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Removing the roadblocks

Implementing the change



     John Thomson




     10th June 2010
Early 20th century Urban development


Duties traditionally undertaken by Municipal Engineers
  up until the end of the se...
So where are the perceived current roadblocks?
Local Authorities – Engineers?

So what ‘s the problem?

Moving the project...
Problems

Changes in Terminology

Legislation and policy

Long term concerns for local authority
Project Development Process




              Outline            Detailed                   Programmed
              plann...
Project Development Process




              Outline              Detailed              Programmed
              planning...
Welcome to bureaucracy!
PKC Flow diagram of the Road Construction Consent process
Includes Bonds and street naming and num...
Hierarchy of guidance and control

1.   Legislation
2.   Policy
3.   Approved Codes of Practice
4.   Code of Practice
5.  ...
Hierarchy of policy and guidance




                                        Local Placemaking
Designing Streets
         ...
Legislation concerns
 Changed standards in “Designing Streets” is contrary to my long
 held understanding, will I end up i...
Legislation concerns
       Extract from Highway risk and Liability:- “There have been very few
     successful claims aga...
VI                      V           IV                 III         II            I
      Individual              Specialis...
Road evolution and current use

Developments in
transport forms drove
improvements in road
surfaces
How things change!


      1906 to 2005
      Perth street
      scenes




     Key changes are
     surfaces and uses


...
Understanding the main roadblocks



        From Design to Asset Management

From Vision to Adoption and Maintenance resp...
State of the Scottish Local Roads Network

Data from SCOTS 2010 report
Baseline current expenditure =
  5,700Km (11%) in r...
Understanding Roads design to gain durability

Roman Road design
Intervening years
Construction systems
Modern flexible pavement construction


                             Load
   Load Spreading analysis




PAVEMENT



FOUND...
Stress and Durability

Stress load on road due to UK artic twin tyre and recently
introduced European super single tyre at...
Rigid and Modular Road construction


         Reinforced Concrete




Modular to BS7533 in 13 parts
including pervious pa...
The ethos of standard urban road pavement cross section

            Drainage falls apply
            regardless of paveme...
Serviceability of roads

•   Winter maintenance
•   Litter standards
•   Dog fouling
•   Trip hazards and
    compensation...
Variable surfacing widths and serviceability
Can we learn from recent road layout details?
Traditional and contemporary surfaces
High quality contemporary surfaces
Street furniture and details




Attention to
detail is key
specifically
   where
utilities are
  located
Design road details




Clear indication of changed
 place, pedestrian priority
Street setting and lighting maintenance




                         Fold-down street lights to
                         a...
Understanding the stress on road materials




                                                  Braking point at junction...
Constrained traffic loading

Putting all that together and add
in utility chambers
Utilities in Streets




Statutory duty to supply and maintain
    services

Unregulated locations within a road

Relocati...
Failed high quality road surfaces

                  Failed high
                 specification
                 road surf...
Current utilities guidance


•   NJUG new development cross
    section

•   RAUC Advice Note 15
    Guidelines for Positi...
Utility defects in high amenity surfaces

 Water pipe
 burst and
 temporary or
 are they
 permanent
 repairs



Local coor...
Street Works
    Traffic Signs Manual -Chapter 8
    Traffic safety measures and signs for Road works and Temporary situat...
Utilities
Plan Utility and drainage layout at early stage
                                                  Extracts from ...
Adopted roads are multi-functional




Can developers promote the rear
gardens as the major domestic
amenity location?    ...
Trees in streets
NO TREES,                       Major issues with trees in streets are
NO FUTURE
                        ...
Park trees or road trees?
        Asset value of a mature tree is estimated at £77,600




                               ...
Parking
Design standards   In some locations public transport doesn't
                   meeting the need of the community...
Cycle parking




How valuable are they really?
Understand social and environmental changes
                                 Build-in provision for future social
        ...
SUDS
                                 (Sustainable urban drainage system)

Objective - Minimise the impacts from the devel...
SUDS Guidance




                     SUDS for Roads
The SUDS Handbook
 CIRIA Report C697
SUDS Guidance
Principles driving drainage design criteria selection Table 3.1 CIRIA C697

•   Level of Service   1.   Floo...
SUDS
A design challenge but can become a great opportunity
Attenuation ponds

    Legislative position - Fencing off ponds

•    Case title and date – Tomlinson v Congleton Borough ...
Sewers for Scotland , Section 7
adoption agreement between Scottish Water and
Local Authorities
The way ahead
The society of Senior Officers
in Transportation in Scotland

SCOTS Development Control Group
From 32 Local ...
Future developments

National “Roads Development Guide”
(Interim stage = Letter to all Developers Designing Streets is pol...
The Elephant in the room
     How do we deliver essential infrastructure to facilitate good
                          deve...
The current situation
In-depth guidance exists - if you know -
1.   It exists
2.   Where it is

Disparate groups working w...
Efficient process?

   A simple guide to access
information that leads to more
            detail




The Scottish Urban d...
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John thompson implementing the change

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John thompson implementing the change

  1. 1. Removing the roadblocks Implementing the change John Thomson 10th June 2010
  2. 2. Early 20th century Urban development Duties traditionally undertaken by Municipal Engineers up until the end of the second world war • Planned and provided Roads • Developed the urban layout • Designed and built Public buildings • Addressed Public health through sewars and clean water supply • Provided Gas and electric supplies • Graveyards • Etc.
  3. 3. So where are the perceived current roadblocks? Local Authorities – Engineers? So what ‘s the problem? Moving the project from a vision into reality and beyond • Who is taking the long term ownership of the infrastructure? • How long is it going to last before we have to spend hard pressed resources on it? • What's the potential for dispute resolution? • Does it address out Economic, Social and Environmental concerns + Political
  4. 4. Problems Changes in Terminology Legislation and policy Long term concerns for local authority
  5. 5. Project Development Process Outline Detailed Programmed planning planning construction permission permission stage Feasibility stage RCC Bond application application process process Revised process to improve and meet Designing Street’s policy of issuing RCC in a similar timescale as Planning Permission
  6. 6. Project Development Process Outline Detailed Programmed planning planning construction permission permission stage Feasibility stage Technical RCC Bond approval application application process process process Revised process to improve and meet Designing Street’s policy of issuing RCC in a similar timescale as Planning Permission
  7. 7. Welcome to bureaucracy! PKC Flow diagram of the Road Construction Consent process Includes Bonds and street naming and numbering
  8. 8. Hierarchy of guidance and control 1. Legislation 2. Policy 3. Approved Codes of Practice 4. Code of Practice 5. Guides and advisory notes Shall, Should and May
  9. 9. Hierarchy of policy and guidance Local Placemaking Designing Streets guide (Guide) (Policy) Roads Development Guide (Guide)
  10. 10. Legislation concerns Changed standards in “Designing Streets” is contrary to my long held understanding, will I end up in court? Based on Transport research laboratory report TRL661 Construction Design & Highway risk and Management Regs 2007 SNH guide to legal Liability claims liabilities
  11. 11. Legislation concerns Extract from Highway risk and Liability:- “There have been very few successful claims against local authorities on the basis of design. And it seems likely that it would take an exceptional degree of negligence to trap a reasonable user into danger.” 1 Road users are responsible for The first principle treats the road user as an intelligent their own safety and have a duty being, able and expected to exercise their own to take the road as they find it. judgment. It is not necessary for the design of a scheme to take that independence of judgment out of the hands of the road user. 2 A highway authority should This principle is self evident avoid trapping reasonable road users into danger, for example by introducing hidden danger. 3 A highway authority should not On this third principle, where a highway authority has act irrationality. made Balanced Decisions, it would be difficult to claim that it had acted irrationally.
  12. 12. VI V IV III II I Individual Specialist Expert Case-control Controlled Randomised opinion opinion opinion studies studies controlled studies Most street guidance Manual for Streets Evidence based Ia Several randomised controlled trials design Ib Randomised controlled trial IIa Well-designed controlled study without randomisation IIb Well-designed quasi-experimental study III Well-designed non-experimental descriptive studies, case-control studies, or case series IV Expert committee reports, opinions and/experience of respected authorities Expert in this instance means expertise in streets; not just one aspect of a street Problems with evidence and opinion Statistical problems Logical fallacies - Experimental bias – people look for results that *Appeal to authority – trust me I’m a specialist confirm their beliefs or hypotheses *Special pleading – its new – show me that it *Regression to mean – failure to acknowledge works – vs its old – show me that it works random nature of events *Risk compensation – seems safer – I’ll be riskier *Confounding factors
  13. 13. Road evolution and current use Developments in transport forms drove improvements in road surfaces
  14. 14. How things change! 1906 to 2005 Perth street scenes Key changes are surfaces and uses Places have a different atmosphere
  15. 15. Understanding the main roadblocks From Design to Asset Management From Vision to Adoption and Maintenance responsibility Public Funding Cuts Roads Maintenance Backlog figures
  16. 16. State of the Scottish Local Roads Network Data from SCOTS 2010 report Baseline current expenditure = 5,700Km (11%) in red/amber in 10 years time Standstill Budget to maintain at current condition= £167.6million / year over next 10 years Decline (10% budget decrease) = additional 7,300Km (14%) more red /amber in 10 years time £5M for each Local Authority per year
  17. 17. Understanding Roads design to gain durability Roman Road design
  18. 18. Intervening years Construction systems
  19. 19. Modern flexible pavement construction Load Load Spreading analysis PAVEMENT FOUNDATION FORMATION
  20. 20. Stress and Durability Stress load on road due to UK artic twin tyre and recently introduced European super single tyre at 5.5 tonne
  21. 21. Rigid and Modular Road construction Reinforced Concrete Modular to BS7533 in 13 parts including pervious pavements.
  22. 22. The ethos of standard urban road pavement cross section Drainage falls apply regardless of pavement profile House Road Boundary Threshold level Door and vent 2.5% thresholds 2.5% 2.5% drainage Kerb channel Air Vents & DPC Co nne Road c tion Gullies s Utilities Sewer
  23. 23. Serviceability of roads • Winter maintenance • Litter standards • Dog fouling • Trip hazards and compensation claims against councils
  24. 24. Variable surfacing widths and serviceability
  25. 25. Can we learn from recent road layout details?
  26. 26. Traditional and contemporary surfaces
  27. 27. High quality contemporary surfaces
  28. 28. Street furniture and details Attention to detail is key specifically where utilities are located
  29. 29. Design road details Clear indication of changed place, pedestrian priority
  30. 30. Street setting and lighting maintenance Fold-down street lights to access lamp replacement Traditional and modern design can mix well
  31. 31. Understanding the stress on road materials Braking point at junction Bus and car constrained route with too small stone blocks laid in ineffective mortar Sheer failure due to canalisation by bus tyres
  32. 32. Constrained traffic loading Putting all that together and add in utility chambers
  33. 33. Utilities in Streets Statutory duty to supply and maintain services Unregulated locations within a road Relocation costs are expensive
  34. 34. Failed high quality road surfaces Failed high specification road surface Was the cause utilities or ground conditions Results in loss of reputation and additional disruption
  35. 35. Current utilities guidance • NJUG new development cross section • RAUC Advice Note 15 Guidelines for Positioning Utilities apparatus in Home Zones • Agreement at RAUCs to revise in line with renaissance aspirations
  36. 36. Utility defects in high amenity surfaces Water pipe burst and temporary or are they permanent repairs Local coordination between road and utilities to identify special engineering sites
  37. 37. Street Works Traffic Signs Manual -Chapter 8 Traffic safety measures and signs for Road works and Temporary situations • Code of Practice • Minimum road widths during works results in road closure and disruption to traffic • Consider diversion routes
  38. 38. Utilities Plan Utility and drainage layout at early stage Extracts from Alan Baxter's layout for Poundbury Can it coincide with SUDS layout? Consider extent of adopted areas
  39. 39. Adopted roads are multi-functional Can developers promote the rear gardens as the major domestic amenity location? Design in SUDS or service collection point
  40. 40. Trees in streets NO TREES, Major issues with trees in streets are NO FUTURE Leaf and gum fall blocking drains and Trees in the urban realm marking parked cars Root concerns with utility apparatus and house foundations Trees and Design Action Group November 2009
  41. 41. Park trees or road trees? Asset value of a mature tree is estimated at £77,600 Mature trees can substantially enhance a place Are certain trees more suited to the road or a park environment?
  42. 42. Parking Design standards In some locations public transport doesn't meeting the need of the community Cars are the only travel option Space allocations need to be fit for purpose Over restrictive parking allocations result in renegade parking and social problems
  43. 43. Cycle parking How valuable are they really?
  44. 44. Understand social and environmental changes Build-in provision for future social demands – it may prove negligible cost but add significantly to the value High speed Broadband Alternative power sources for individual transport needs Environmental Design guides may be inappropriate for that location A93 Otter fencing
  45. 45. SUDS (Sustainable urban drainage system) Objective - Minimise the impacts from the development on the quantity and quality of rainfall runoff, and maximise the amenity and biodiversity (SUDS Manual 1.1)
  46. 46. SUDS Guidance SUDS for Roads The SUDS Handbook CIRIA Report C697
  47. 47. SUDS Guidance Principles driving drainage design criteria selection Table 3.1 CIRIA C697 • Level of Service 1. Flood protection should provide minimum level of protection 2. Risks to people and amenity benefits should be addressed (includes safety) • Sustainability 1. Drainage system should aim to replicate the natural rainfall-runoff, (pre-development) 2. Water quality treatment should minimise environmental impact 3. Maximise ecological benefits 4. Drainage systems aim to use recyclable materials • Cost 1. Demonstrate Whole life costs analysis
  48. 48. SUDS A design challenge but can become a great opportunity
  49. 49. Attenuation ponds Legislative position - Fencing off ponds • Case title and date – Tomlinson v Congleton Borough Council – House of Lords, 2003 • they express a principle which is still valid today, namely, that it is contrary to common sense, and therefore not sound law, to expect an occupier to provide protection against an obvious danger arising on his land arising from a natural feature such as a lake or a cliff and to impose a duty on him to do so".
  50. 50. Sewers for Scotland , Section 7 adoption agreement between Scottish Water and Local Authorities
  51. 51. The way ahead The society of Senior Officers in Transportation in Scotland SCOTS Development Control Group From 32 Local Authorities, 27 attended, 1 regional transport authority and Transport Scotland 1. Participate and assist Designing Streets Education workshops 2. Draft national based Roads Development Guide 3. Develop Section 7 schedule format and publish 4. Report best practice on RCC process & Inspection charging 5. Report on SUDS best practice experience and asset costs 6. Report on Bond charges best practice
  52. 52. Future developments National “Roads Development Guide” (Interim stage = Letter to all Developers Designing Streets is policy and is dominate to Roads Development guide) Utility guidance for new developments through RAUCs “SUDS for roads” due to be issued this year Section 7 schedules established for individual schemes Improved coordination and education between all professions, Developers and Politicians Integration of RCC into planning system through e-planning A fundamental ground shift in approach
  53. 53. The Elephant in the room How do we deliver essential infrastructure to facilitate good development? Remember the Municipal Engineer Developer contribution Access to funding to provide front end infrastructure Overall Masterplan approach to developments Land owner continuing involvement in ownership of the development
  54. 54. The current situation In-depth guidance exists - if you know - 1. It exists 2. Where it is Disparate groups working without coordination Workshop analysis to expose failings and devise solutions What we really need – Coordinated approach required across professions, developers and politicians – workshop approach
  55. 55. Efficient process? A simple guide to access information that leads to more detail The Scottish Urban development group?

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