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Data Distribution Service Applicability to Industrie 4.0 and IIC Reference Architectures

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Industrie 4.0 and the Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) have tried to systematically decompose the needs of Industrial Internet systems and define a reference architecture that promotes the desired operational concepts. This endeavor has been focused on Smart Factories for Industrie 4.0, whilst IIC has addressed generic Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) systems. Their reference architectures, RAMI 4.0 and IIRA, have identified the key technical requirements and some standards that address them. Yet, at times the discussion on applicability leaned towards ecosystem interest, technological protectionism and in some cases a misunderstanding of what a technology such as Data Distribution Service (DDS) really is or can do. This presentation will (1) introduce the key concepts behind RAMI 4.0 and IIRA, (2) introduce the architectural patterns and the key requirements at the foundation of RAMI 4.0 and IIRA as well as their similarities and differences, and (3) explain how the OMG DDS standard can be used to help implement RAMI 4.0 and IIRA compliant architectures.

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Data Distribution Service Applicability to Industrie 4.0 and IIC Reference Architectures

  1. 1. Angelo Corsaro, PhD CTO, ADLINK Tech. Inc. Co-Chair, OMG DDS-SIG angelo.corsaro@adlinktech.com RAMI 4.0 and IIRA DDS Applicability to
  2. 2. Internet of Things
  3. 3. It is now widely accepted that IoT is made by Consumer IoT (CIoT) and Industrial IoT (IIoT) The Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) and the Industrie 4.0 (I4.0) have defined reference models and architectures for IIoT systems. CIoT and IIoT
  4. 4. Industrie 4.0 / RAMI 4.0
  5. 5. The Internet of Things and SERVICES Image curtesy of Bosch Rexroth AG
  6. 6. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 I4.0 links production systems with information and communication technology Customer and machine data are networked. Machines mutually communicate to control and achieve flexible, efficient, production. Industrie 4.0 Goals
  7. 7. Interoperability. Machines, devices, sensors, and people can freely communicate with each other Information Transparency. A virtual representation of the physical world is made available by enriching digital plant models with sensor data Technical assistance. Leverage information to make more informed decisions and solving urgent problems on short notice. Physically support humans by conducting a range of tasks that are unpleasant, too exhausting, or unsafe for humans. Decentralised Decisions. Autonomous decisions are the norm. Higher level delegation happens only in presence of interferences or conflicting goals Industrie 4.0 Design Principles
  8. 8. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 Group and coherently capture three extremely diverse perspective/aspects into a single model. 1. Vertical Integration (within the factory) 2. End-to-End Engineering (integrated administrative, commercial, and production processes) 3. Horizontal Integration (across factories) RAMI 4.0 Goals
  9. 9. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 In other terms, a Reference Architecture it is the specification of which language you should use to describe the system Reference Architecture
  10. 10. Intermezzo: Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM)
  11. 11. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 Smart Grid Plane This smart grid plane allows to represent the levels at which interactions between power system management take place Domains represent different stages in the electrical energy conversion chain Zones represent the hierarchical levels of power system management
  12. 12. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 SGAM consists of five interoperability layers that allow the representation of entities and their relationships, in the context of smart grid domains, and information management hierarchies SGAM Framework
  13. 13. Back to RAMI4.0
  14. 14. The Industrie 4.0 Reference Architecture (RAMI) is three dimensional and organises the life-cycle/value streams and the manufacturing hierarchy levels across the six layers of the IT representation of Industrie 4.0 RAMI 4.0 Image from: “Reference Architecture Model Industrie 4.0”
  15. 15. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 RAMI vs. SGAM
  16. 16. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 The Industrie 4.0 Reference Architecture (RAMI) is three dimensional and organises the life-cycle/value streams and the manufacturing hierarchy levels across the six layers of the IT representation of Industrie 4.0 RAMI 4.0 video extract from Der ZVEI erklärt RAMI 4.0
  17. 17. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 Standardisation of communication, using a uniform data format, in the direction of the Information Layer Provision of services for control of the Integration Layer Communication Layer
  18. 18. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 Persistence of the data which represent the models Data integrity Consistent integration of different data Information Layer
  19. 19. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 Run time environment for processing of events. Receiving of events and their transformation to match the data which are available for the Functional Layer Information Layer
  20. 20. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 Evolving Structure
  21. 21. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 To allow for seamless integration of the “Office Floor” and the “Shop Floor” I4.0 requires connectivity to any end points and
 a common semantic model Components must have certain common properties independently of the levels I4.0 Components
  22. 22. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 A network of I4.0 components
 must be structured in such a way that connections between any end points (I4.0 components) are possible. The I4.0 components and their contents are to follow a common semantic model. I4.0 Components Requirements
  23. 23. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 It must be possible to define the concept of an I4.0 component in such a way that it can meet requirements with different focal areas, i. e. “office floor” or “shop floor”. I4.0 Components Requirements
  24. 24. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 The I4.0 compliant communication must be performed in such a way that the data of a virtual representation of an I4.0 component can be kept either in the object itself or in a higher level IT system. I4.0 Components Requirements
  25. 25. The ability to virtualise physical entities and make information available is key to RAMI4.0 and captured as part of the I4.0 Component I4.0 Component Image from: “Reference Architecture Model Industrie 4.0”
  26. 26. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 From a logical point of view, an I4.0 Component is made by one or more objects and an administration shell The administration shell contains the data for virtual representation and the functions of the technical functionality The manifest, as part of the virtual representation, details the necessary administrative aspects of the component. Administration Shell
  27. 27. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 I4.0 compliant communication does not have to implement deterministic or realtime communication itself, it can delegate to existing technologies The Realtime Ethernet protocols which are standard today permit the expectation that it will be possible
 to effect both forms of communication via the same communications infrastructure Separability of Flows
  28. 28. IIRA
  29. 29. The Internet of Things and SERVICES Image curtesy of Bosch Rexroth AG IIRA
  30. 30. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 The industrial internet architectural framework adopts general concepts from the ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010:2011 standard which includes concerns, framework and viewpoints. IISs are characterised by four viewpoints: Business, Usage, Functional, and Implementation IIRA
  31. 31. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 The Business Viewpoint Identifies the business stakeholders The Usage Viewpoint looks at the expected system usage The Functional Viewpoint concerns the functional components of an IIS, their interrelationships and external interactions The Implementation Viewpoint concerns the technologies required to implement functional components IIRA
  32. 32. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 The IIRA decomposes an Industrial Internet System (IIS) in five functional domains: Control, Operation, Information, Application and Business Data flows and control flows take place in and between these functional domains. IIRA Image from: “Industrial Internet Consortium Reference Implementation v1.7” Functional Domains
  33. 33. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 The control domain represents the collection of functions that are performed by industrial control systems. The core of these functions comprises fine- grained closed-loops, reading data from sensors, applying rules and logic, and exercising control over the physical system through actuators Control Domain
  34. 34. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 The operations domain represents the collection of functions responsible for the provisioning, management, monitoring and optimisation of the systems in the control domain Existing industrial control systems mostly focus on optimising the assets in a single physical plant. The control systems of the Industrial Internet must move up a level, and optimise operations across asset types, fleets and customers Operation Domain
  35. 35. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 The Information Domain represents the collection of functions for gathering data from various domains, most significantly from the control domain, and transforming, persisting, and modelling or analysing those data to acquire high-level intelligence about the overall system. Information Domain
  36. 36. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 The application domain represents the collection of functions implementing application logic that realises specific business functionalities. Functions in this domain apply application logic, rules and models at a coarse-grained, high level for optimisation in a global scope Application Domain
  37. 37. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 The business domain functions enable end-to-end operations of the Industrial Internet Systems by integrating them with traditional or new types of Industrial Internet specific business functions including those supporting business processes and procedural activities. Business Domain
  38. 38. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 The implementation viewpoint is concerned with the technical representation of an Industrial Internet System and the technologies and system components required to implement the activities and functions prescribed by the usage and functional viewpoints. Implementation Viewpoint
  39. 39. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 Functional Domains Mapping
  40. 40. IIRA connectivity foresees the use of a Connectivity Core Standard (such as DDS) and then Gateways to integrate other connectivity technologies IIRA Connectivity Image from: “Industrial Internet Reference Architecture v1.7”
  41. 41. RAMI & IIRA
  42. 42. IIRA/I4.0 relationship
  43. 43. DDS in RAMI4.0 and IIRA
  44. 44. DDS: The Data Distribution Service
  45. 45. Applications can autonomously and asynchronously create, read, write (update) and dispose data (CRUD) enjoying spatial and temporal decoupling Virtualised Data Space DDS Global Data Space ... Data Writer Data Writer Data Writer Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Writer TopicA QoS TopicB QoS TopicC QoS TopicD QoS
  46. 46. Virtualised Data Space
  47. 47. Virtualised Data Space Data Writer
  48. 48. Virtualised Data Space Data Writer
  49. 49. Virtualised Data Space
  50. 50. Virtualised Data Space Data Reader
  51. 51. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 DDS’s virtualised data space is key in enabling loose coupling essential to deal with the fault-tolerance, scale and the heterogeneity needs of IIoT systems Virtualised Data Space
  52. 52. A Topic defines a domain- wide information’s class by a <name, type, qos> triple DDS Topics allow to express functional and non- functional properties of a system information model Topic DDS Global Data Space ... Data Writer Data Writer Data Writer Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Writer TopicA QoS TopicB QoS TopicC QoS TopicD QoS Topic Type Name QoS
  53. 53. Topic types can be expressed using different syntaxes, including IDL and ProtoBuf Topic Type struct TempSensor { long sid; float temp; float hum; float precision; }; #pragma keylist CarDynamics cid IDL
  54. 54. Built-in dynamic discovery isolates applications from network topology and connectivity details Dynamic DDS Global Data Space ... Data Writer Data Writer Data Writer Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Writer TopicA QoS TopicB QoS TopicC QoS TopicD QoS Discovery
  55. 55. location transparency Cloud Computing Fog Computing Device-to-Cloud Communication Device-to-Device Communication Fog-to-Cloud Communication Cloud-to-Cloud Communication Device-to-Device Communication Collect | Store | Analyse | Share Fog Computing Fog Computing
  56. 56. No single point of failure or bottleneck Decentralised Data Writer Data Writer Data Writer Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Writer TopicA QoS TopicB QoS TopicC QoS TopicD QoS TopicD QoS TopicD QoS TopicA QoS Data-Space DDS Global Data Space ... Data Writer Data Writer Data Writer Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Writer TopicA QoS TopicB QoS TopicC QoS TopicD QoS
  57. 57. Connectivity is dynamically adapted to choose the most effective way of sharing data Adaptive Data Writer Data Writer Data Writer Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Writer TopicA QoS TopicB QoS TopicC QoS TopicD QoS TopicD QoS TopicD QoS TopicA QoS The communication between the DataWriter and matching DataReaders can be peer-to- peer exploiting UDP/IP (Unicast and Multicast)or TCP/IP The communication between the DataWriter and matching DataReaders can be “brokered” but still exploiting UDP/IP (Unicast and Multicast)or TCP/IP Connectivity
  58. 58. QoS policies allow the expression and control over data’s temporal and availability constraints QoS Enabled DDS Global Data Space ... Data Writer Data Writer Data Writer Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Writer TopicA QoS TopicB QoS TopicC QoS TopicD QoS
  59. 59. QoS Policies controlling end-to-end properties follow a Request vs. Offered QoS Domain Participant DURABILITY OWENERSHIP DEADLINE LATENCY BUDGET LIVELINESS RELIABILITY DEST. ORDER Publisher DataWriter PARTITION DataReader Subscriber Domain Participant offered QoS Topic writes reads Domain Id joins joins produces-in consumes-from RxO QoS Policies requested QoS
  60. 60. DDS support for peer-to-peer communication along with its rich set of QoS enable extremely high and deterministic, i.e. real-time, performances Performance
  61. 61. DDS: The Standard
  62. 62. DDS. Describes the semantics of the information sharing abstraction supported by DDS. Defines a nominal type system for describing DDS information models and ensuring syntactical interoperability. DDSI-RTPS. Defines a protocol for interoperable wire implementation of the DDS semantics. Standard Structure
  63. 63. DDS-XTypes. Extends the DDS type system with support for structural typing as well as a dynamic type definition. DDS-Security. Introduces data centric security in DDS for data in movement as as well as data at rest. Standard Structure
  64. 64. DDS-RPC. Extends DDS with support for Remote Procedure Calls. DDS-PSM-*. Defines highly ergonomic and optimised API mapping for specific programming languages instead of deriving those for the DDS-PSM-IDL DLRL. Defines a language independent Object/Relational Mapping for DDS Standard Structure
  65. 65. DDS functionalities span from the Session to the Application level in the ISO OSI Stack DDS & ISO OSI UDP TCP DDSI-RTPS DDS User App. 7. Application High-level APIs, including resource sharing, remote file access, directory services and virtual terminals 6. Presentation Translation of data between a networking service and an application; including character encoding, data compression and encryption/ decryption 5. Session Managing communication sessions, i.e. continuous exchange of information in the form of multiple back-and-forth transmissions between two nodes 4. Transport Reliable transmission of data segments between points on a network, including segmentation, acknowledgement and multiplexing 3. Network Structuring and managing a multi-node network, including addressing, routing and traffic control 2. Data Link Reliable transmission of data frames between two nodes connected by a physical layer 1. Physical Transmission and reception of raw bit streams over a physical medium IP
  66. 66. Programming language, Operating System, and HW architecture Independent Platform Independent
  67. 67. Applying DDS in RAMI4.0
  68. 68. DDS addresses the requirement of the Communication and Information Layers Thus can be use as the interoperable mean of representing and sharing data DDS in RAMI4.0 DDS
  69. 69. New standards like DDS- XRCE will bring connectivity to extremely small devices, i.e. at most 100KB of RAM This will allow a efficient and very cost effective manner of integrating data flows from instances DDS in RAMI4.0 DDS
  70. 70. DDS is already used in SCADA systems to vertically integrate the shop floor. DDS implementations such as Vortex also provide a perfect platform for the Connected World functionalities DDS in RAMI4.0 DDS
  71. 71. DDS has applicability across the 6 IT levels Concerning the SCADA and the life-cycle layers, DDS applicability depends on the constraints of the device DDS-XRCE will bring connectivity to extremely small devices, i.e. at most 100KB of RAM DDS in RAMI4.0 DDS DDS DDS
  72. 72. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 I4.0 Components can easily be implemented with DDS DDS Topics are used to represents the data associated the virtual representation. The functions of the technical functionality can be represented via Topics (when taking a data-centric design) or leveraging DDS RPC. I4.0 Component DDS Global Data Space ... Data Writer Data Writer Data Writer Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Writer TopicA QoS TopicB QoS TopicC QoS TopicD QoS
  73. 73. CopyrightPrismTech,2015 As DDS can address both regular as well real-time data-flows a single standard can be used to converge I4.0 data flows Data Flows Convergence
  74. 74. Applying DDS in IIRA
  75. 75. DDS is already identified as one of the standard widely applicable within the IIRA Specifically DDS is ideally suited to implement the data management aspect of the Information Domain DDS in IIRA
  76. 76. DDS is widely used for horizontal (east-to-west) communication on the Control and Information Layers But it is applicable for horizontal across any view DDS in IIRA Real-Time Soft Real-Time Interactive DDS
  77. 77. Due to its ability to deal with regular as well as real-time data flows DDS is applicable from the Control to the Business Layer DDS in IIRA DDS Real-Time Soft Real-Time Interactive
  78. 78. CopyrightPrismTech,2016 Upcoming OMG standard defining a gateway to automatically bridge data from OPC-UA to DDS and vice-versa. OPC-UA/DDS gateway DDS Global Data Space ... Data Writer Data Writer Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Reader Data Writer TopicA QoS TopicB QoS TopicC QoS TopicD QoS DDS/OPC-UA Gateway OPC-UA Server +Client DDSI- RTPS OPC-UA Client OPC-UA Client OPC-UA Client OPC-UA Client
  79. 79. Use Cases
  80. 80. CopyrightPrismTech,2014 Smart-Grid 20ms deadline for phase alignment data
  81. 81. CopyrightPrismTech,2014 Smart Factory 0.5 TB of data produced per day
  82. 82. CopyrightPrismTech,2014 DDS provides a single technology for addressing OT as well as the IT requirements — vertical integration DDS users are able to seamlessly integrate applications across Field, Process, Plant and Enterprise level eliminating the IT/OT integration challenges and promoting agile and extensible architectures Power Generation Platform DDS
  83. 83. CopyrightPrismTech,2014 DDS is also leveraged to achieve horizontal integration Power Generation Platform DDS shields completely from connectivity details/changes and provides a platform for vertical and horizontal IIoT data virtualisation DDS DDS DDS DDS
  84. 84. IIRA and RAMI4.0 define the key architectural attributes and concerns that need to be addressed in IIS DDS provides a very good match for providing the connectivity and syntactical interoperability in different layers of the RAMI4.0 and IIRA Summing Up

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