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MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGY I. 3 rd year 2008/2009 2 nd semester


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MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGY I. 3 rd year 2008/2009 2 nd semester

  1. 1. MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGY I. 3 rd year 2008/2009 2 nd semester Lecture time: Friday 11-12 hour Venue: New Clinical Building, Lecture Hall 1. The relevance of Psychology to Medicine 06.02. 2. Introduction to developmental psychology I.: perspectives on early experience. Mother-child interaction. 13.02. 3. Introduction to developmental psychology II.: attachment, separation, hospitalization 20.02. 4. Basic element of personality. The Type and the Trait Theory 27.02. 5. Developing Identity. Sex role identity. Identity and adolescence 06.03. 6. The Changing family. Pregnancy and childbirth. Family discord and family therapy 13.03.
  2. 2. 7. The Changing family. Old Age. Dying and Bereavement 20.03. 8. Consultation in doctor-patient relation. Interview technique 03.04. 9. Developmental theory. Cognitive development (Piaget). Developing identity (Erikson) 10.04. 10.Personality and Meaning. The assessment of personality. Test Methods. 24.04. 11.The psychoanalytic approach to personality. 25.04. 12.The Humanistic approach to personality 08.05. 13.Cognitive-behavioural approach of personality 15.05.
  3. 3. Literature 1. Psychology and Medical Care. Gerry Kent, Mary Dalgleish 2. Introduction to Psychology Rita L. Atkinson at all. 3. Psychology. Andrew B. Crider at all.
  4. 4. THE RELEVANCE OF PSYCHOLOGY TO MEDICINE 1. What is Psychology? - Psychology is defined as the systematic study of behaviour and mental processes. - Psychology is made up of a number of subfields, including clinical, counselling, health, school, industrial/organizational, experimental, social, developmental and psychometric psychology.
  5. 5. 2. Models and Methods in Psychology -Contemporary Approaches to Psychology a.) psychoanalytic approach b.) behaviourist approach c.) humanistic approach d.) cognitive approach -You can study human behaviour by a.) observing behaviour in its natural setting b.) using statistical-correlational methods c.) creating experimental setting d.) using psychological tests
  6. 6. Influential Philosophers Philosophical background Philosophical background Descartes Dualism Descartes Dualism Locke’s empiricism Locke’s empiricism Darwin’s Theory of evolution Darwin’s Theory of evolution Mind and body separate Measurement + observation Adaptation
  7. 7. Descartes (1596-1650) • Cartesian dualism - the mind and the body considered to be separate – Mind centre of thought and consciousness – Body physical and automatic actions • Influence on Western medical thinking • Animal/human distinction – Animals instinctive vs. – Human reasoning
  8. 8. Historical links 1879 Present Descartes dualism Locke’s empiricism Darwin’s evolutionary theory Introspectionism Wundt, Ebbighaus & James Watson’s Behaviourism Freud’s psychoanalysis Piagetian cognitive development Clinical psychology European psychology Gestalt school Humanistic approach Classical + Operant conditioning Cognitive revolution Aversion therapy & behaviour modification Person centred therapy Tajfel- Social identity theory American approach
  9. 9. Psychoanalysis • Developed by Sigmund Freud as a way to explain human psychological problems • Based on a non-rational approach • Identified the role of the unconscious mind in the control of human behaviour • Developed the concept of dynamic forces of the id, ego and superego that control human behaviour • Research based on Freud’s case studies using a phenomenological approach
  10. 10. Behaviour therapy • Dollard (1939) reconceptualised psychoanalysis using a behaviourist perspective • Based therapy on behaviour conditioning • Aversion therapy involves conditioned avoidance • Utilises principles of classical conditioning developed by Pavlov • Behaviour modification techniques utilise operant conditioning techniques • Aim to model more appropriate behaviours based on Bandura’s work on imitation
  11. 11. Humanistic Psychology • Carl Rogers work was based on positive personal growth • It used an holistic approach • Developed the concept of self-actualisation to which personal growth is directed • Abraham Maslow worked in the area of human motivation • Saw self -actualisation as the ultimate goal of motivation in an hierarchy of social need
  12. 12. The cognitive revolution • Established to overcome the ‘black-box’ limitations of the Behaviourist approach • Took psychology back to the study of the mind • Laboratory based research using human participants • Two limitations of the approach are; – the exclusive of laboratory research – Computer metaphor ignores social factors • Other shifts from this approach have been interest in – social cognition – cognitive neuro-psychology – animal cognition
  13. 13. Medical Psychology Medical psychology (related to Clinical Health Psychology, Psychosomatic medicine, and Behavioural Medicine) is a branch of Clinical psychology in which clinicians have trained in the biological aspects of mental illness in relation to physical illness. It adopts the biopsychosocial approach to medicine, which revolves around the idea that both the body and mind are indivisible, and that disease and illness are not identical. Continuing with this line of thought, all diseases whether of the mind or of the physical body must be treated as if they have been both affected.
  14. 14. The intent of Medical Psychology is to apply knowledge from all branches -of social, - psychological, - and biological medicine in the prevention, assessment, and treatment of all forms of physical illness and the adaptation to illness; specific behavioural, psychotherapeutic, and pharmaceutical methods are used to help the person respond to illness and prevent further illness through matching coping and management skill to person’s abilities, character, and personality stile.
  15. 15. Behavioral Medicine is an interdisciplinary field of medicine concerned with the development and integration of psychosocial, behavioral and biomedical knowledge relevant to health and illness. The term is often used interchangeably with health psychology, however, behavioral medicine development teams include psychiatrists, nurses, and other medical support staff. Clinical psychology includes the scientific study and application of psychology for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.[1][2] Central to its practice are psychological assessment and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration.[3] In many countries it is a regulated mental health profession.
  16. 16. Psychosomatic medicine is the medical field studying and providing an interdisciplinary approach to psychosomatic illness, now more commonly referred to as psychophysiologic illness, disorders whose symptoms are caused by mental processes of the sufferer rather than immediate physiological causes. These syndromes are classified as by the World Health Organisation in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems.
  17. 17. Psychosomatic medicine integrates interdisciplinary evaluation and management involving specialties as psychiatry, psychology, neurology; surgery; gynecology; pain management; pediatrics; dermatology; and psychoneuroimmunology. Clinical situations as depression as a major factor affecting medical outcomes in coronary artery disease, diabetes, neuropsychiatric presentations of endocrine, rheumatologic, and infectious diseases; functional disorders like irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue syndrome; psychiatric complications of medical treatments like chemotherapy, implanted defibrillators, and immunosuppression; psychological factors affecting medical compliance and surgical results; and special considerations in using psychiatric drugs in the medically ill, are all areas where Psychosomatic medicine has competence.[1]
  18. 18. Health psychology concerns itself with understanding how biology, behavior, and social context influence health and illness.[1] Health psychologists generally work alongside other medical professionals in clinical settings, although many also teach and conduct research. Although its early beginnings can be traced to the kindred field of clinical psychology, four different approaches to health psychology have been defined: clinical, public health, community and critical health psychology[2]
  19. 19. 3. The Role of Psychology in Health and Illness -There are aspects of human behaviour which can result in serious medical problems. -Stress is manifested in terms of psychological and physiological problems. -Certain personality characteristics has been correlated with specific diseases. -People respond emotionally to adverse changes in their state of health. -Understanding doctor-patient relations helps to define and solve the patient’s problems. -Psychological treatment approaches can be applied to a variety of medical problems.
  20. 20. The relevance of psychology to medicine a. Changes in behaviour associated with such factors as aging, psychiatric illness and neurological impairment b. The role of psychological factors in the aetiology of medical problems c. Doctor-patient relations d. The patient’s response to illness and treatment e. Psychological approaches to treatment