Infectious dermatoses


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Infectious dermatoses

  1. 1. Defense mechanisms •Physical barrier •Chemical and biochemical barrier •Biologic barrier •Innate immunity •Acquired immunity E. Simko WCVM
  2. 2. Infectious skin diseases - viral Poxviruses Macules, papules, vesicles, pustules, crusts E. Simko WCVM Orthopoxvirus Parapoxvirus Capripoxvirus Leporipoxvirus Suipoxvirus Avipoxvirus
  3. 3. Infectious skin diseases - viral Pseudocowpox (parapoxvirus) Zoonosis (milker's nodules) Bovine herpes mammillitis virus Contagious ecthyma (Parapoxvirus) High morbidity and low mortality E. Simko WCVM Bovine papular stomatitis
  4. 4. Other viral infections: Canine distemper Nasodigital hyperkeratosis (hard pad disease) Foot-and-mouth disease (picornavirus) Vesicular stomatitis (rhabdovirus) Swine vesicular disease (picornavirus) Vesicular exanthema (calicivirus) Infectious skin diseases - viral E. Simko WCVM
  5. 5. Diagnosis of viral infections: • History • Gross and histopathology • Immunohistochemistry • Electron microscopy • Viral isolation Infectious skin diseases - viral E. Simko WCVM
  6. 6. Infectious skin diseases Superficial folliculitis Deep folliculitis • Furunculosis • Adenitis E. Simko WCVM
  7. 7. Infectious skin diseases - Bacterial • Superficial pustular dermatitis (impetigo)& folliculitis Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus • Dermatophilosis (Bo, Ov, Eq, rare in Ca, Fe) Dermatophilus congolensis • Exudative epidermitis of pigs (greasy pig disease) Staphylococcus hyicus E. Simko WCVM Pathogenesis: bacterial proliferation in epidermis triggers superficial neutrophilic inflammation
  8. 8. Infectious skin diseases - Bacterial E. Simko WCVM Deep bacterial infections secondary to follicular hyperkeratosis, immunosuppression, trauma et cet • Staphylococcal folliculitis and furunculosis (Ca) • Subcutaneous abscesses (P. multocida) (Fe) • Granulomatous dermatitis M. lepraemurium (Fe)
  9. 9. Infectious skin diseases - Bacterial E. Simko WCVM • Footrot - Bacteroides nodosus +/- F. necrophorum Benign (scald) and virulent form • Necrobacillosis - F. necrophorum +/- B. melaninogenicus Ovine and bovine interdigital dermatitis • Bovine digital dermatitis (strawberry foot) Associated with spirochetes • Viral diseases (BVD, MCF, F&M…)
  10. 10. Infectious skin diseases - Bacterial E. Simko WCVM • Septicemia / endotoxemia S. suis, Salmonella, Erysipelas • Clostridial infections (more details in muscle)
  11. 11. Infectious skin diseases E. Simko WCVM • Microsporum and Trichophyton • Zoonosis • Fungi invade and damage keratinized tissues initiating inflammation resulting in folliculitis/furunculosis • Fungi die in the central areas of inflammation and are viable peripherally forming peripheral red rings. Dermatophytosis (ring worm)
  12. 12. Infectious skin diseases - Mycotic diseases E. Simko WCVM Malassezia (M. pachydermatis) Blastomycosis Cryptoccocosis
  13. 13. Infectious skin diseases E. Simko WCVM Diagnosis of bacterial and mycotic dz •Scraping •Cultures •Gross and histopathology Nota bene !!! • Pyoderma is usually secondary disease obscuring primary disorders • Therefore, treat it first and than submit skin biopsy
  14. 14. Infectious skin diseases E. Simko WCVM Diseases are due to direct effect of parasites and/or hypersensitivity reaction Diagnosis: Scraping Gross and histopathology
  15. 15. Infectious skin diseases - Ectoparasites E. Simko WCVM • Demodex canis live in the lumina of hair follicles • Transmission occurs during nursing • In juvenile dogs and immunocompromised adults • Lesions: localized (face and/or forelegs) or generalized scaling, erythema and alopecia • Sarcoptes scabiei - highly contagious • Mites burrow through the stratum corneum and cause intense pruritus (hypersensitivity reaction)
  16. 16. Keratinization disorders E. Simko WCVM • Abnormal cornification or sebaceous glands function • Change from nonpathogenic to pathogenic bacteria • Dry or greasy form • Primary or secondary Seborrheic Disease Complex
  17. 17. Morphology of skin lesions - Primary or Secondary E. Simko WCVM
  18. 18. Nutritional disorders E. Simko WCVM • Abnormal keratinization and pigmentation Zinc and Copper Deficiency Vitamin A Vitamin E
  19. 19. Neoplastic skin diseases E. Simko WCVM Skin is a common site of neoplasms in most animals • Epithelial tumors • Mesenchymal tumors • Melanocytic tumors Diagnosis • Fine needle aspirate • Biopsy
  20. 20. Neoplastic skin diseases E. Simko WCVM