Image Steganography Using
Mode 16 Method(M16M)
Presented By :
 Arko Kundu
4th
year CSE, UIT, BU
 Kaushik Chakrarborty
4t...
What is STEGANOGRAPHY?
According to Wikipedia :
Steganography is the art and science of writing
hidden messages in such a ...
Real World Cases
Steganography is being used as a very powerful technique, even to Criminal
Organizations :
1.USA reported...
The Modern Framework(The Prisoners Problem)
Here Alice and Bob are two Inmates who wish to communicate and Wendy
is the Wa...
Most simple properties of
general Steganography
All key properties for
Good Steganography
Characteristics Of Strong Stegan...
What’s happening before
embedding ??
Seed Pixel Selection
Seed Pixel Generation for embedding message bits is
dependent on the intensity value of the previous ...
An Example… (Seed Pixel Selection)
122 45 69 132 256 145 56 79 112 125
156 125 169 123 79 78 12 186 123 69
224 212 145 125...
An Example
( Neighboring Pixel Selection )
112 48 23
189 53 30
83 43 75
i+1,j
i+1,j-1 i+1,j+1
i,j-1 i,j+1
i-1,j-1 i-1,j+1
...
Embedding Technique
The Summarized Algorithm is as follows :
1.Select a seed pixel.
2.Select the neighbouring pixels.
3.Fi...
5. Now add different values to the resultant intensity according to the different
4 bit binary message to be embedded acco...
Embedding Example
Message to be embedded = 0011
 
The summarized Algorithm is as follows :
1.Select a seed pixel.
2.Select the neighbouring pixels.
3.Find the intensity o...
Extracting Example
Extracted Message = 0011
What the difference in picture
quality after embedding ?
Original Lena (Capacity=19684 characters) Stego Lena
PSNR (after ...
What’s ahead in FUTURE……………. ??
 In today’s world, we often listen a popular term “Hacking”..
So, whatever be the techniq...
Conclusion
The work dealt with the techniques for steganography as
related to gray scale image. A new and efficient
stegan...
Questions …. ???
With Regards…..!!!
 Arko Kundu
 Kaushik Chakrarborty
 Sauvik Bhattacharyaa
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Image Steganography Using M16 Method

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Image Steganography Using M16 Method

  1. 1. Image Steganography Using Mode 16 Method(M16M) Presented By :  Arko Kundu 4th year CSE, UIT, BU  Kaushik Chakrarborty 4th year CSE, UIT, BU  Sauvik Bhattacharyaa Associate Professor(CSE), UIT, BU Department of Computer Science and Technology University Institute of Technology, THE UNIVERSITY OF BURDWAN
  2. 2. What is STEGANOGRAPHY? According to Wikipedia : Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the sender and intended recipient even realizes there is a hidden message. The word comes from Greek steganos or “covered” and graphie or “writing” meaning “covered or hidden writing”. Two examples of how it appeared: 1.Demaratus sent a warning about a forthcoming attack to Greece by writing it on a wooden panel and covering it in wax. 2.Another ancient example is that of Histiaeus encouraged Aristagoras of Miletus to revolt against Persian king. He shaved the head of his most trusted slave and tattooed a message on it. After his hair had grown the message was hidden.
  3. 3. Real World Cases Steganography is being used as a very powerful technique, even to Criminal Organizations : 1.USA reported that bin Laden and others "are hiding maps and photographs of terrorist targets and posting instructions for terrorist activities on sports chat rooms , pornographic bulletin boards and other websites, U.S. and foreign officials say.“ 2. Hello Kitty images were used by Colombian Drug lord Juan Carlos Ramirez Abadia to hide messages to his minions as Steganography vector. Abadia apparently picked Hello Kitty ashis courier because his wife was a big fan of the Japanese icon -- she had even decorated one of her rooms in a Brazilian house with Hello Kitty-themed chairs, watches and wallpaper The Hello Kitty Image which was used as the Stego Image
  4. 4. The Modern Framework(The Prisoners Problem) Here Alice and Bob are two Inmates who wish to communicate and Wendy is the Warden and examines all the message passed between them. Secret Message Secret Message Secret Message Secret Message Secret KeySecret Key Message Retrieval Algorithm Message Retrieval Algorithm Suppress Message Suppress Message Stego Message Stego Message Embedding Algorithm Embedding Algorithm Cover Message Cover Message Secret KeySecret Key Is Stego msg? Is Stego msg? ALICE WENDY BOB
  5. 5. Most simple properties of general Steganography All key properties for Good Steganography Characteristics Of Strong Steganography
  6. 6. What’s happening before embedding ??
  7. 7. Seed Pixel Selection Seed Pixel Generation for embedding message bits is dependent on the intensity value of the previous pixel selected. It includes a decision factor (dp) which is dependent on intensity with a fixed way of calculating the next pixel. x=x1+2+dp y=y1+2+dp (x,y)=new Pixel position (x1,y1)=previous Pixel position Intensity >80 && <=160 Intensity >160 && <=255 dp=1 dp=2 dp=3 Intensity <=80
  8. 8. An Example… (Seed Pixel Selection) 122 45 69 132 256 145 56 79 112 125 156 125 169 123 79 78 12 186 123 69 224 212 145 125 147 86 45 110 236 26 119 248 46 112 48 23 79 45 90 156 119 79 116 189 53 30 130 90 141 171 56 71 26 83 43 75 93 67 116 49 90 112 179 212 201 38 99 119 157 39 83 53 89 115 63 78 90 76 255 255 131 141 176 159 126 146 255 73 86 255
  9. 9. An Example ( Neighboring Pixel Selection ) 112 48 23 189 53 30 83 43 75 i+1,j i+1,j-1 i+1,j+1 i,j-1 i,j+1 i-1,j-1 i-1,j+1 i-1,j
  10. 10. Embedding Technique The Summarized Algorithm is as follows : 1.Select a seed pixel. 2.Select the neighbouring pixels. 3.Find the intensity of the neighbouring pixels .Find out and store the remainder after dividing the intensity by 16. Let the remainder be R . 4.Subtract R from the intensity and hence the resultant is divisible by 16. Cont………
  11. 11. 5. Now add different values to the resultant intensity according to the different 4 bit binary message to be embedded according to the table given below :- MSG VALUE TO BE ADDED 0000 0 0001 1 0010 2 0011 3 0100 4 0101 5 0110 6 0111 7 1000 8 1001 9 1010 10 1011 11 1100 12 1101 13 1110 14 1111 15 6. The modified intensity is replaced in the original image matrix. 7. At the end we get the stego matrix embedded with the message.
  12. 12. Embedding Example Message to be embedded = 0011
  13. 13.   The summarized Algorithm is as follows : 1.Select a seed pixel. 2.Select the neighbouring pixels. 3.Find the intensity of the neighbouring pixels and find out and store the remainder after dividing it by 16. Let the remainder be R . 4. Now R represents the Decimal Value of the embedded message . When converted to 4-bit binary format we get our resultant message at the receiver’s end. Extracting Technique
  14. 14. Extracting Example Extracted Message = 0011
  15. 15. What the difference in picture quality after embedding ? Original Lena (Capacity=19684 characters) Stego Lena PSNR (after embedding the 19684 characters) = 34.6516 PSNR (after embedding 1000 characters) = 47.3268 After Embedding 19684 Characters
  16. 16. What’s ahead in FUTURE……………. ??  In today’s world, we often listen a popular term “Hacking”.. So, whatever be the technique will be developed in future, degree of security related with that has to be kept in mind. It is hoped that Dual Steganography, “Steganography along with Cryptography “ may be used to achieve some of the future solution for this above mentioned problem.  In the near future, the most important use of steganographic techniques will probably be lying in the field of “Digital Watermarking”. Can be used to enhance a country’s security system regarding confidential documents.
  17. 17. Conclusion The work dealt with the techniques for steganography as related to gray scale image. A new and efficient steganographic method for embedding secret messages into images without producing any major changes has been proposed. Although in this method it has been shown that each four bit of the secret message has been mapped in the pixels of the cover image, but this method can be extended to map n no of bits also by considering more no of features of the embedding pixels. This method also capable of extracting the secret message without the cover image. This approach can also be used in coloured images.
  18. 18. Questions …. ???
  19. 19. With Regards…..!!!  Arko Kundu  Kaushik Chakrarborty  Sauvik Bhattacharyaa

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