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Industrial microorganisms and product formation


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this slide is about the industrial products whish are formed widly through out the globe. Here I have explained how peniceline is widly used and how we can make this more widly.

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Industrial microorganisms and product formation

  2. 2. Overview • General introduction. • Metabolites. • Requisites of an industrially important microorganism. • Antibiotic producing Microorganisms. • Penicillin -Discovery -Mode of action -Production
  3. 3. •Industrial microbiology uses microorganisms, typically grown on a large scale, to produce valuable commercial products or to carry out important chemical transformations. •The actual reactions carried out by microorganisms in industrial microbiology are called biocatalysis.
  4. 4. Metabolites • Primary metabolites are produced during active cell growth, and secondary metabolites are produced near the onset of stationary phase . • Humans use secondary metabolites as medicines, flavorings', and recreational drugs. • Many economically valuable microbial products are secondary metabolites.
  5. 5. An industrial important microorganism must: • Produce the product of interest in high yield • Grow rapidly on inexpensive culture media available in bulk quantities. • Be amenable to genetic manipulation, and, if possible, be non- pathogenic. There are many industrial products and substances made by cells: • Commodity chemicals are inexpensive chemicals produced in bulk, including ethanol, citric acid, and many others.
  6. 6. Some Antibiotics produced by Microorganisms Antibiotic Producing microorganism Cephalosporin Cephalosporium acrimonium Chloramphenicol Streptomyces venezuelae Erythromycin Streptomyces erythreus Griseofulvin Penicillium griseofulvin Penicillin Penicillium chrysogenum Streptomycin Streptomyces griseus Tetracycline Streptomyces aureofaciens Gentamicin Micromonospora purpurea
  7. 7. A tale by A. Fleming • In 1928, Sir Alexander Fleming, a Scottish biologist, observed that Penicillium notatum, a common mold, had destroyed staphylococcus bacteria in culture.
  8. 8. A tale by A. Fleming • He took a sample of the mold from the contaminated plate. He found that it was from the Penicillium family, later specified as Penicillium notatum. Fleming presented his findings in 1929, but they raised little interest. He published a report on penicillin and its potential uses in the British Journal of
  9. 9. Thanks to work by Alexander Fleming (1881-1955), Howard Florey ( 1898-1968) and Ernst Chain (1906-1979), penicillin was first produced on a large scale for human use in 1943. At this time, the development of a pill that could reliably kill bacteria was a remarkable development and many lives were saved during World War II because this medication was available.
  10. 10. PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN During world war II- importance realized, as penicillin had been used to treat many wounded soldiers.
  11. 11. The mechanism of action of Penicillin : • All penicillin like antibiotics inhibit synthesis of peptidoglycan, an essential part of the cell wall. • They do not interfere with the synthesis of other intracellular components. • These antibiotics do not affect human cells because human cells do not have cell walls.
  12. 12. Spectrum of Activity • Penicillins are active against Gram positive bacteria. • Some members (e.g. amoxicillin) are also effective against Gram negative bacteria but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  13. 13. PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN • Penicillin was the first important commercial product produced by an aerobic, submerged fermentation • First antibiotic to have been manufacture in bulk. • Used as input material for some semi synthetic antibiotics. • It is fermented in a batch culture
  14. 14. • When penicillin was first made at the end of the second world war using the fungus Penicillium notatum, the process made 1 mg dm-3. • Today, using a different species (P. chrysogenum) and a better extraction procedures the yield is 50 g dm-3. • There is a constant search to improve the yield.
  15. 15. The yield of penicillin can be increased by: • Improvement in composition of the medium • Isolation of better penicillin producing mold sp. Penicillium chrysogenum which grow better in huge deep fermentation tank • Development of submerged culture technique for cultivation of mold in large volume of liquid medium through which sterile air is forced.
  16. 16. • The industrial production of antibiotics begins with screening for antibiotic producers. • Once new producers are identified, purification and chemical analyses of the antimicrobial agent are performed. • If the new antibiotic is biologically active in vivo, the industrial microbiologist may genetically modify the producing strain to increase yields to levels acceptable for commercial development.