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Bridges - Historical Development, Types, construction

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  1. 1. Bridges Historical DevelopmentTeacher: Vesna Marković
  2. 2. Bridges have fascinatedmankind from the earliestrecorded times.They are consideredas the symbolof civil engineering.The earliest bridge was builton the Nile about 2650 BC.
  3. 3. The first truesuspensionbridgeconsisted ofthree cableswith two oneach side to actas handrails toenable thepassenger towalk on thethird which wastied below.
  4. 4. Another form of primitive bridge in timber was a girder type on floating supports, which was the forerunner of the pontoon bridge.
  5. 5. Leonardo da Vinci, during theRenaissance, had a fundamentalinfluence on engineering andespecially on bridge design.Da Vinci studied the strength ofmaterials such as iron wires.
  6. 6. The 19th century was the rise of the greatiron and steel bridges. One of the famousearly bridges in steel was the St. LouisBridge over the Mississippi River.
  7. 7. Towards the end of the 19th century reinforced concrete was significantly applied to bridge construction.Although historically structural steel had a big lead, the applications of concrete have steadily increased.
  8. 8. Types of bridges Beam bridges are horizontalbeams supported at each end by piers.
  9. 9. Arch bridges are arch-shaped.The earliest known arch bridgeswere built by the Greeks. Dubai inthe United Arab Emirates iscurrently building the largest archbridge in the world, which isscheduled for completion in 2012.
  10. 10. Suspension bridges are suspended fromcables. The earliest suspension bridgeswere made of ropes.In modern bridges, the cables are used.The longest suspension bridge in the worldis the 3,909 m Akashi KaikyoBridge in Japan.
  11. 11. Cantilever bridges are built usingcantilevers — horizontal beams that aresupported on only one end. The largestcantilever bridge is the 167 m QuebecBridge in Canada.
  12. 12. wordlist• suspension bridge - a bridge with a roadway suspended from cables supported by structures at each end – viseći most• handrail - a narrow rail for holding as a support on stairs etc. - rukohvat• enable - make possible - omogućiti• tie - attach or fasten with string or cord - vezati
  13. 13. • timber - wood prepared for building – drvena građa• girder - a large iron or steel beam or compound structure for bearing loads, esp. in bridge-building - greda• float - to rest or move on the surface of a liquid without sinking - plutati• forerunner – sth that was first, before the original - preteča
  14. 14. • pontoon bridge – floating bridge which is on the surface of the water - ponton• influence - influence; have an effect on - uticaj• strength - the state of being strong - snaga• iron – metal - gvožđe• wire - metal drawn out into the form of a thin rope - žica
  15. 15. • steel - iron with carbon and other elements - čelik• reinforced concrete - concrete with metal bars or wire to increase its strength – armirani beton• application - the use - primena• steadily – constantly- stalno, sigurno• beam - a long piece of timber or metal which supports the structure above - greda
  16. 16. • pier - a support – stub, podupirač• arch bridge - a curved structure of a bridge – lučni most• schedule – plan of work - plan• completion – finish - završetak• cantilever bridge - a bridge made of cantilevers projecting from the piers and connected by girder – konzolni brod