Medical Tourism in Thailand 1
By Wanvipha Nuke Hongnaphadol
‘Consumer choice and motivation of medical
:tourism in Thailan...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 2
Definitionsof key terms(1)
• ‘ ’Medical touris m
patients travelling overseas for medical ca...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 3
(1) (3) (5)
mere tourist medical mere patient
tourist proper
(2) (4)
medicated vacationing
t...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 4
Definitionsof key terms(2)
• ‘Health touris m’
all kind of treatments enhancing a state of
w...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 5
Health
Tourism
Wellness
Tourism
Medical
Tourism
Non-Elective
Medical
Care/Illness &
Elective...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 6
Level of Procedure Complexity & Risk
Bone marrow transplant cosmetic dental health Thai herb...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 7
Definitionsof key terms(3)
• ‘ ’Cons umer motivation
internal and external motivational forc...
Definitionsof key terms(4)
• Cons umer choice
– When policy analysts examine healthcare systems from the
,broadest perspec...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 9
IntroductiontoMedical Tourism(1)
• ( . . — 2003Europe e g Hungary declared as
the Year of He...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 10
IntroductiontoMedical TourismResearch (1)
• —The rise of medical tourism as the major
—medi...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 11
IntroductiontoMedical TourismResearch (2)
• No empirical study identifying the motivation o...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 12
IntroductiontoMedical TourismResearch (3)
Recent bus ines s report
• A recent report Asian ...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 13
IntroductiontoMedical TourismResearch (4)
(1):The context of Thailand Touris m in Thailand
...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 14
IntroductiontoMedical TourismResearch (5)
(2)The context of Thailand
• Geographical locatio...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 15
Medical Tourismin Thailand
• 1970Thailand became a medical tourism destination in the s
wit...
Healthcare(1)
• Different pattern of previous and new
healthcare consumers ( , 2002)Hjertqvist
– ,Previously the healthcar...
Healthcare(2)
• Freedom of choice and the use of healthcare facilities in
many countries are predominant in the current
’h...
Healthcare(3)
• Healthcare is no longer defined by people
—receiving services when they are ill the
.stereotypical patient...
Healthcare(4)
• Healthcare systems in individual countries are
,different due to the social political and cultural
.contex...
HealthcaresysteminThailand
• - —A market oriented healthcare system people have
free choice in selecting a healthcare faci...
HealthcaresystemintheUKandtheUS
Healthcare
approach
Health
ins urance
Characteris tic Sys tem Mos t
common
problem in
heal...
Dimensions of the Healthcare Systems of US and UK
: (2004); (2004); (2007)Sources Blank and Burau Weitz World Health Organ...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 23
TheAccesstoNHS (National Health Service)
Medical Tourism in Thailand 24
Longwaitinglist
Medical Tourism in Thailand 25
Theinsurance
Medical Tourism in Thailand 26
Theoretical Framework(1)
Concepts on travel motivation
– Maslow’ (1943)s hierarchical needs...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 27
Theoretical Framework(2)
– A literature review on tourist motivations
indicates that the -p...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 28
Theoretical Framework(3)
– (Push Escaping/ )the desire to travel & Pull
(Seeking/ ) ( -the ...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 29
Medical TouristsMotivationtoDestinationCountries
Push factor
•Physical/psychological factor...
Identity: patient, consumer, citizen (1)
• As the role of market raises the significant issue of
identity, ,in terms of he...
Identity: patient, consumer, citizen (2)
Medical Tourism in Thailand 31
Identity Des cription Characteris tic s
cons umer ...
Characteristicsof healthcaremarket (1)
• “Medical care is uncertain and unpredictable; ,many consumers do not desire it do...
Characteristicsof healthcaremarket (2)
• “Medical services are not advertised as other goods and the producer discourages
...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 34
Theoretical Framework(recap)
Push & Pull only explain why people go
BUT it does not explain...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 35
Aimsof thestudy
1. To explore the reasons why major English speaking
consumers travel to Th...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 36
Research Questions
• What are the significant motives that influence the decision of medica...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 37
Fact finding
• ( )Samitivej Sriracha Hos pital
• ( )Bangkok Pattaya Hos pital
• Bangkok Chr...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 38
Thestudy site(1)
Medical Tourism in Thailand 39
Thestudy site(2)
Pattaya
Medical Tourism in Thailand 40
Thestudy site(3)
Bangkok Pattaya Hospital
Medical Tourism in Thailand 41
(1)In s earch of the res earch s ubject
Number of foreignpatientsbeingservicedat Thai priva...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 42
(2)In s earch of the res earch s ubject
• Patients from the US and Europe constitute
20abou...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 43
: (1)Methodology Data collection
Res earch des ign
• Survey approach
– -Semi structured int...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 44
: (2)Methodology Data collection
1.Stage Exploratory s tudy:
-s emi s tructured interview
–...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 45
: (3)Methodology Data collection
2.Stage Des igning the ques tionnaire:
– The field intervi...
: (3)Methodology Data collection
• 3:Stage Main ques tionnaire s tudy
– Visit the hospital
– 150 (75 ; 75Survey medical to...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 47
Challenges
• Little academic research has been done on medical
tourism market due to its re...
…Interesting points
• ‘ ’ ‘ ’?Is medical tourism about tourism
• ‘ ’Is cosmetic surgery tourism more related to
‘ ’ ?touri...
Medical Tourism in Thailand 49
.Thank you for your attention
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

DOWNLOAD

540 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
540
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

DOWNLOAD

  1. 1. Medical Tourism in Thailand 1 By Wanvipha Nuke Hongnaphadol ‘Consumer choice and motivation of medical :tourism in Thailand a case study of healthcare consumers visiting a private healthcare ’provider in Pattaya The York Management School ,Univers ity of York UK
  2. 2. Medical Tourism in Thailand 2 Definitionsof key terms(1) • ‘ ’Medical touris m patients travelling overseas for medical care — —involving specific medical intervention and operations combined with relaxation on ( , 2006)holidays Connell • ‘ ’Medical touris t /a person leaving his her own country for ( , 2006)medical treatment overseas Hancock
  3. 3. Medical Tourism in Thailand 3 (1) (3) (5) mere tourist medical mere patient tourist proper (2) (4) medicated vacationing tourist patient ( , 2006: 89)Cohen A Typology of Medical Tourists
  4. 4. Medical Tourism in Thailand 4 Definitionsof key terms(2) • ‘Health touris m’ all kind of treatments enhancing a state of well being both physically and psychologically, ranging from the spa experience through cosmetic surgery to lifesaving surgery like ( - ,heart transplant Caballero Danell & Mugomba 2007)
  5. 5. Medical Tourism in Thailand 5 Health Tourism Wellness Tourism Medical Tourism Non-Elective Medical Care/Illness & Elective Medical Care Preventive Medical Care Enhancement/ Beauty Surgery Spa Tourism e.g. Aromatherapy Acupuncture Massage Yoga etc. e.g. Heart Surgery Bypass Operation Neurosurgery Cancer Treatment Transplants Hip replacement etc. e.g. Medical Check-ups Health Screening etc. e.g. Cosmetic Surgery Sex Change Operation Liposuction etc. (AdaptedfromTRAM, ATLAS, 2006)
  6. 6. Medical Tourism in Thailand 6 Level of Procedure Complexity & Risk Bone marrow transplant cosmetic dental health Thai herb & spa & Thai traditional massage organ transplant surgery procedure checkup alternative open heart surgery medicine stay at hotels or hospital travel package during recovery Related Services added by Tourism Model of Medical Tourism (Harryonoet al., 2006: 17) Medical outsourcing Tourism motivated
  7. 7. Medical Tourism in Thailand 7 Definitionsof key terms(3) • ‘ ’Cons umer motivation internal and external motivational forces ,impelling people to act to satisfy a need or the ( , 2004)reasons for consumer behaviour Leiper – The underlying reasons for consumer behaviour (Mayo , 1981; , 1982, 1991;& Jarvis Pearce Pearce & , 1983)Caltabiano – The basis of knowledge of consumer decision making ( , 1977)process Dann – The significant foundation for evaluating satisfaction from ’ ( , 1981; -consumers experience Dann Dunn Ross & Iso , 1991; , 2005)Ahola Yoon & Uysal
  8. 8. Definitionsof key terms(4) • Cons umer choice – When policy analysts examine healthcare systems from the ,broadest perspective very little about /patient consumer choice ( - , 2008).is mentioned Borkman and Munn Giddings • Consumer choice applied in the medical context is a .very interesting phenomenon – Asymmetry of information: why consumer choice is limited in medical context • Choice to seek treatment overseas Medical Tourism in Thailand 8
  9. 9. Medical Tourism in Thailand 9 IntroductiontoMedical Tourism(1) • ( . . — 2003Europe e g Hungary declared as the Year of Health Tourism—, ,Israel , , , )Belgium Poland Greece Spain • ( . . , ,Latin America e g Costa Rica Mexico )Brazil • ( . . —Middle East e g Dubai Dubai Healthcare City 2010—, , )by Jordan Iran • South Africa • ( ,Asia Singapore Thailand, , ,India Malaysia )Philippines • A reversed trend of traveling overseas to seek for medical treatment
  10. 10. Medical Tourism in Thailand 10 IntroductiontoMedical TourismResearch (1) • —The rise of medical tourism as the major —medical tourism destination is now in As ia ( , 2006).Connell • Little tourism research has been conducted on consumer motivation perspectives ( , 2000; , 2004).Goossens Bansal & Eiselt
  11. 11. Medical Tourism in Thailand 11 IntroductiontoMedical TourismResearch (2) • No empirical study identifying the motivation of travellers to Thailand ( .,Rittichainuwat et al 2008) ‘ -except the very recent study A factor :cluster analysis of tourist motivations a case . . ’ ( , 2008).of U S senior travellers Sangpikul • Answering the question of why people travel is the most challenging in tourist behaviour ( , 1979).Crompton
  12. 12. Medical Tourism in Thailand 12 IntroductiontoMedical TourismResearch (3) Recent bus ines s report • A recent report Asian Medical Tourism Analysis (2008-2012) shows the revenues generated by 3.4the region of US$ bn from medical tourism in 2007, 12.7%accounting for nearly of the global ‘market and Thailand has emerged as the largest medical tourism market in Asia’ ( ,Velasco 2008: 13). • ‘Thailand (is the largest medical tourism hub in ) -Asia in total volume and in both high end and - ’ ( , 2008).low end procedures Runckel
  13. 13. Medical Tourism in Thailand 13 IntroductiontoMedical TourismResearch (4) (1):The context of Thailand Touris m in Thailand • ( )Tourist destination attributes of Thailand – . . ,Five top tourism destinations i e BKK Chonburi (Pattaya), , ( )Phuket Chiang Mai and Songkhla Hat Yai ( , 1997)Thailand Development Research Institute • Perception of low risk – A survey conducted by Visa International Asia Pacific & 5,000the Pacific Asia Travel Association of international 10 52%travelers from markets around the world found considering Asia as their next travel destination and Thailand -to be the number one preferred destination ( , 2007).Travel Agent
  14. 14. Medical Tourism in Thailand 14 IntroductiontoMedical TourismResearch (5) (2)The context of Thailand • Geographical location – - ,A half way stopover point between Europe East ,Asia & Australia and as a gateway to Indochina • Competitive advantage – Low labour cost • / (Products supply institutional and )infrastructure • ( )English spoken by staff
  15. 15. Medical Tourism in Thailand 15 Medical Tourismin Thailand • 1970Thailand became a medical tourism destination in the s with its expertise in sex change operations and cosmetic surgery ( , 2006).Connell • 1997Asian Economic Crisis in – Currency collapse – Need for economic diversification – Merging medical expertise and tourism has become a ( , 2007).government policy in many Asian countries Teh • Perceptions of healthcare treatment – quality of trained doctors and nurses – ( )JCI Joint Commission International Accreditation • A private hospital in BKK was the first Asian hospital 2002.accredited by the JCI in
  16. 16. Healthcare(1) • Different pattern of previous and new healthcare consumers ( , 2002)Hjertqvist – ,Previously the healthcare provider was not designed to serve a real .consumer influence – , ’In the welfare state the patients specific demands could not be fully responded as .need – Western healthcare consumers today are provided with greater access to various means of information sources in order to compare the ’providers quality and .choices Medical Tourism in Thailand 16
  17. 17. Healthcare(2) • Freedom of choice and the use of healthcare facilities in many countries are predominant in the current ’healthcare consumer s framework when they can benefit from shorter waiting times and better quality services. • ‘The significant increase in consumerism’ owing to consumer expectations regarding the favourable outcome of medical intervention encourage more people —to seek medical care patients more aggressively seek .services that match their expectations Medical Tourism in Thailand 17
  18. 18. Healthcare(3) • Healthcare is no longer defined by people —receiving services when they are ill the .stereotypical patient • /Cross border healthcare patient mobility: citizens of the European Union may go to another EU country for specialist treatments that are not ,available in their own country or because the ( , 1999).waiting lists are shorter Hogg Medical Tourism in Thailand 18
  19. 19. Healthcare(4) • Healthcare systems in individual countries are ,different due to the social political and cultural .context • The concept of consumer choice differs between .the UK and US • ‘Theoretical perspectives on consumerism in ’health ( , 2005;Brown & Zavestoski Henderson & , 2002)Petersen are not universally applicable to .all Western democratic countries Medical Tourism in Thailand 19
  20. 20. HealthcaresysteminThailand • - —A market oriented healthcare system people have free choice in selecting a healthcare facility ( , 2002)Janjaroen & Supakankunti • 3All Thai citizens have been covered by main public :health financing schemes Medical Tourism in Thailand 20 Public health financing s chemes ?Who eligible Social Security Scheme ( )SSS Formal sector employees Civil Servant Medical ( )Benefit Scheme CSMBS Government employee and their dependents Universal Coverage (30 )Scheme Baht Scheme The rest of the population
  21. 21. HealthcaresystemintheUKandtheUS Healthcare approach Health ins urance Characteris tic Sys tem Mos t common problem in healthcare s ervice UK Public driven ( )—tax based independent & public providers Universal Health Insurance Welfare state National Healthcare System ( )NHS Long waiting list ( )access Recent NHS , . .reform i e the introduction of -market style competition into the provision of ;healthcare government defines a new role for patients US /Private market driven Private Health Insurance individualistic A mixed system Price (affordability ) Medical Tourism in Thailand 21
  22. 22. Dimensions of the Healthcare Systems of US and UK : (2004); (2004); (2007)Sources Blank and Burau Weitz World Health Organisation Medical Tourism in Thailand 22 Dimens ion US UK ?Citizen rights to healthcare Negative rights Positive rights ?Individual relates to society Individualistic Egalitarian Nature of system :Mixed and fragmented free market with governmental insurance for special vulnerable populations Centralised with a national health system Role of free market Very high Low but rising Payment for care :Mixed government through , , - -taxes private insurance out of pocket government through general taxes Extent health system publicly (2004)funded 44.7% 86.3% Universal coverage No Yes ( ,Ownership of facilities hospitals , )nursing homes etc : - ,Mixed private for profit ,nonprofit government Predominately government National policy on consumers involvement in healthcare system :No variable policies for different ,diseases government ,jurisdictions myriad of health insurance companies :Yes consumers involvement mandated
  23. 23. Medical Tourism in Thailand 23 TheAccesstoNHS (National Health Service)
  24. 24. Medical Tourism in Thailand 24 Longwaitinglist
  25. 25. Medical Tourism in Thailand 25 Theinsurance
  26. 26. Medical Tourism in Thailand 26 Theoretical Framework(1) Concepts on travel motivation – Maslow’ (1943)s hierarchical needs – Seeking and escaping ( - , 1982)Iso Ahola as push and pull – Psychological and physiological needs ( , 1938; , 1981)Murray Mayo and Jarvis – -Needs based ,motivation -benefit sought based ,motivation -attribute based, and -psychologically based (motivation Pearce , 1983)and Caltabiano
  27. 27. Medical Tourism in Thailand 27 Theoretical Framework(2) – A literature review on tourist motivations indicates that the -pus h pull theory is a useful approach to understand travel motivations to visit a particular destination of various traveler ( ., 2000; , 2002).groups You et al Klenosky – The -pus h pull theory has prevailed over other paradigms in investigating motivation underlying tourist and visitation behaviour ( , 1977, 1981; , 1979).Dann Crompton
  28. 28. Medical Tourism in Thailand 28 Theoretical Framework(3) – (Push Escaping/ )the desire to travel & Pull (Seeking/ ) ( -the choice of destination Iso , 1982).Ahola – (Push whether to go) (& Pull where to go) ( , 2002).Klenosky – (Push intangible intrinsic desires of tourists) (& Pull /tangible characteristics attributes of a destination) ( , 2002).Kozak
  29. 29. Medical Tourism in Thailand 29 Medical TouristsMotivationtoDestinationCountries Push factor •Physical/psychological factors •Overburdened healthcare system in home country •Unaffordable •Inaccessible Intermediaries (representative offices) Direct •Accessible •High quality, low price •Unexpected service •Relaxation/recuper ation Medical Tourist in Originating Country Destination Country ( , 1979)adapted from Leiper
  30. 30. Identity: patient, consumer, citizen (1) • As the role of market raises the significant issue of identity, ,in terms of healthcare market the identity of health service users is considered whether they are patients ;receiving services passively consumers ;shaping and controlling the receipt of services or citizens .utilising their rights to free healthcare • It is essential to explore how health service users have engaged with these identities as these words can be differently conceptualis ed due to different .healthcare systems Medical Tourism in Thailand 30
  31. 31. Identity: patient, consumer, citizen (2) Medical Tourism in Thailand 31 Identity Des cription Characteris tic s cons umer • A user of products and services in both public and private sectors ( , 2007)Needham • People who are able to make their own decisions about the care they ,receive express opinions about the care and perhaps evaluate the care ( , 2002)Henderson • Ability to exercise choice, shape and control services they are about to buy • As a market and economic participant • Those who seek healthcare in an active ,role and perhaps make their own decisions • Individualistic • Healthcare -consumer provider relationship • Doctor shopping citizen • As a political actor in the public sector • Collectivist patient • People with particular health problems who may be taking medicines or receiving treatment ( , 1999)Hogg • 1. 2.passive patients patients who have low expectations of their 3.physician patients who behave as consumers, with expectations and ability to critically evaluate the quality of treatment received and ability to ( - ,make changes Baron epel et al 2001) • Stereotypical patient with passive role seeking and following physician advice • -Patient physician relationship • Passive :patients patriarchal physician approach
  32. 32. Characteristicsof healthcaremarket (1) • “Medical care is uncertain and unpredictable; ,many consumers do not desire it do , .not know they need it and cannot know in advance what it would cost them They ;cannot learn from experience they must rely on the supplier to tell them if they ,have been well served and cannot return the service to the seller and have it .repaired ” ( , 1999: 169)Hogg • Consumers are uncertain of their health status and need for healthcare in any particular time • A product uncertainty as consumers may not know the expected outcomes of ’treatments without their physicians advice • The consumers cannot test the product before using it • Recovery from disease is as unpredictable. ( , 2001)Folland et al Medical Tourism in Thailand 32
  33. 33. Characteristicsof healthcaremarket (2) • “Medical services are not advertised as other goods and the producer discourages . ,comparisons Once the purchase is made consumers cannot change their minds - .in mid treatment ” ( , 1999: 169)Hogg Medical Tourism in Thailand 33
  34. 34. Medical Tourism in Thailand 34 Theoretical Framework(recap) Push & Pull only explain why people go BUT it does not explain how deficiency of ’people s own healthcare system is eg How UK people recognise the ?deficiency of healthcare
  35. 35. Medical Tourism in Thailand 35 Aimsof thestudy 1. To explore the reasons why major English speaking consumers travel to Thailand for their medical treatment – The motivations of potential medical tourists – Differences in these motivations among different groups both from the same and different countries – Interrelationships among these motivations • To investigate the consumer choices in selecting a particular treatment in Thailand over other medical tourism destinations • To investigate the degree of tourism participation of those medical tourists
  36. 36. Medical Tourism in Thailand 36 Research Questions • What are the significant motives that influence the decision of medical tourists ?from the UK and the US to travel toThailand 1. , ?How are these motives different with respect to age nationality and gender 2. ( )How does Bangkok Pattaya Hospital BPH perceive the consumer motivation from these ?countries 3. To what extent does BPH applied perceived consumer motivation to service provision for ? ’medical tourists How is a healthcare provider s service provision related to what motivates ?medical tourists to visit the hospital 2. What are the major keys influencing consumer choices about provider and ? ?destination Why does a medical tourist choose one destination over another 3. To what extent do medical tourists take tourism component as a part in their decision ?making process 2. ?Is medical tourism in Thailand about tourism Is medical tourism likely to utilise the tourism ?component 3. ?What is about the tourist part of medical tourism 4. ?To what extent do medical tourists participate in tourism
  37. 37. Medical Tourism in Thailand 37 Fact finding • ( )Samitivej Sriracha Hos pital • ( )Bangkok Pattaya Hos pital • Bangkok Chris tian Hos pital • Phyathai Hos pital • Bangkok Hos pital • ( )Samitivej Sukhumvit Hos pital In search of thestudy site Bangkok Chonburi
  38. 38. Medical Tourism in Thailand 38 Thestudy site(1)
  39. 39. Medical Tourism in Thailand 39 Thestudy site(2) Pattaya
  40. 40. Medical Tourism in Thailand 40 Thestudy site(3) Bangkok Pattaya Hospital
  41. 41. Medical Tourism in Thailand 41 (1)In s earch of the res earch s ubject Number of foreignpatientsbeingservicedat Thai privatehospitalsJAN-DEC2007 Oceania Australia 36,472 Newzealand 8,175 Others N/A Total 44,647 Middle East UAE 81,713 Oman 32,898 Kuwait 5,746 Bharain 3,013 Qatar 16,722 Yemen 2,440 Others 9,828 Total 70,647 South Asia Bangladesh 28,979 India 34,661 Pakistan 3,648 Srilanka 1,485 Maldieves 5,038 Others 7,191 Total 81,002 Country Number of foreign patients North America US 127,552 Canada 23,244 Total 150,796 Europe UK 109,179 Germany 43,879 France 35,453 Sweden 22,288 Others 46,769 Total 257,568 East Europe Russia 9,585 Others 2,161 Total 11,746 East Asia Japan 116,475 China 46,980 South Korea 27,181 Taiwan 5,127 Others 4,400 Total 200,163 ASEAN Cambodia 24,163 Burma 36,257 Vietnam 4,483 Indonesia 7,164 Philippines 12,527 Others 16,179 Total 100,773 Source: Department of ExportPromotion
  42. 42. Medical Tourism in Thailand 42 (2)In s earch of the res earch s ubject • Patients from the US and Europe constitute 20about % of the total inflow of foreign patients with a higher proportion seeking for cosmetic surgery, hip and knee replacement and organ transplant —to Thailand the same is growing every year by around 40% for the US and 50% ( , 2007).for Europe patients Teh
  43. 43. Medical Tourism in Thailand 43 : (1)Methodology Data collection Res earch des ign • Survey approach – -Semi structured interviews –Survey questionnaires
  44. 44. Medical Tourism in Thailand 44 : (2)Methodology Data collection 1.Stage Exploratory s tudy: -s emi s tructured interview – - :Pre study piloting the questions for interview in the UK ( 5approx British people who have visited )Thailand for some kind of treatment – Visits to hospital – Interview foreign patients in Thailand ( 20approx -10 ; 10 )patients from the UK from the US
  45. 45. Medical Tourism in Thailand 45 : (3)Methodology Data collection 2.Stage Des igning the ques tionnaire: – The field interviews are to inform the questionnaire development and to help design the questionnaire items to measure the medical tourism motivations and .consumer choice
  46. 46. : (3)Methodology Data collection • 3:Stage Main ques tionnaire s tudy – Visit the hospital – 150 (75 ; 75Survey medical tourists from the UK from ) (the US using quota sampling nationality and gender )distribution Medical Tourism in Thailand 46
  47. 47. Medical Tourism in Thailand 47 Challenges • Little academic research has been done on medical tourism market due to its relatively new niche ( - , 2007).market Caballero Danell & Mugomba • The nature of seeking medical care abroad is a relatively private matter therefore finding respondents of medical tourism to make up a significant sample size .may be challenging • Ethical concerns – , ,Information sheet for patients hospital and hospital related provisions
  48. 48. …Interesting points • ‘ ’ ‘ ’?Is medical tourism about tourism • ‘ ’Is cosmetic surgery tourism more related to ‘ ’ ?tourism than medical tourism • ‘ ’Would gender reassignment be more ‘ ’ ‘considered as medical tourism than cosmetic ’?surgery tourism • ?Health inequalities Medical Tourism in Thailand 48
  49. 49. Medical Tourism in Thailand 49 .Thank you for your attention

×