Presentation on photonics by prince kushwaha(RJIT)


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Presentation on photonics by prince kushwaha(RJIT)

  1. 1. Prince kumar kushwaha 0902ec101053 9/24/2013 1
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  5. 5. The word 'photonics' is derived from the Greek word "photos" meaning light; it appeared in the late 1960s to describe a research field whose goal was to use light to perform functions, that traditionally fell within the typical domain of electronics, such as telecommunications, information processing, etc. Photonics as a field began with the invention of the laser in 1960. Other developments followed: including the laser diode in the 1970s, and optical fibers for transmitting information. These inventions formed the basis for the telecommunications revolution of the late 20th century and provided the infrastructure for the Internet 9/24/2013 5
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  7. 7. Classical optics Photonics is closely related to optics. However optics preceded the discovery that light is quantized (when Albert Einstein explained the photoelectric effect in 1905). Optics tools include the refracting lens, the reflecting mirror, and various optical components known prior to 1900. Emerging fields Photonics also relates to the emerging science of quantum information in those cases where it employs photonic methods. Other emerging fields include opto-atomics, in which devices integrate both photonic and atomic devices for applications such as precision timekeeping, navigation, and metrology(study of measurement); polaritonics, which differs from photonics in that the fundamental information carrier is a polariton, which is a mixture of photons and phonons, and operates in the range of frequencies from 300 gigahertz to approximately 10 terahertz. 9/24/2013 7
  8. 8. Photonics is related to quantum optics, optomechanics, electro- optics, optoelectronics and quantum electronics. However each area has slightly different meaning by scientific and government communities and in the marketplace. Quantum optics often imply fundamental research, whereas photonics is used to imply applied research and development. The term photonics more specifically imply : *The particle properties of light, *The potential of creating signal processing device technologies using photons,and *The practical application of optics. The term optoelectronics imply devices or circuits that comprise both electrical and optical functions, i.e., a thin-film semiconductor device. The term electro-optics came into earlier use and specifically encompasses nonlinear electrical-optical interactions applied. 9/24/2013 8
  9. 9. 1) Uninhibited light travels thousands of times faster than electrons in computer chips. Optical computers will compute thousand of times faster than any electronic computer can ever achieve due to the physical limitation differences between light and electricity. 2) Can packed more wavelengths (that is information channels) into a optical fibre so that the transmission bandwidth is increased than conventional copper wires. 3) Light encounters no electromagnetic interference than that of electron in copper wires. 9/24/2013 9
  10. 10.  Biological Researcher and Technician ◦ uses microscopes with video camera attachment .  Civil Engineer ◦ uses a laser beam with a theodelite to create a straight line over long distances to measure the angle of a proposed road bridge from a reference position.  Auto focus camera lens designer ◦ uses computer programs to design the lens, the sensors and electronics to measure the sharpness of the image to control the focus, and CAD (Computer Aided Design) to design the components and housings.  Heating Engineer ◦ uses a Thermal Imaging camera to give a high quality picture showing the temperature distribution across a scene.  Communications System Installer ◦ couples optical fibers to electronic systems to route the information between computers, monitors etc. or to control a production machine. 9/24/2013 10
  11. 11.  Conservation Specialist ◦ uses laser beams to blast away the grime that has built up on buildings and statues  Environmental Inspector ◦ uses a laser beam projected into the smoke plume from a factory to monitor the levels of the different gases emitted .  Quality Control Inspector ◦ uses apparatus which measures the precise color spectrum of the food product .  Surgeon ◦ uses a slip-on device over the patients thumb which monitors an infra-red beam to continuously measure the pulse rate. Also inserts a fiber optic endoscope into the patient with a camera attached.  Skilled Machinist ◦ uses various types of laser beam under computer control e.g. to cut holes finer than a human hair, treat or decorate the metal surface, join components together in a vacuum 9/24/2013 11
  12. 12. Applications of photonics are ubiquitous. Included are all areas from everyday life to the most advanced science, e.g. light detection, telecommunications, information processing, lighting, metrology, spectroscopy, holography, medicine, military technology, laser material processing, visual art, biophotonics, agriculture, and robotics. 9/24/2013 12
  13. 13. 1. Light sources Light sources used in photonics are usually more sophisticated than light bulbs. Photonics commonly uses semiconductor light sources like light-emitting diodes (LEDs), superluminescent diodes, and lasers. Other light sources include fluorescent lamps, cathode ray tubes (CRTs), and plasma screens. Note that while CRTs, plasma screens, and organic light-emitting diode displays generate their own light, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) like TFT screens require a backlight of either cold cathode fluorescent lamps or, more often today, LEDs. Characteristic for research on semiconductor light sources is the frequent use of III-V semiconductors instead of the classical semiconductors like silicon and germanium. This is due to the special properties of III-V semiconductors that allow for the implementation of light emitting devices. Examples for material systems used are gallium arsenide (GaAs) and aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) or other compound semiconductors. They are also used in conjunction with silicon to produce hybrid silicon lasers 9/24/2013 13
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