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"Sostenibilidad del Hormigón Prefabricado"

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Dean Frank , Director en Dean Frank Associates

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"Sostenibilidad del Hormigón Prefabricado"

  1. 1. Sustainable Aspects of Precast Concrete Dean Frank, P.E., LEED Green Associate
  2. 2. Introduction • Sustainable aspects of precast concrete • Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) best practices for: • Quality • Sustainable plant operations
  3. 3. Link Between Quality and Sustainability • Precast is an inherently sustainable material • Improving quality and production processes can make it better
  4. 4. Link Between Quality and Sustainability Precast concrete is made: • In a quality-controlled environment • Uses materials efficiently • Less construction waste
  5. 5. Link Between Quality and Sustainability • Quality processes have a direct effect on the degree to which precast concrete is considered sustainable • As quality improves, so do the sustainable attributes
  6. 6. Link Between Quality and Sustainability Durability: • Higher quality concrete = better durability • Durable concrete is resilient to natural and man-made disasters
  7. 7. Link Between Quality and Sustainability Durability: • Better protection of reinforcement • Prequalification of raw materials • Optimization of concrete mix proportions
  8. 8. Link Between Quality and Sustainability Reduced number of defective products • Primary goal of QA program is to reduce defects and rejected product
  9. 9. Link Between Quality and Sustainability Reduced waste • Due to control of raw materials • Waste is more likely to be recycled • Process water may be treated and reused • Forms are reused
  10. 10. Link Between Quality and Sustainability Optimum use of raw materials • Precise batch quantities are possible because of tight product tolerances • Smaller members, longer spans, and less material used on site = $ and environmental savings
  11. 11. Plant Quality Operations • Quality assurance and certification programs played an important role in success of precast concrete industry • With more emphasis on sustainability, these will become even more important
  12. 12. Plant Quality Operations Quality control personnel be more involved with tracking and coordinating processes that affect the sustainability • Raw material prequalification and tracking • Accelerated curing with added heat or steam
  13. 13. Plant Operations • Industry stakeholders demand improvement • Can not improve something that is not measured • Precasters can also save money
  14. 14. Life Cycle Assessment • What is an Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)? • Why LCA? • Precast Concrete Building LCA • LCA Results • Conclusions
  15. 15. What is LCA? • Environmental accounting of environmental impact • Full assessment, rather than single criterion. • Scientific, not subjective
  16. 16. What is LCA? • Includes environmental effects due to: • Extraction and fuel • Manufacture of components • Transportation • Assembly and construction • Operation • Demolition, disposal, recycling, and reuse http://www.bre.co.uk/greenguide/page.jsp?id=2106
  17. 17. What is LCA? • Impacts quantified: • Global warming potential • Acidification potential • Potential respiratory effects • Eutrophication potential • Photochemical smog creation potential • Ozone depletion potential
  18. 18. What is LCA? • Additional Inventory Items Tracked: • Total primary energy • Solid waste • Water use • Abiotic resource depletion
  19. 19. Why LCA? • Increase transparency / improve operations • Benchmark precast concrete industry’s environmental performance • Provide data for future Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs)
  20. 20. Precast Concrete Building LCA Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI), the Canadian Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (CPCI) and the National Precast Concrete Associate (NPCA) partnered to coordinate this research
  21. 21. Functional Unit • Five-story commercial office building • Meets minimum building energy code requirements for R- value • Conditioned office space for approximately 130 people Actual Building Building Model
  22. 22. Building Form • Plan dimensions 27 by 36 m (90 by 120 ft) • Column grid spacing 9 by 12 m (30 by 40 ft) • Total floor area 5000 m2 (54,000 ft2) Elevation Floor plan
  23. 23. LCA Study “Scenarios” • 5 variations of building envelope • 3 variations of structural framing • 4 locations (Miami, Phoenix, Memphis, Denver) Total of 60 buildings Envelope and abbreviation Structure and abbreviation Steel (S) Cast in place concrete (C) Precast concrete (P) Curtain wall (CW) CW-S CW-C CW-P Brick and steel stud (S) S-S S-C S-P Precast concrete (P) P-S P-C P-P Insulated precast concrete (Pi) Pi-S Pi-C Pi-P Insulated precast concrete and thin-brick veneer (Pib) Pib-S Pib-C Pib-P “Baseline”
  24. 24. Comparative LCA • Because this LCA study includes a comparative assertion disclosed to the public, an independent external panel of LCA and technical experts has critically reviewed the methodology and results as required by ISO 14044:2006. • The research was conducted by a team comprised of Morrison Hershfield, the Athena Institute, and Venta, Glaser & Associates. • Most comprehensive LCA study undertaken
  25. 25. Comparative LCA • Data for all products was treated equally • All buildings were compared using the same functional unit and equivalent methodological considerations: • system boundary • data quality • allocation procedures • decision rules on evaluating inputs and outputs • impact assessment
  26. 26. Comparative LCA In comparative assertions similar data quality: • Time-related coverage • Geographical coverage • Technology coverage • Precision • Completeness • Representativeness • Consistency • Reproducibility • Sources of the data • Uncertainty of the information
  27. 27. LCA Results Good Data: • Manufacturer data (9 precasters) • PCA reports with LCI data on cement and concrete • U.S. LCI database (NREL)
  28. 28. LCA Results – Global Warming Potential
  29. 29. LCA Results – Global Warming Potential
  30. 30. LCA Results – Global Warming Potential
  31. 31. LCA Results – Global Warming Potential
  32. 32. LCA Results – Total Primary Energy
  33. 33. LCA Results – Total Primary Energy
  34. 34. LCA Results – Total Primary Energy
  35. 35. LCA Results – Total Primary Energy
  36. 36. LCA Results Similar results for: • Acidification Potential • Potential Respiratory Effects • Eutrophication Potential • Photochemical Smog Creation Potential • Solid Waste All within 0 to 2% COV
  37. 37. LCA Results – Water Use 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 CW-S CW-C CW-P S-S S-C S-P P-S P-C P-P Pi-S Pi-C Pi-P Pib-S Pib-C Pib-P Wateruse,cubicmeters Denver, 73 years 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 CW-S CW-C CW-P S-S S-C S-P P-S P-C P-P Pi-S Pi-C Pi-P Pib-S Pib-C Pib-P Wateruse,cubicmeters Memphis, 73 years 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 CW-S CW-C CW-P S-S S-C S-P P-S P-C P-P Pi-S Pi-C Pi-P Pib-S Pib-C Pib-P Wateruse,cubicmeters Miami, 73 years 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 CW-S CW-C CW-P S-S S-C S-P P-S P-C P-P Pi-S Pi-C Pi-P Pib-S Pib-C Pib-P Wateruse,cubicmeters Phoenix, 73 years
  38. 38. LCA Results Similar results for: • Abiotic Resource Depletion (COV = 36%) • Ozone Depletion Potential (COV = 0 to 15%) http://guardianlv.com/2014/03/ozone-depletion-due-to-gases-banned-27-years-ago/ http://www.businessgreen.com/bg/analysis/2280429/ccc-shrinking-water-sources-put-uk-food- production-at-risk/
  39. 39. LCA Conclusions • Occupancy stage (operating energy) is responsible for up to 96 to 98% of the environmental impacts in a given impact category regardless of climate • Confirmed there is relatively little difference between the various structural systems
  40. 40. LCA Conclusions • Contrary to claims often made by other building materials • Concrete likely has the most potential to make improvements
  41. 41. NAPCSPP Sustainable Plant Program North American Precast Concrete Sustainable Plant Program (NAPCSPP) • Launched in 2015 • CPCI • NPCA • PCI
  42. 42. NAPCSPP Sustainable Plant Program • Environmental Performance Standards • Dust Control • Process Water, Storm Water and Chemical Management • Noise Control • Sustainability Performance Standards • Energy • Materials • Transportation • CO2 equivalent • Total Primary Energy • Water Consumption
  43. 43. Product Category Rule Development Progress.. • LCA Complete • Next Step = Develop PCR • Same Industry Partners (CPCI, NPCA, PCI) • ASTM International • PCR Published on ASTM Website
  44. 44. Environmental Product Declarations Progress.. • PCR Complete • Gather Data with NAPCSPP • Next Step = Develop EPDs • Architectural and Insulated Wall Panels, • Structural Precast Concrete Products and • Underground Precast Concrete Products
  45. 45. Strategies for Environmental Improvements Energy Conservation: • Alternate lighting, reducing fixtures, increasing natural daylighting, etc. • Optimize power factors motors • Investigate onsite renewable energy
  46. 46. Strategies for Environmental Improvements Energy Conservation: • Modify personnel behaviors and use of natural ventilation • Building envelope in good condition • Improvements to HVAC
  47. 47. Strategies for Environmental Improvements Effective waste management: • Waste audit • Reduce or eliminate waste products
  48. 48. Strategies for Environmental Improvements Effective waste management: • Reuse or repurpose waste product • Pour leftover or waste concrete into reusable forms www.concreteconstructionweely.com
  49. 49. Strategies for Environmental Improvements Maximizing materials recycling: • Divert as much recyclable material as possible • Reduce the amount of waste packaging
  50. 50. Strategies for Environmental Improvements Water management: • Harvest rain water • Use closed-loop systems for precast operations
  51. 51. Strategies for Environmental Improvements Water management: • Water conservation program • Install water meters - quantify how much water is being used and where.
  52. 52. Strategies for Environmental Improvements Water management: • Install low-flow water fixtures • Ensure irrigation systems do not over-water or water non-vegetative surfaces http://deervalleyplumbingsurprise.com/
  53. 53. Strategies for Environmental Improvements Mix design and optimization: • Review concrete strength needs and revise mix designs • Increase the use of supplemental cementitious materials
  54. 54. Strategies for Environmental Improvements • There are many other strategies to consider • These metrics should be tracked over time
  55. 55. Precast Concrete is Well-Positioned Concrete and precast concrete has great potential to improve • PCI Life Cycle Assessment Project • As plants improve, so will sustainability • Reduction in usage of portland cement
  56. 56. Conclusion • Precast concrete is comparable to structural steel…currently • Both quality and sustainable plant practices contribute to energy and materials savings and reduction of environmental impacts
  57. 57. Conclusion • It is best to track performance to improve transparency and make improvements • Although precast concrete is inherently sustainable material, better quality assurance, plant operation improvements, reduced Portland cement usage will lead to better environmental performance

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