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1. 1. Graduate Record Exam Dr. Michael Radis Howard University Presented at University of Texas at El Paso September 21, 2004
2. 2. Verbal Section---4 Types of Questions 30 Questions in 30 Minute  Antonyms  Find the answer that is most nearly opposite the word in question  Some questions require a fine distinction between words  BANAL  Faithful  Arresting  Inclined  Forced  Elaborate  CORRECT ANSWER (Elaborate)
3. 3. Antonyms  Some questions may require you to find second meanings of words;  Example: “depress” can mean to “press down” or to “make sad”  Predilection  Unwillingness to choose  Desire to please  Ambiguity  Stereotype  Propensity to dislike  CORRECT ANSWER—Propensity to dislike
4. 4. Analogies  Tests your ability to see:  A relationship in a pair of words  To understand the ideas expressed in the relationship  To recognize a similar relationship in the answer choice
5. 5. Analogies Hints  1. Before you look at the answer choices, state to yourself the precise relationship between the 2 words in the question  Tree is to Forest as:  A tree is a part of a forest  You will be looking for a relationship that is a part to a whole
6. 6. Analogies Hints  2. After you have noted the relationship in the question then look at the answer choices for the same relationship:  Finger is to hand  A finger is a part of a hand
7. 7. Analogies  Always compare the relationship between the pairs  They must always be in the same direction The first term is to the second term (in the question) as the first term is to the second term in the answer Pediatrics: Children Dermatology: Skin Pathology: Medicine Meteorology: Forecasts Neurology: Psychologists Ecology: Environmentalists Correct Answer: Dermatology: Skin
8. 8. Sentence Completion  Require you to grasp the meaning of a sentence and supply the appropriate word (or words) to fill in the blanks  Read each sentence to get the overall meaning  Mentally provide your own answer  Find the answer choice that is closest to your answer
9. 9. Sentence Completion  REMEMBER  There is almost always a part of the sentence to help you figure out relationships:  Words like: and, moreover, also, but, although, however, therefore  Take out the “extra words that do not contribute to the structure  After making your choice reread the sentence to make certain that it makes sense.
10. 10. Sentence Completion  Heavily perfumed white flowers, such as gardenias, were favorites with collectors in the eighteenth century, when _________ was valued much more highly than today.
11. 11.  Heavily perfumed whitewhite flowers, such as gardenias,such as gardenias, were favorites with collectors in the eighteenthwith collectors in the eighteenth century,century, when ____ was valued much more highlymuch more highly than it is today.than it is today.  Scent  Beauty  Elegance  Color  Variety  Correct Answer: Scent
12. 12. Reading Comprehension  You will get two of these: One will be in a technical area and the other in a social science or humanities area  You are not required to have knowledge of the subject matter—Only what is stated in the passage  What does the author say about _____  What is the main point  What does the passage imply  What is the style or tone or attitude of the author
13. 13. Reading Comprehension  Every fifth line is numbered so that you can quickly refer back if the question is about a specific line:  “According to the passage, the role of the flow restriction (lines 16 and 17) in a heat pump is to….”
14. 14. Reading Comprehension  To Prepare  Read Newspapers, Magazines etc. on line Practice scrolling down to read longer articles In the Reading Passages Content is irrelevant Vocabulary is important
15. 15. GRE- Quantitative Test  Three types of Questions 28 Questions- 45 Minutes Regular Multiple Choice- Stand alone questions with five answer choices Quantitative Comparisons- two quantities are compared with 4 answer choices Data interpretation- a 5 choice question referring to a display of data; these questions appear in sets of two consecutive questions from the same data display
16. 16. Mathematical Content Level  Standard High School Mathematics  Not normally beyond precalculus  No trigonometry  No Calculus  No College level math
17. 17. What is covered?  Arithmetic:  Elementary operations,  Percent,  Properties of integers  Counting Methods
18. 18. What is covered?  Algebra  Algebraic expressions and manipulations  Solving Equations and Inequalities  Functions and Graphs  Setting up and solving word problems with algebra
19. 19. What is covered?  Geometry  Elementary geometric figures and concepts- lines, circles, polygons, area, perimeter, volume, Pythagorean Theorem, coordinate geometry  The ability to construct geometric proofs is not required  Figures drawn on the test are not to scale
20. 20. What is covered?  Data Analysis  Basic descriptive statistics: Mean Median Standard Deviation Interpretation of Graphs of data These are drawn to scale Elementary Probability
21. 21. Quantitative Comparison Questions  Always have the same answer choices in the same order  Quantity in Column A is greater  Quantity in Column B is greater  Two Quantities are equal  Relationship cannot be determined from the information given
22. 22. General Hints- Quantitative  Read Carefully- don’t overlook something or misread the question  The answer is always there  Reread the question to make sure that you have answered the question that was asked  Remember you cannot skip a question- if you get stuck make an educated guess so that you can go on to the next question
23. 23. GRE- Writing Assignment  Two Analytical Writing Tasks  45 Minute--- “Present Your Perspective on An Issue”  30 Minute--- “ Analyze an Argument”
24. 24. Topics  You will be given a choice between two “Issue” topics.  Each states an opinion on an issue of broad interest and asks you to discuss the issue from any perspectives that you wish.  As long as you provide relevant examples and reasons to explain and support your views.
25. 25. Sample Issue Topic and Directions  Directions: Present your perspective on the issue below using relevant reasons and/or examples to support your views  Issue Topic  “In our time, specialists of all kinds are highly over-rated. We need more generalists— people who can provide broad perspectives.”
26. 26. Topics  You will not be given a choice in the “Argument” essay.  You will be given an argument to analyze  It is your task to analyze how well an argument was thought out and well reasoned it is.  You need to consider the logical soundness of the argument rather than whether or not you agree with it.
27. 27. Sample Argument Topic and Directions  Directions: Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument Topic Hospital statistics regarding people who go to the emergency room after roller-skating accidents indicate the need for more protective equipment. Within this group of people, 75% of those who had accidents in streets or parking lots were not wearing any protective clothing (helmets, knee pads etc.) or any light reflecting materials (clip on lights, glow in the dark wrist pads etc.) Clearly these statistics indicate that by investing in high-quality protective gear and reflective equipment, roller skaters will greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured in an accident.”
28. 28. Scoring  Readers take into consideration the time constraints and consider the writing a first draft- spelling and grammar (unless extremely poor) are not given as much weight as organization and content.  Readers are all college and university faculty experienced in writing and writing intensive courses.  Each essay is judged as a whole
29. 29. Scoring  6 Point Scale  6- Cogent, Well Articulated, Demonstrates a mastery of effective writing  5- Develops a well developed analysis of the complexities of the issues and strong control of the elements of effective writing  4- Competent analysis of the issue and adequate control of the elements of writing  3- Some competence in its analysis of the issue and control of the elements of writing but is clearly flawed
30. 30. Scoring  2- Serious Weakness in analytical writing  1- Fundamental deficiencies in analytical writing skills  0- Off topic, in a foreign language, merely copies the topic, consists of only keystroke characters, illegible, blank or nonverbal
31. 31. Structure of Test  Although your will only be scored on three sections: Verbal, Quantitative, Writing You will be given 4 tests.  You may get a second one of any of these  This is a section in which ETS can test out the validity of questions:  You do not know which section is the one on which you are not scored so you must try your best on all tests
32. 32. Structure of Test  At one point the computer will ask if you want a break.  If you take one be certain to return to your station on time  The computer will start the next test and the timing whether you are there or not
33. 33. Structure of Test  Don’t get hung up and waste a lot of time on a question  You must answer a minimum number of questions in each section in order to receive any score  Anything below the minimum number of questions attempted (whether correct or incorrect) will result in a No Score and the section will not be counted.
34. 34.  Download  Power Prep- www.ets.org or www.gre.org  This is a FREE way to get study materials  Questions from old tests  Answer Explanations etc.  Sample tests with scoring and timing and results
35. 35. STUDY HARD  AND GOOD LUCK !