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  1. 1. INDUSTRIALINDUSTRIAL HYGIENEHYGIENE SkinSkin
  2. 2. ENTRY INTO BODYENTRY INTO BODY  The approximate order of descendingThe approximate order of descending effectiveness foreffectiveness for  Intravenous administrationIntravenous administration  Inhalation routeInhalation route  IntraperitonealIntraperitoneal  SubcutaneousSubcutaneous  IntramuscularIntramuscular  IntradermalIntradermal  OralOral  TopicalTopical
  3. 3. ENTRY INTO BODYENTRY INTO BODY  Industrial exposure to toxic agents is mostIndustrial exposure to toxic agents is most frequently a result offrequently a result of  InhalationInhalation  TopicalTopical
  4. 4. SKINSKIN  Organ of the body  Surface area is 2 m² and about 2 mm thick
  5. 5. SKINSKIN  Skin Functions  Body Covering  Keep tissue fluids in  Keep chemicals out  Keep bacteria, fungi, and viruses out  Permit movement of underlying muscles & joint  Sensors for touch, pain, and temperature  Adornment  Vitamin D production  Temperature regulation  sweating, blood flow  Sun protection  Detoxification/activation of drugs and chemicals  Immunoserveillance 
  6. 6. ANATOMY OF SKINANATOMY OF SKIN  Epidermis  Outer layer contains the stratum corneum  The rate limiting step in dermal or percutaneous absorption is diffusion through the epidermis  Dermis  Much thicker than epidermis  True skin & is the main natural protection against trauma  Contains  Sweat glands  Sebaceous glands  Blood vessels  Hair  Nails  Subcutaneous Layer  Contains the fatty tissues which cushion & insulate
  7. 7. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONALCAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISORDERSSKIN DISORDERS  Skin disorders account for 23-25% of all occupational diseases  Lacerations & punctures accounts for 82% of all occupational skin injuries  Skin disorders account for 13% (1997) down from 50-70% in 1950s  Dermatitis is 2nd most common cause of reported occupational disease in US.  Underreporting of occupational disease may increase this by 10-50 times
  8. 8. CAUSES OF SKIN DISORDERSCAUSES OF SKIN DISORDERS   CONTACT DERMATITIS FOLLICULITIS AND ACNE PIGMENTARY DISTURBANCE NEOPLASMS, ULCERATION GRANULOMA CHEMICAL X X X X MECHANICAL X PHYSICAL X X BIOLOGICAL X  
  9. 9. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONALCAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASESKIN DISEASE  Chemical  Predominant cause of dermatoses  Primary irritants  React on contact  Damage skin because they have innate chemical capacity to do so  Most inorganic and organic acids act as primary irritants  Organic solvents and metallic salts  Keratin solvents  Injure the keratin layer-alkalis, organic & inorganic chemicals
  10. 10. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONALCAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASESKIN DISEASE  Chemical  Keratin stimulants  Skin undergoes growth patterns that can lead to tumor or cancer formation  petroleum products & PAH  Fats & Oil solvents  Remove skin surface lipids  Protein precipitants  Heavy metals precipitate protein and denature it  Reducers  Keratin layer reduced by acids and urea  Sensitizers  Chemicals, plants, biological agents
  11. 11. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONALCAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASESKIN DISEASE  Mechanical  Friction, punctures, irritation  Physical  Heat, cold, radiation  Ionizing radiation sources  Alpha radiation stopped by skin  Ingestion  Beta radiation can injure skin by contact  Localized at skin surface or outer layers of skin  Gamma radiation and x-rays are skin and systemic hazards 
  12. 12. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONALCAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASESKIN DISEASE  Biological  Bacteria, fungi, viruses, & parasites.  Animal breeders, vets, horticulturists, bakers, tanners, bricklayers, etc. are all possible victims of biological
  13. 13. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONALCAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASESKIN DISEASE  Predisposing Factors  Age & experience  Skin type  Sweating  Gender  Seasons and humidity  Hereditary allergy  Personal hygiene  Preexisting skin disease
  14. 14. CLASSIFICATION OFCLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASEOCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASE  Contact Dermatitis  Most frequent cause  Irritant contact dermatitis  Causes damage at site of contact.  Important factors are nature of substance  pH, solubility, physical state, concentration, duration of contact, host & environmental factors  Allergic contact dermatitis  A form of cell-mediated, antigen-antibody immune reaction.  Irritants affect many whereas sensitizers affect few  Rhus, nickel, rubber, chromates, plastics, cobalt, formaldehyde, epoxy resins, etc.  May cause both types of dermatitis
  15. 15. CLASSIFICATION OFCLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASEOCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASE  Contact urticaria/Latex allergy  Caused by latex rubber products  It is an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated hypersensitivity to proteins.  Photosensitivity  Certain chemicals or organisms are stimulated to activity by light  Occupational acne  Contact with petroleum and its derivatives (cutting oils) or certain halogenated hydrocarbons (chloracne)  Coal tars, creosote, & pitch produce extensive acne
  16. 16. CLASSIFICATION OFCLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASEOCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASE  Pigmentary abnormalities  Exposure to chemicals, physical & biological agents  Hyperpigmentation  Skin darkening  Coal tar, pitch, plant & drug photosensitizers; ultraviolet light, radiation; certain chemicals such as arsenic  Hypopigmentation  Pigment or color loss  Physical or chemical damage to skin from thermal, ultraviolet, radiation or chemical
  17. 17. CLASSIFICATION OFCLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASEOCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASE  Sweat-induced reactions  Miliaria and intertrigo  Prickly heat or heat rash.  Cutaneous tumors  Neoplastic growths can be benign lesions, precancers, or cancers  Ulcerations  Caused by trauma, thermal or chemical burns, cutaneous infections  Granulomas  Cause by bacteria (anthrax), viral (herpes simplex), parasitic (protothecosis), botanical (thorns)
  18. 18. CLASSIFICATION OFCLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASEOCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASE  Alopecia  Absence of hair  Caused by trauma, cutaneous and systemic disease, drugs, chemicals, ionizing radiation  Nail disease  Paronychia  Inflammation of fingernail tissue  Nail discoloration from exposure to chemicals; nail dystrophy from exposure to chemicals  Solvents  Systemic intoxication  Many materials absorbed through skin can lead to systemic effects
  19. 19. CLASSIFICATION OFCLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASEOCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASE  Burns  Types of burns include explosion, steam, hot- water, molten metal, hot-solid, flame, and electricity and radiant energy  Classified as:  First-degree  Second-degree  Third-degree
  20. 20. CLASSIFICATION OFCLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASEOCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASE  Diagnosis  Following criteria are used  Appearance of lesion  Sites of involvement  History & course of disease  Ancillary diagnostic tests  Treatment
  21. 21. WORKERS COMPENSATIONWORKERS COMPENSATION  Evaluation of occupational dermatoses  Diagnosis  Causation  Impairment evaluation  Conclusions & recommendations  Physical examinations
  22. 22. PREVENTION & CONTROLPREVENTION & CONTROL  Environment  Planning  Process Control  Selection of Materials  Monitoring & Control Technology  Sampling procedures  Good housekeeping  Personal Cleanliness  Prevention of contact  Barrier creams
  23. 23. PREVENTION & CONTROLPREVENTION & CONTROL  Personal Protective Equipment  Protective clothing  Fabrics  Gloves  Safety  Responsibility for Control

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