warmth is extended only when the person opposite is not clumsily dressed.
Leading new business: They don’t value charm over other result oriented characteristics.
Those who are not self-absorbed and respect employee autonomy get most support.
Acculturation: South Asians fear that their wards might turn into what they call Coconuts;
brown from the outside and white from within. They make them visit temples, wear Indian
clothing, explain their cultural history and teach them their native language. Sending kids to
birthday parties hosted by local kids and inviting them over food are good ways to assimilate
the best of both cultures in their kids.
Human Resource Issues:
Hiring: The British do not hire people for the short term. Opportunism is low unlike in India.
Too many jobs on the CV are not considered good. This is more valid for the older lot. One
should screen young people while hiring as they think shorter term and mostly live off debt.
Role definition: While on-boarding locals, the company should note that people prefer to work
individually on tasks as it is easier to demonstrate causality in project results. At senior levels,
employee pay is mostly uniform with very few exceptions.
Managerial demeanour: The expected tone is polite. People do not lose patience easily and
managers take extra pains to communicate the problem statement and hand hold juniors if
required for the initial period. In a team setting, unless asked for one’s view, one is not expected
to express disagreement with seniors in the office.
Conflict resolution: Reporting to HR is a valid recourse, but excessive appealing is not taken
well. Being a low context culture, managers intervene only when work gets affected. If people
have personal grievances against each other, the bosses do not meddle unlike the case in India.
Growth and career progression: Most companies have an upwards or sideways policy. Even
if one does not manage to get promoted, he can experiment with different functions to enrich
his experience. If employees feel they are not benefitting from their current roles, they can ask
for a shift and other superiors are expected to yield to the requests.
Expansion Typology: The similarity between Indian and English culture over 3 dimensions
hints at lower training efforts to help transition employees. Acculturation is simplified by the
multi-ethnicity of urban England, facilitating an ethnocentric growth model at start.
Business Style: Indian managers should leverage their high context background to augment the
direct communication skills of their English peers. Indians could use the cool temperament of
the British to build relationships in the new market. Due importance to time can help strengthen
work life balance policies. The client should deploy agenda driven discussions to remove flab
in the project management processes. Lastly, Indians could use their collectivistic mindsets to
give a more personal touch to conflict resolution.
Structure: Lower power distance in the UK will eliminate bureaucracy. Since opportunistic job
switching is not endorsed and the up or sideways policy is quite prevalent, the parent can invest
in training. Britishers’ adaptability and preference for team-oriented leadership means that the
client should distribute leadership load among non-pivotal personalities who need to respond
quickly to market dynamics.
Figure 1 The notorious Guy Fawkes' mask
Figure 2 A poster from the movie V for Vendetta
Figure 3 A still from Sherlock Holmes BBC Network
Figure 4 A screenshot from the famous video of Toulose by Nicky Romero
Exhibit I: Audio transcript: Ms. Shah
Exhibit II: Interview excerpt: Dr. Saha and Ms. Shah
• What are acceptable ways of greeting?
We normally greet with “Hello! How are you? How are you doing?”
With common friends, it is mostly slang and goes with “What’s up?”
• What is the acceptable style i.e. direct and confrontational or indirect and mitigated?
What is the acceptable size of email messages?
It is mostly direct; “Are you okay?”
While introducing someone formally, Mr. XYZ, address them by their second name. If it is a
colleague, they use the first name.
• What are acceptable times for sending emails?
In the company, they have a 24-hour timeline on certain issues. In most cases, it depends on
the importance and they always mention how urgent the issue is on the subject line.
Mostly, staff members respond in the evening before they leave; for that reason, they wait for
the mails to arrive during the course of the day.
• What are acceptable issues for email communications and which are issues that
should not be communicated through email?
They do not use phone calls. If the intended recipient hasn’t read the emails, they’d rather use
instant messaging than ring him/her up. Phone calls are the last resort. Later, they go up the
ladder, reach out to the higher authority / managers and then get response. They make sure
the stakeholders know why you are waiting.
• Are there any differences in emails to superiors and subordinates?
There is no system here. They address the Director too with his/her first name. The tone and
demeanour is the same across hierarchy. Most people joke around with the managers while
making sure certain words are not used.
People do not get annoyed easily. No loud tone. Most Englishmen are patient and they reach
out at least a couple of times to make sure people understand the context and the purpose of
the mails. If that person doesn’t respond well, then a mail to seniors is a written.
• What are necessary table manners regarding greetings, ordering food, handling
food/crockery/cutlery, posture, conversing, footing the bill and related aspects? What are the
absolute don’ts while dining?
If you go out for business meals, you are expected not to pick up food with fingers. The
posture is straight and the speaker faces the person while conversing.
The fork is held with the right hand and knife with the left. Convenience takes importance.
One should not drink water from the wine glass. The main drink should be on your right,
second drink on your left. Forks are of different sizes for different courses of meal. Dessert
spoons are different.
They normally talk about the day and the life in general. Some questions may be on what
others are working on. They then proceed to the business, discuss and if necessary, close the
Basic habits must be taken care of. One should not be very clumsy and drop food. One should
not eat too fast or talk while speaking unlike most Indians.
The British are very polite and easily adapt to situations. They will try and keep a distance.
They are not allowed to make judgements on the face. They score high on likeability during
• What are acceptable times during the day and occasions for setting up dinner
invitations and what are the preferred ways of communicating an invitation?
For team outing, the organizer generally sends out an email a few weeks before the actual day
of outing. People are asked about their preferences for availability, alternative dates, time and
For one-on-one meetings, text messages or verbal invitations work.
• What are acceptable topics for discussion during dinner meetings?
She recently had a business delegation from Ireland. People talk a lot about personal things
such as who is there in family, for how long have they lived in the city, about the countries
visited and each others’ hobbies. Topics could range from cultural ideas to daily activities to
kids’ ages and their schooling.
• What are the acceptable timings for telephonic conversations? What are some dos and
don’ts regarding the same?
They mostly set the time. In cases where there is a considerable time difference (e.g. while
dealing with Mexicans), she sets calls at 2:00 pm UK time which gives them half a day to
sort things out.
For tele-meetings, people do not wait beyond 5 minutes. They proceed with all the attendees
after 5 minutes of scheduled time as they believe you are not respecting others’ time.
Accepting meeting requests and not attending the call is not taken well. It demonstrates ppor
Late arrivals are not taken positively. Managers however, will not scold you. Instead they
will continuously remind you. Ultimately, they’ll copy the manager in the reminder mail.
• What are acceptable times for scheduling meetings? How is the approach to time
management? Are agendas important for the same and how strictly are they followed? What
are acceptable ways of behaviour during meetings and what are the don’ts? How is
preparation for a meeting approached? Is it acceptable to argue with colleagues and superiors
whose views differ from yours?
There is a marked difference how British converse in business contexts. They are adaptable
and yet they know what to expect. For e.g. they’ll oblige when they know they are speaking
to a French and are asked to speak slowly. They need to be doubly sure they understand what
others are trying to convey.
Agenda is sent out before-hand as it prepares them well and allows them to invite someone
else who is more suited for the conversation.
They note down the action points which, after the meeting, are sent out to everyone. No
official minutes are drafted. They make sure to copy to senior people to avoid critical issues
• What is the correct way to exchange business cards and what are the don’ts?
They had an engineer over at their house. Exchanging cards is quite common and people are
open about it.
• What are important aspects of office etiquette – arriving and leaving office with
relation to one’s co-employees and superiors, acceptable types of conversation and greetings,
time management, behavioural and leadership traits, dress code, relationships, deadlines,
planning, emotional expressiveness and other related aspects?
Coming late to office beyond 15-30 min of designated time is not considered a good trait.
Most people cannot leave before work hours. Leaving late is okay and they make sure they
apprise the boss about the pending issues. It is a also another way of letting them know of the
• What is the nature of relationships between superiors and subordinates in an
organization? Is the preferred management style participative or authoritative? What are
desired levels of transparency in processes within organizations?
Tone across the board is the same. The team leader sits down with the subordinates, shows
them the file with which they are working on. If you don’t understand it, he will come to you
in 10 min and explain 2-3 times.
Raising voice is just not acceptable and most British always smile. Some team leaders are not
so nice and one can report to the HR if not comfortable.
• What are desired traits while negotiating? Which kind of negotiation is preferred –
distributive or integrative?
Most UK companies have an anti-bribery law and are very transparent. If there is a seminar
in another country not a single penny benefit is allowed. When deals are closed, all legal
clauses are applied to check for suitability.
In day to day negotiations, people are quite flexible. E.g. while ordering a pizza; you can
change your order if you wish. People are straightforward and most people negotiate with an
• How is teamwork approached? How are relationships supposed to be among
teammates? How fluid is inter-team movements and communications? What are acceptable
ways of dealing with conflict?
Despite of laws in place and legal recourses, people avoid conflict.
Managers intervene only when the work is getting affected. If people have personal
grievances against each other, the bosses do not meddle. As long as the work gets done,
people are okay. Again, wrong tone and language is not used to resolve conflicts.
Most companies have a upwards or sideways policy. Either you are promoted or you try out
different roles at the same level to give you a breadth of experience.
If you go too many times to HR you are seen as more of a trouble maker.
• Remember to frame everything in terms of what is done and what is ought to be done.
How is inequality and discrimination handled or looked upon in the workplace? How are
gender differences handled in terms of discrimination or inequality in terms of treatment and
opportunities? How acceptable is emotional expression or suppression?
There is no gender, race, religion based discrimination. Her kid studies in a white majority
school, where religious differences in ways and means are taught.
There have been instances of equality/equity based violations. People have anonymously
appealed and inquiries have been set up.
• How are inter-generational differences in outlook and behaviour (the individual way
of thought, feeling and action) handled?
Youngsters are freer, they do not care enough, are not responsible enough; they spend time to
travel and socialize. They get bored with job quickly.
Senior managers make you feel they care about you. Senior people at workplace are given the
same increment and bonuses. They look after themselves, use work from home, ask for
personal benefits and sometimes come late to the office.
When kids turn 16, they are asked to leave as parents do not want a burden. Kids are not that
attached to families and are sometimes ruthless and hard to control. Seniors do not rely on
them for support.
• How frequently and how much in your experience do employees fear expressing
disagreement with their managers?
Unless asked for your view, you are not expected to express disagreement with seniors in the
office. You cannot disagree and that is not the right thing to do.
One can try doing something else if the tasks were individually assigned. Most decisions are
left to the manager. For example, if the manager says that a meeting necessary, one cannot
But for individual career progression, if you feel you are not benefitting from the projects,
you can chose to ask for some other assignment. No one can force you to opt for something
you do not like.
• How deeply are personal time, freedom and challenge valued with respect to one’s
job? Are they more or less important than the triad of training, physical conditions of work
and potential for skill usage?
Due importance is given to work life balance. Sometimes it depends on the manager and the
HR as to whether all the benefits of an MNC are passed on.
One can practice personal time and space discreetly.
Success depends on how well you gel with the crowd. People respect you when you make the
extra effort to mingle. There is no system of hierarchy.
Provided the candidate understands what he/she wants to do and where you want to be, jobs
are mostly fun.
One can put his/her foot down when things are not going right. People listen to you and
respect your abilities.
• How important is planning for the long-term? In case of opportunities arising, do
people stick to their long term plans or alter them to take advantage of opportunities?
Generally, British do not hire people for the short term. They look for people who want to
stay for 3-5 years of which there is learning in year 1 and performance/progress in the
Opportunism is low unlike in India. Too many jobs on the CV is not considered good. This is
mostly true for the older lot who are family oriented
Younger people think short term. They live off debt, utilize credit a lot. This is in contrast to
India where people get married, save money, wait till both partners earn well.
In UK the expenses are too high, and youngsters are never able to meet ends. House rent,
meat and social outings do not leave them with much savings. They believe in the principle
of save less and spend more.
• How important is performance to rewards and how much is it encouraged over
family? How much is learning encouraged over background?
As mentioned earlier, increments and bonuses are uniform across grades. There are very few
exceptions. People are therefore encouraged to not worry about the nuances of rewards and
devote time to their small nuclear families or social circles.
• How much are incentives and rewards associated with team performance and
individual performance? How important is loyalty and whether it is rewarded? How
important is risk-taking and whether it is rewarded?
Most incentives are laid on an individual basis. Employees prefer it that way. Otherwise, they
consider it difficult to prove their contribution to the work.
People prefer that their manager allocate task and entrust subordinates with end-to-end
• How do they view negotiations? What is the approach like? Is it towards relationship
building or task completion?
When they meet new people, the intention is to build relations. Functions such as marketing
and analytics involve more of task oriented negotiations. Dealing with Supply Chain involves
both. However, new business opportunities involve more of dinners and networking.
• Can you describe you cultural adjustment cycle when you first arrived in the UK?
There was a big cultural shift. She described how when she was looking for a job, it was
winter time and she wore, open toe footwear. Back then, her dressing sense was scrutinized.
The British expected her dress up appropriately as per the weather.
There was learning in the way she saw people talk, take phone calls. She took her own time
to adjust to the systems. The locals, however, supported her in the process. She believes, the
longer you take, the more you start behaving like one of them.
• How was the acculturation process for you? What are some of the things you practice
to retain your own culture?
Her kid is 7 and goes to a school where coloured students are very few. South Asians fear
their wards might turn into what they call Coconuts; brown from the outside and white from
within. She makes sure her kid speaks in both about Gujarati and English. She takes her to
temples, makes her wear Indian clothes at times, tells her about Rakhi, and teaches her to
On the other hand, in the efforts to assimilate her in the white culture, she takes her to
birthday parties hosted by British families and calls over her local friends for certain
• Can you comment on the kind of Leadership Style you or in general the British
prefer? (1 least preferred, 10 highly preferred)
Charismatic / Value Based: 5,
Team Oriented: 8
Humane Oriented: 7
Self Protecting: 3
They don’t look after charm in their leaders as much as they value transparency. The leader
should be able to manage people well maintaining all senses of equity across race, gender and