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  1. 1. Flushing and Papule in Middle-Aged Woman Obstetrics and gynecology Vol. 105, No.2, Feb. 2005 R2 서 영 진
  2. 2. CASE  42-year-old woman no gynecologic complaints, no medical illness does not smoke, takes no medications menstruations : regular considering beginning oral contraceptive method  The review of systems hot flushes: facial redness (burning, stinging) pimples on her chin acne and wrinkle
  3. 3.  Examination slightly sunburned under the eye & over the cheeks: dry, minimal flaking on her chin & around her nose: 8~10 small red solid papules normal female hair pattern no evidence of androgenization  Management avoiding direct sun exposure, wearing sunscreen 3rd generation oral contraceptive pill
  4. 4. ▶ 1 year later remains healthy but still her facial skin problem now generally red and irritated pimples on most days eyes: irritated and watery most of the time use skin care products, but no effect diffuse erythema (nose,medial cheeks,forehead,chin) acne-like lesion around the nose (not chest & back)  refers her to a dermatologist
  5. 5. HISTORY AND EXAMINATION  History facial flushing, redness pimples, burning sensation negative for joint acnes, pruritus, other complaints  Examination dense network of prominent telangiectasias over the nasal bridge, forehead, central cheeks scattered inflammatory papules and pustules over the nose and medial cheeks no comedone chest, back, upper extremities: non specific
  6. 6.  rosacea
  7. 7. QUESTIONS AND COMMENTARY  What causes rosacea? - abnormalities of the small vessels sun damage to the surrounding connective tissue abnormal inflammatory response → fluids leak out into the dermis - hot drinks, spicy foods, alcoholic beverages →exacerbate the vasoinflammatory response - Demodex folliculorum (in sebaceous follicle)
  8. 8.  How common is rosacea? - reliable data are lacking - the 3rd or 4th decade fair-skinned people of Celtic or northern European - average of 1.1 million annual outpatients in U.S.A from 1990 to 1997
  9. 9.  What is the differential diagnosis for rosacea and what distinguishes it from other skin conditions? <Acne vulgaris> - younger age group - comedonal lesion with or without associated inflammatory papules and pustules - chest and back (not rosacea) - facial erythema, but secondary response of papules
  10. 10. <Seborrheic dermatitis> - typically, erythema and scaling of the nasolabial folds, eyebrows, scalp, postauricular folds, ear canal and involve the central chest, axillae, groin - flushing, inflammatory papules and pustules is not characteristics of seborrheic dermatitis
  11. 11. <Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)> - because rosacea affects the central face and can be exacerbated by sun exposure, it may be mistaken for the malar rash of SLE → but malar rash lacks papules or pustules - other finding: follicular plugging, atrophy, scarring, and adherent scale - ANA is not specific, so blood studies are nor helpful in differential diagnosis
  12. 12. <Perioral dermatitis> - papules and vesicles appear in groups and smaller than rosacea - telangiectasia ↓ (<rosacea) - no flushing and blushing <Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis> - resemble rosacea, but invariably pruritic - geometric shape and pattern follows the size and shape of the external causal agents
  13. 13.  How is rosacea diagnosed? <Guidelines for diagnosis of rosacea> - the presence of one or more primary features (with or without secondary features) indicates rosacea ▪ Primary features flushing (transient erythema) nontransient erythema papules and pustules telangiectasia
  14. 14. ▪ Secondary features burning or stinging plaque formation dry or scaly appearance edema ocular manifestations peripheral location phymatous change →laboratory marker, biopsy are not helpful !!!
  15. 15. <Subtypes and characteristics of rosacea> ▪ vascular rosacea - flushing and persistent central facial erythema with or without telangiectasia ▪ papulopustular rosacea - persistent central facial erythema with occasional central facial papules or pustules
  16. 16. ▪ phymatous rosacea - thickened skin, irregular surface nodularities of nose, chin, forehead, cheeks, ears ▪ ocular rosacea - burning, stinging, dryness, ocular photosensitivity, blurry vision, telangiectasia of sclera, periobital edema
  17. 17.  What are the risk factors? - no specific risk factors - commonly, northern European ethnicity - alcoholic beverages
  18. 18.  What happens if rosacea remains untreated? - rosacea : remissions and exacerbations - various combination various subtype (independently or evolution) - mild~moderate~severe form - psychological affects: disabling , quality of life ↓ - untreated rosacea: chronic inflammatory change (erythema, edema, phymatous)
  19. 19.  How is rosacea initially treated? - long-term treatment to suppress inflammation - should be tailored to the specific variant of rosacea - avoiding factors : sun, alcohol, hot beverages, certain foods, irritating cosmetics - regular use of sunscreen is important
  20. 20.  Topical therapy - mild erythema, limited number of papules & pustules : topical metronidazole clindamycin azelaic acid sodium sulfacetamide sufur lotion - response is not immediate
  21. 21.  Oral therapy <antiinflammatory antibiotics> - more extensive papules or pustules mild edematous change : oral tetracycline (+ topical treatment) - if improved : discontinue oral treatment continue topical treatment
  22. 22. <isotretinoin> - more severe, refractory, persistent cases : 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) therapy - adverse effects : dry skin, mocosae and eye pruritus, dermatitis, myalgia liver enzyme↑, cholesterol ↑ → indicated only for treatment-resistant rosacea - risk of teratogenicity
  23. 23. <oral treatment of flushing symptoms> - active α-blocking hypotensive drug (clonidine) low dose β-blocker (nadolol) - adverse effects : orthostatic hypotension xerostomia
  24. 24. <procedural treatment> - prominent telangiectasias associated with rosacea : laser or intense pulsed light treatments <contraindicated therapy> - topical steroid : initially decrease → but prolonged use : telangiectasia exacerbate flushing, etrythema
  25. 25.  When should the primary care provider refer to a dermatology specialist? - if the diagnosis is in doubt or if patients fail to respond to first-line therapy → referral to a dermatologist