Skin Diseases and Disorders

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Skin Diseases and Disorders

  1. 1. Skin Diseases/Disorders
  2. 2. Acne  Comedo = inflamed plug  Pimples & blackheads  Teens to early twenties  Treatment: thorough washing  Steroid creams, UV light, Isoretinoin, avoidance of certain foods, chemical face peel, dermabrasion (to treat scarring)
  3. 3. Seborrheic Dermatitis  Dandruff: oily scalp, itching, irritation, greasy scales  Treatment: frequent shampooing (tincture of green soap), brushing hair, massaging scalp
  4. 4. Eczema  Vesicles on reddened skin which burst and weep  crusts  Treatment: tranqulizers (stress aggravates the condition), antihistamines, steroids, wet dressings, starch baths
  5. 5. Urticaria  Hives  allergy or emotional stress  Treatment: steroids, antihistamines
  6. 6. Contact Dermatitis  Redness, itching, blisters, edema  Causes: poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac, cleansing agents, cosmetics, metals  Treatment: clean with soap & water then apply alcohol, antipruritic lotions, cold & wet dressings, desensitization
  7. 7. Psoriasis  Patchy erythema and scales  Chronic inflammatory disease, genetic  Treatment: ointments, UV light, low fat diets, steroids, antihistamines, tranquilizers
  8. 8. Impetigo  Very contagious  Erythema, vesicles with sticky yellow crusts  Infection with staphylococcus or streptococcus  Treament: remove crusts then apply antibiotic ointment
  9. 9. Warts  Painless except for plantar warts  Caused by a virus……not frogs  Treatment: nitric or sulfuric acid applications deep into root of wart or freezing with liquid nitrogen
  10. 10. Herpes simplex I/Cold Sores  Caused by virus  Blisters, inflamed skin around mouth  Incurable  Treatment: tincture of benzoin, acyclovir
  11. 11. Herpes zoster/Shingles  Viral infection with fever and malaise  Erythema and vesicles along the course of a nerve  Possibly remnant of childhood chickenpox  Treatment: analgesics, calamine lotion, acyclovir (orally)
  12. 12. Tinea (Dermatophytosis)  Fungal infections I.e. athlete’s foot, ringworm, jock itch  Infectious, contagious  Treatment: antifungal agents, dry feet, change socks and shoes frequently
  13. 13. Furuncles (Boils)/Carbuncles  Staphylococcus or streptococcus infection  Carbuncles: large, swollen erythematous lesions  Treatment: hot, moist compresses, incise and drain lesion, antibiotics
  14. 14. Decubitus ulcer  Bedsores due to decreased circulation to a specific area of the body
  15. 15. Paronychia  Infected hangnail  Treatment: soak frequently in warm water, remove nail surgically
  16. 16. Sebaceous Cysts  Blockage of duct of sebaceous gland  Treatment: lance and drain
  17. 17. Diaper Rash  Treatment: antibacterial cream, mineral oil cleansing, exposure to air to dry the rash
  18. 18. Corns and Callouses  Corns: hard, raised, painful areas  Callouses: flat, thickened patches  Caused by friction of poorly fitting shoes  Treatment: relieve friction, use keratolytic agents I.e. salicylic acid
  19. 19. Infestations and Bites  Pediculosis (lice): scalp hair, body hair, pubic hair  Treatment: ointments, powders, lotions with benzylbenzoate or benzine hexachloride  Scabies (mites)  Treatment: thorough bathing then benzylbenzoate or benzine hexachloride
  20. 20. Lupus erythematosus  Usually fatal  Erythematous macular lesions in butterfly pattern on face  Dysfunction of kidneys, joints, lungs, and heart  Treatment: aspirin, steroids
  21. 21. Scleroderma  Systemic autoimmune disease of skin, muscles, bones, heart, lungs  Skin  smooth, hard, tight  Progressive  Treatment: ointments, massage, heat, steroids
  22. 22. Pilonidal Cyst  Sac containing a hair that becomes infected and develops a draining sinus  Treatment: warm water compresses, sitz baths, deep wide V-shaped incision packed with gauze
  23. 23. Carcinoma Cancerous Tumor
  24. 24. Basal Cell Carcinoma  Most common  Least malignant  Slow growing  Papules that erode in the center  Pearly edge  99% cure rate with early excision
  25. 25. Squamous Cell Carcinoma  In keratinocytes of stratum spinosum  Scaly red papule (rounded elevation)  Rapid growth  Meets lymph  Good cure rate if caught early followed by radiation treatment
  26. 26. Malignant Melanoma  Cancer of melanocytes  Most dangerous, death 1:4 cases  Accounts for 5% of skin cancers  Nevus mole becomes dark, spreads unevenly, bleeds some  Metastatic  Cause: overexposure to UV radiation (sun or tanning bed)
  27. 27.  Little chance of survival (better if caught early)  Treatment: surgical excision with chemotherapy
  28. 28. American Cancer Society ABCD Rule for Skin Cancer  A – Asymmetry  B – Border Irregularity  C – Colors Different  D – Diameter (larger than 6 mm –pencil eraser)
  29. 29. Kaposi’s Sarcoma  Purple papules spread to lymph nodes and other organs  Opportunistic disease of AIDS
  30. 30. Diagnostic Procedures for Skin
  31. 31.  Direct Examination  Good lighting required  Distribution of lesions (local or general)  When lesions are most bothersome  Changes in patient’s way of living  Wood’s light (for ringworm)  Microscopic exam for scales or fungi
  32. 32. Sensitivity Tests  Patch test  Percutaneous test (scratch test)  Intradermal test
  33. 33. Biopsy  Dermal punch  Examined by histologist or pathologist

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