Clinical, Radiographic, and Laboratory Procedures


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Clinical, Radiographic, and Laboratory Procedures

  1. 1. Clinical, Radiologic, andClinical, Radiologic, and Diagnostic ProceduresDiagnostic Procedures MEDL 2350MEDL 2350
  2. 2. 1.1. The combining form that meansThe combining form that means hardeninghardening A.A. Choroid/oChoroid/o B.B. scler/oscler/o C.C. Retin/oRetin/o D.D. Hard/oHard/o
  3. 3. 2.2. A keratotome is used toA keratotome is used to A.A. Incise the middle earIncise the middle ear B.B. Cut into the corneaCut into the cornea C.C. Examine the eyeExamine the eye D.D. Correct visionCorrect vision
  4. 4. 3.3. Blepharitis is inflammation of theBlepharitis is inflammation of the A.A. eyeballeyeball B.B. EyelidEyelid C.C. CorneaCornea D.D. retinaretina
  5. 5. 4.4. If someone is myopic, then they areIf someone is myopic, then they are A.A. FarsighetedFarsigheted B.B. NearsightedNearsighted C.C. HyperopicHyperopic D.D. blindblind
  6. 6. 5.5. The blood vessels of the eye areThe blood vessels of the eye are found in which layer?found in which layer? A.A. RetinaRetina B.B. ChoroidChoroid C.C. ScleraSclera D.D. corneacornea
  7. 7. 6.6. A salpingoscope is used to examineA salpingoscope is used to examine thethe A.A. Eustachian tubeEustachian tube B.B. SphinxSphinx C.C. Semicircular canalsSemicircular canals D.D. cochleacochlea
  8. 8. 7.7. The malleus, incus, and stapes areThe malleus, incus, and stapes are found in thefound in the A.A. Middle earMiddle ear B.B. External earExternal ear C.C. Ear drumEar drum D.D. Inner earInner ear
  9. 9. 8.8. Of the following structures, which isOf the following structures, which is for audition?for audition? A.A. Tympanic membraneTympanic membrane B.B. Semicircular canalsSemicircular canals C.C. ChoroidChoroid D.D. Rods and conesRods and cones
  10. 10. 9.9. VertigoVertigo A.A. DizzinessDizziness B.B. A bad movieA bad movie C.C. Ringing in the earsRinging in the ears D.D. Complete hearing lossComplete hearing loss
  11. 11. 10.10. A progressive form of deafness dueA progressive form of deafness due to ossification in the bony labyrinthto ossification in the bony labyrinth of the inner ear.of the inner ear. A.A. PresbycusisPresbycusis B.B. Meniere’s DiseaseMeniere’s Disease C.C. OtosclerosisOtosclerosis D.D. anacusisanacusis
  12. 12. ArthroscopyArthroscopy Direct Joint VisualizationDirect Joint Visualization Instrument is ArthroscopeInstrument is Arthroscope Done by an orthopedic surgeonDone by an orthopedic surgeon Knee, shoulder, and ankle are mostKnee, shoulder, and ankle are most common. Toe joints are also scoped withcommon. Toe joints are also scoped with increasing frequency.increasing frequency. Can be a diagnostic tool or a treatment toolCan be a diagnostic tool or a treatment tool by removing tissue that is “dead”by removing tissue that is “dead”
  13. 13. AspirationAspiration  Withdrawal of fluid from a jointWithdrawal of fluid from a joint  Can be done by any doctor in anCan be done by any doctor in an office setting.  A large bore needle is inserted intoA large bore needle is inserted into the joint to remove the synovialthe joint to remove the synovial fluid.fluid.  Fluid can be examined under aFluid can be examined under a microscope for crystals (gout) ormicroscope for crystals (gout) or cultured for bacteria (infection).cultured for bacteria (infection).
  14. 14. BiopsyBiopsy  Remove of skin or other tissue forRemove of skin or other tissue for examination.examination.  Microscopic examination can revealMicroscopic examination can reveal “changed” cells. Ie: cancer“changed” cells. Ie: cancer  Breast, bone, muscle, and skinBreast, bone, muscle, and skin  Usually done to make a diagnosis.Usually done to make a diagnosis.  When skin cancer is suspected, aWhen skin cancer is suspected, a biopsy is also used to remove tissue.biopsy is also used to remove tissue.
  15. 15. BronchoscopyBronchoscopy  Used to visually examine theUsed to visually examine the bronchial tubes.bronchial tubes.  A “bronchoscope” is a flexibleA “bronchoscope” is a flexible camera that shows what the bronchicamera that shows what the bronchi look like.look like.  The scope also serves as a suctionThe scope also serves as a suction machine enabling the surgeon tomachine enabling the surgeon to remove tissue to biopsy, examineremove tissue to biopsy, examine sputum, or foreign bodies.sputum, or foreign bodies.
  16. 16. ColonoscopyColonoscopy  A visual examination of the colon.A visual examination of the colon.  A colonoscope is used to biopsy orA colonoscope is used to biopsy or excise tissue.excise tissue.  Done by a gastroenterologist.Done by a gastroenterologist.
  17. 17. ElectrocardiogramElectrocardiogram  A visual record of the electricalA visual record of the electrical activity of the heart.activity of the heart.  The instrument used is anThe instrument used is an electrocardiograph.electrocardiograph.  Done by placing a series ofDone by placing a series of electrodes on the thorax to measureelectrodes on the thorax to measure electrical activity.electrical activity.  Can be done by a physician,Can be done by a physician, technician, or nurse.technician, or nurse.
  18. 18. Holter MonitoringHolter Monitoring A device worn on the belt of a patientA device worn on the belt of a patient with abnormal cardiac rhythm.with abnormal cardiac rhythm. This is done when a regular EKGThis is done when a regular EKG shows no abnormality but whenshows no abnormality but when symptoms still persist.symptoms still persist. The device records all activity over aThe device records all activity over a 24 hour period.24 hour period. A cardiologist interprets the results.A cardiologist interprets the results.
  19. 19. LaparoscopyLaparoscopy  Visual examination of the abdominalVisual examination of the abdominal cavity by the use of a laparoscope.cavity by the use of a laparoscope.  A small incision in the abdomenA small incision in the abdomen allows a small camera to be inserted.allows a small camera to be inserted.  Used for gynecological procedures.Used for gynecological procedures.  Also can be called a Peritoneoscopy.Also can be called a Peritoneoscopy.
  20. 20. OphthalmoscopyOphthalmoscopy  Visual examination of the eye.Visual examination of the eye.  Use of an ophthalmoscopeUse of an ophthalmoscope  Is diagnostic for detection of eyeIs diagnostic for detection of eye disordersdisorders  Done by an optometrist orDone by an optometrist or ophthalmologist.ophthalmologist.
  21. 21. OtoscopyOtoscopy  Visual examination of the ear andVisual examination of the ear and eardrum (tympanic membrane)eardrum (tympanic membrane)  Instrument is an otoscope.Instrument is an otoscope.
  22. 22. PalpationPalpation  Physical touchPhysical touch  Examination of size, texture,Examination of size, texture, hardness, fluid, contentshardness, fluid, contents  Can be done by anyoneCan be done by anyone
  23. 23. Pulmonary Function TestsPulmonary Function Tests  Determines the capacity of the lungsDetermines the capacity of the lungs by a series of tests of inspiration andby a series of tests of inspiration and expiration.expiration.  Measures oxygen and carbon dioxideMeasures oxygen and carbon dioxide use.use.  Instrument is a spirometer.Instrument is a spirometer.
  24. 24. RetinoscopyRetinoscopy  Tests to check “refractive index” ofTests to check “refractive index” of eye.eye.  Light is shone into eye and theLight is shone into eye and the examiner sees how the light bendsexaminer sees how the light bends (refraction).(refraction).  Also to check the integrity of theAlso to check the integrity of the back of the eye.back of the eye.
  25. 25. TonometryTonometry  Measures tension and pressure in theMeasures tension and pressure in the eye.eye.  A tonometer is the instrument usedA tonometer is the instrument used to check for check for glaucoma.
  26. 26. AngiographyAngiography  Radiographic study of the circulatoryRadiographic study of the circulatory system.system.  A radiopaque substance is used to detectA radiopaque substance is used to detect vascular abnormalities including tumors,vascular abnormalities including tumors, aneurysms, and clots (occulsions).aneurysms, and clots (occulsions).  Different studies for body areas:Different studies for body areas: cerebral (head), coronary (heart),cerebral (head), coronary (heart), peripheral (extremities), and pulmonaryperipheral (extremities), and pulmonary (lungs)(lungs)
  27. 27. ArthrographyArthrography  Radiographic procedure to check for theRadiographic procedure to check for the integrity of a joint.integrity of a joint.  Air (pneumoarthrograhy) or contrast dyeAir (pneumoarthrograhy) or contrast dye is injected.  Xrays taken under stress to check forXrays taken under stress to check for excess seepage into places where dyeexcess seepage into places where dye shouldn’t be.shouldn’t be.  Done under local ansethesia by aDone under local ansethesia by a radiologist or orthopedic surgeon.radiologist or orthopedic surgeon.  Podiatrists do arthrography to the foot andPodiatrists do arthrography to the foot and ankle.ankle.
  28. 28. Bone Scan (scintography)Bone Scan (scintography)  Radioactive isotopeRadioactive isotope  Bone absorbs the isotope at placesBone absorbs the isotope at places where there is increased “blastic”where there is increased “blastic” activity. Osteoblasts are cells thatactivity. Osteoblasts are cells that lay down new bone.lay down new bone.  Normal scans show no uptake.Normal scans show no uptake.  Positive scans do not explain thePositive scans do not explain the reason for the result. Very sensitivereason for the result. Very sensitive but specific.but specific.
  29. 29. Cardiac CatheterizationCardiac Catheterization  Procedure to check the integrity ofProcedure to check the integrity of the coronary blood vessels.the coronary blood vessels.  A catheter is placed in a large vesselA catheter is placed in a large vessel in the groin. The catheter is passedin the groin. The catheter is passed to the heart the heart vessels.  Xrays are taken to diagnoseXrays are taken to diagnose occulsions of vessels.occulsions of vessels.
  30. 30. Computer Axial Tomography (CAT)Computer Axial Tomography (CAT)  Radiographic sectioning of the body.Radiographic sectioning of the body.  X-rays are taken at a specified thickness.X-rays are taken at a specified thickness. When completed the individual slices areWhen completed the individual slices are put together by a computer (computerput together by a computer (computer generation).generation).  The scanner and detector and parts of theThe scanner and detector and parts of the tube that encircle the body and that encircle the body and record..  Can be used to examine the abdomen,Can be used to examine the abdomen, brain, chest, and extremities.brain, chest, and extremities.  Done by specially trained technicians andDone by specially trained technicians and interpreted by radiologists.interpreted by radiologists.
  31. 31. Doppler UltrasoundDoppler Ultrasound  A test used to measure blood flow into aA test used to measure blood flow into a body part.body part.  Uses sound waves that are forced throughUses sound waves that are forced through the skin and bounce back to a recordingthe skin and bounce back to a recording probe. The result makes a sound that isprobe. The result makes a sound that is used to diagnose circulation problems.used to diagnose circulation problems.  Usually done on the large vessels of theUsually done on the large vessels of the extremities. A specialized version is usedextremities. A specialized version is used for the small vessels of the toes and penis.for the small vessels of the toes and penis.
  32. 32. EchocardiographyEchocardiography  Uses sound waves (ultrasound) toUses sound waves (ultrasound) to visualize the internal cardiacvisualize the internal cardiac structures (valves).structures (valves).  Used to examine the integrity ofUsed to examine the integrity of heart valves.heart valves.  Has taken the place ofHas taken the place of catheterization for certaincatheterization for certain procedures.procedures.
  33. 33. Magnetic Resonance ImagingMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)(MRI)  No radiationNo radiation  Uses magnetic fields to produce anUses magnetic fields to produce an image.image.  Useful for soft tissue structuresUseful for soft tissue structures (muscle, tendon, ligament) whereas(muscle, tendon, ligament) whereas CAT scans are useful for bones.CAT scans are useful for bones.
  34. 34. XeroradiographyXeroradiography  Technique that produces an imageTechnique that produces an image using electrical means instead ofusing electrical means instead of chemical means.chemical means.  Permits lower exposure timesPermits lower exposure times  Useful for breast tumor diagnosis.Useful for breast tumor diagnosis.
  35. 35. Arterial Blood GasArterial Blood Gas  Percutaneous puncture to assess thePercutaneous puncture to assess the exchange of oxygen and carbonexchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.dioxide.  Blood is taken from an artery.Blood is taken from an artery.  More painful than an intravenousMore painful than an intravenous sample.sample.
  36. 36. Bleeding TimeBleeding Time  Used to assess how long it takes toUsed to assess how long it takes to form a clot of a small cut or wound.form a clot of a small cut or wound.  Used to determine platelet function.Used to determine platelet function.  Increased bleeding times is found inIncreased bleeding times is found in patients with low platelet counts andpatients with low platelet counts and deficiencies of fibrinogen.deficiencies of fibrinogen.
  37. 37. Cardiac EnzymesCardiac Enzymes Increases in these enzymes indicateIncreases in these enzymes indicate myocardial infarction (heart attack).myocardial infarction (heart attack).
  38. 38. Complete Blood Count (CBC)Complete Blood Count (CBC)  Used to measure the components ofUsed to measure the components of blood.blood.  RBC, WBC, Platelets, Hemoglobin,RBC, WBC, Platelets, Hemoglobin, and Hematocritand Hematocrit  Differential separates the differentDifferential separates the different types of WBC’stypes of WBC’s
  39. 39. Medical SpecialtiesMedical Specialties SpecialistSpecialist SpecialtySpecialty DescriptionDescription AllergistAllergist AllergyAllergy Diagnosis andDiagnosis and treatment of allergytreatment of allergy or hypersensitivityor hypersensitivity CardiologistCardiologist CardiologyCardiology Heart and bloodHeart and blood vesselsvessels DermatologistDermatologist DermatologyDermatology SkinSkin HematologistHematologist HematologyHematology Blood and blood-Blood and blood- forming tissuesforming tissues
  40. 40. NeonatologistNeonatologist NeonatologyNeonatology Newborn infantsNewborn infants NeurologistNeurologist NeurosurgeonNeurosurgeon NeurologyNeurology Nervous systemNervous system OncologistOncologist OncologyOncology CancerCancer OphthalmologistOphthalmologist ophthalmologyophthalmology EyesEyes OrthopedistOrthopedist Orthopedic SurgeryOrthopedic Surgery Bones, joints,Bones, joints, musclesmuscles OtolaryngologistOtolaryngologist otolaryngologyotolaryngology Ears, nose, throatEars, nose, throat PathologistPathologist PathologyPathology tissue, death, findtissue, death, find cause of deathcause of death pediatricianpediatrician pediatricspediatrics Children and teensChildren and teens Plastic surgeonPlastic surgeon Plastic surgeryPlastic surgery Restores, repairs, orRestores, repairs, or reconstructs bodyreconstructs body structures.structures. PhysiatristPhysiatrist PhysiatricsPhysiatrics Treatment of diseaseTreatment of disease using natural methodsusing natural methods and physical therapyand physical therapy