Rail Grinding Machine:A Basic approach


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Philosophy behind Rail grinding and introduction to rail grinding machine and its what to do when you have to operate it in your section.

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  • Test sites are crucial for establishing the appropriate metal removal, profile and grinding cycle requirements for the railroad. They are used to establish the metal removal rate to control the growth of RCF cracks. Rail samples or non destructive methods are utilized to determine the fatigue-crack growth rates and their internal direction of propagation. The objective is to develop the optimal metal removal rate and the preventive grinding cycles to manage the rail grinding strategy for the changing railroad environment. Test sites are the best way to manage the risks of implementing changes to established preventive grinding cycles. If any serious failure of a new strategy takes place, it will happen in the test site. The data extracted through detailed monitoring of test sites can also be used to calculate the benefits of a modified preventive grinding strategy in controlling RCF, reducing rail wear, reducing grinding effort and cost.
  • Metal removal depends upon no. of stones, speed of grinding, characterstics of stone, metallurgy of rails and arrangement of stones
  • Rail Grinding Machine:A Basic approach

    1. 1. Head Checks Head checks on Gauge Face of a Rail
    2. 2.  Reduction in Rail/ Weld Failures Action on two fronts Arresting Initiation & Growth of Flaws Rail Grinding Objective Detection of the Flaws Vehicular USFD Testing
    3. 3.  Rail Grinding is an important track maintenance tool  Rail Grinding is the removal of metal from the surface of the rail head  Through the action of a rotating grinding wheel  Mechanism used in rail grinding is cutting of metal associated with formation of metal chips (and not metal deformation)
    4. 4.  Corrective – Removing the defects in one go  Preventive Gradual – Removing the defects in stages  Preventive – Removing the defects in nascent stage
    5. 5.  Also known as traditional Rail Grinding  To correct existing surface defects and the shape of the head of the rail  A problem exists and sufficient grinding is done to correct the problem  Defect is allowed to develop before taking up the grinding; so remedial type action taken
    6. 6. Condition Typical Recommendations New Rail At 20 GMT Corrugations 0.25-1.5 mm Engine Burns 0.6-0.8 mm Rail End Batter 0.8 mm Weld Batter 0.8 mm Flaking and Shelling 0.8 mm New Rail requires grinding for removal of mill scale. Mill scale is a very fine layer on rail head(<0.25MM).
    7. 7.  Also known as profile grinding  Carried out before problems occurs  Rail head is ground to specific profile so as to improve rail wheel contact interface  Carried out more frequently  This is periodic maintenance grinding carried out at frequency decided on the basis of GMT.
    8. 8.  Less aggressive grinding process  Removes fatigued material, surface cracks & improves rail wheel interaction  Eliminates the need for defect correction grinding  Generally one pass process carried out at higher speed ranging from 10 to 24 kmph.
    9. 9.  In between corrective and preventive grinding  The defects in the rail are not removed in one go  Rails are ground at slow speed - only 1 to 3 passes are given  In each round, the defects will taper down  Ultimately, we shift to preventive grinding
    10. 10.  IR has adopted Preventive Gradual Grinding to start with  Grinding cycle – 25 GMT –Ist, 50 GMT-2nd  One pass on straight and 3 passes in curve (speed 15-18 kmph)  Metal removal 0.1-0.2 mm (approx.)
    11. 11. After I Cycle Cracks Partly Removed R NO C ACKS After II Cycle (approx. 30 GMT) More Cracks Removed After III Cycle (approx. 60 GMT) Cracks Fully Removed
    12. 12.  Reshaping Rail Head Profile - favourable Rail Wheel Interaction reducing contact stresses  Removal of cracks in initial growth phase avoiding their propagation deeper  Shifting the contact of the wheels - away from the damaged zone  Avoid Dip Formation at Welds - Reduction in hunting by avoiding contact on misaligned welds
    13. 13.  Increased rail life  Increased wheel life  Reduction in fatigue & surface defects  Less tractive resistance & therefore less fuel consumption  Reduced need for rail transposing in curves, thus saving cost on maintenance  Improved reliability of USFD testing
    14. 14.  Reduced track geometry deterioration  Reduced degradation of ballast  Less noise  Improved vehicle ride quality  Reduced derailment proneness
    15. 15.  Fastening (Rubber pad, ERC)  Life extended 3 times  Sleepers  Life extended by 20%  Tamping Cycle  Extended by 30%  Ballast Cleaning Cycle  Extended by 15%  Vehicle Maintenance & Wheel turning improved
    16. 16.  Tractive energy  Reduced by 8 – 10%  Noise and vibration  In the human-hearing frequency range noise reduction of over 10 db can be achieved by grinding of corrugations
    17. 17. *One Time Activities *Repetitive Activities
    18. 18.  Establishment of Test Sites  Obstructions in the track  Details of Rail – Old/ New, GMT carried  Measurements  Rail condition data
    19. 19. 22.01.2010 PKG/SPT2/IRICEN
    20. 20. Test Sites -Selection Why: For establishing - Appropriate metal removal to control the growth of RCF cracks - Target Rail profile - Grinding cycle requirements Where: -High tonnage - Typical curvature / rail type - Good access to track - Rail history / defects - No planned rail replacement -Typical traffic & speed - Away from Weld, Signal, LC etc How: Gather data –MiniProf, surface photos, dye penetrate, weld dips, hunting
    21. 21. Test Sites - MiniProf How– MiniProf: • Mark rail location with paint on field side for all future measurements • Record: - Line - Curve High, Low -Tangent right, Tangent left - Track –UP, DN - Date -automatic - Gauge –automatic
    22. 22. MiniProf
    23. 23. Dye Penetration Testing Grinding Test Sites: How –Dye Penetrant: •cleaner, dye (wait 2 min), Wipe clean, water wash, Apply Developer (no overspray) •Record: - Location -Outside (OR) Inside (IR) rail, T Left, T Right -Track –UP, DN -Date -Gauge -Direction Traffic -Crack length -Rail age and weight
    24. 24.  Turn-outs  SEJs  Level Crossings  Axle counters  Location – Chainages  Start & End of Curves  RH/LH Curve
    25. 25. • Rail surface defects • Wear of rails • USFD defects in rails/weld • Rail/Weld failure details • Weld dip details
    26. 26. • How it is decided? • For IR, designed by NRC • Four Profiles– CPC for DN road straight track & low rail of mild curve – CPF for UP road and low rail of sharp curve – HS for high rail of sharp curve – HM for low rail of Mild curve • Why two profiles for straight track?
    27. 27.  Arrangement of stones across the rail and along the grinding train  Pattern needs to be selected by P. Way supervisor trained in grinding  Purpose is to achieve target rail profile from existing rail profile  Factors affecting Metal to be removed
    28. 28. Different patterns being fed into HMI of RGM
    29. 29. NRC Recommendation for Preventive Gradual Grinding Edit 6 Sep 6th, 2011 Wrong Direction in GDMS Patterns Speed 3 Pass Patterns First Pass First Pass Template Track Aggressive Generic Kph Pass 1 Pass 2 Pass 3 HS UP/Down 14 45 18 14 27 15 HS NEW RAIL UP/Down 2 45 18 2 47 23 HM UP/Down 10 45 18 10 43 27 HM NEW 2 47 x RAIL UP/Down 2 45 18 All Passes Speed Kph 18 18 18 18 LS-CPF UP/Down 20 47 18 20 23 27 18 LS-CPF NEW RAIL UP/Down 24 47 18 24 23 23 18 UP/Down LM-CPC LM-CPC NEW UP/Down RAIL TCPF UP 39 39 18 39 42 39 18 17 41 18 39 46 x 18 24 24 15 UP 24 24 15 DN 39 39 15 39 39 15 39 39 15 39 39 18 39 42 39 18 39 39 18 39 42 39 18 TCPF New rail TCPC TCPC NEW DN RAIL TCPC 52 Kg RAIL UP/Down LS-CPC 52 Kg UP/Down RAIL LM-CPC 52 Kg UP/Down RAIL
    30. 30. • For Straight/ Tangent Track – DN Road – Template CPC – Pattern 39 – UP Road – Template CPF – Pattern 24 • For Curve Track – Mild Curve (< 1.25 deg) – High/ Outer Rail – Template HM – Pattern 10 – Low/Inner Rail – Template CPC – Pattern 39 • For Curve Track – Sharp Curve (> 1.25 deg) – High Rail – Template HS – Pattern 14 – Low Rail – Template CPF – Pattern 10
    31. 31.  Straight Track – same as for old rail  For Curve Track – Mild Curve (< 1.25 deg)  High/ Outer Rail – Template HM – Pattern 2  Low/Inner Rail – Template CPC – Pattern 17  For Curve Track – Sharp Curve (> 1.25 deg)  High Rail – Template HS – Pattern 2  Low Rail – Template CPF – Pattern 24  For 52 kg Rail – For all conditions - 39
    32. 32.  As suggested by GDMS  First cycle – 3 passes on both high & low rails  If GDMS gives 2 Passes – ask for alternative with 3 passes  What to do if GDMS data has wrong direction of curve
    33. 33.  The Grind Data Management System is an integrated automatic data acquisition, data viewing and analysis, quality control, reporting and rail grinding planning tool.
    34. 34.  The depth of cut w.r.t rail head and area of metal removal for different patterns is not available with IR to check the correctness of grinding.  The use of RCA in deciding the grinding pattern and grinding depth is not yet established.  Calculation of metal removal/m is still to be incorporated in GDMS.
    35. 35.  Filling of Water to be done in night i.e during maintenance shifts.  The requirement of HSD oil from each RCD shall be arrived based on the locations of RCD and the track to be ground and suitable instructions shall be got issued from HQ to the respective RCDs.  While working of RGM, one track machine operator of the concerned division having route learning of that section shall be deputed for working as pilot and to assist in calling the signals.  When using the aggressive patterns as given by NRC, metal to the extent of 1.5mm was removed.  On some occasions it is noted that the pattern entered in HMI are not as per the grind plan due to operator mistake. This should be taken care.
    36. 36.  A moped trolley with PA system, arranged to go ahead of RGM to warn the gatemen, gang men working in section to keep at least 20m away from track while grinding. The onlookers and vehicles at LC shall be warned to keep a safe distance.  From each division, a PWI is nominated as grinding supervisor. His duties shall be  To ensure the pattern fed into the HMI is same as suggested by NRC.  To ensure correct preparation of grind plan  To cross check the grind plan and grind history after grinding to find any deviations in the patterns.  To take pre and post miniprof readings at test locations and to keep the record as per proforma circulated by RDSO.  With experience, to check whether grinding is proper or not while observing the pre and post grind profiles on GDMS and to suggest the change in the patterns if required while grinding.
    37. 37.  Identify the sections to be ground based on GMT, axle load  Establish test site locations and fill the RDSO proforma for      these locations. Identify stabling sidings at 50km apart, if not available provide ( Provide only RL platform) Identify the RCDs for HSD filling and make watering arrangements at stabling sidings. Issue JPO at HQ level and Divisional level for RGM operations. Obtain CRS sanction. Prepare track database for input to GDMS  (Direction of curves shall not be w.r.t traffic direction but w.r.t increasing chainage)
    38. 38. Works to be carried out Before Rail grinding Knowing the Location/Sec where grinding is to be done. Type of Rail and sleeper, joint type(LWR,SWR,FP), and Sectional GMT. Location of SEJ, Points & X-ing, LC, Axle counter and any other obstacle which may infringe the grinding. Finding the location where grinding will not to be done. Finalizing the Location where grinding Machine will be stabled (where maintenance can be done). Preparation of grind plan consisting of locations to be ground with first pass patterns and depth of cut and details of obstructions . Clearing of rail head ballast to prevent damage to grinding motors Painting of Curve starting and ending on sleeper with white/yellow paint conspicuously. Ensuring sufficient HSD and water for the day
    39. 39. Measurements and condition monitoring before grinding Measure the rail profile at nominated test locations with miniprof, Bar gauge, do DPT, take surface photos and measure hardness.  while taking miniprof readings, the details such as LH/RH of rail and TP to be fed otherwise it will not be possible to identify the pre and post grind profiles.
    40. 40. Just Before the Grinding starts Availability of complete & sufficient staff with competency and Pilot with route learning Moped trolley with PA system to warn Rly. staff and onlookers and public at LC Removing of axle counters by S&T staff Job briefing consisting of Location of work Safety precautions to be taken Head count and complete PPE Allocation of duties with locations First aid, Location of nearest hospitals and fire stations along the work site. Effective Communication system between crew, crew and station
    41. 41. *ON GROUND *ON MACHINE
    42. 42.  Real Time Monitoring of Grinding Operation  on the vehicle  On the ground  Monitoring  Amount of metal removed  Profile of the rail achieved after each pass  Efficacy of the grinding motors
    43. 43.  The Grind Data Management System is an integrated automatic data acquisition, data viewing and analysis, quality control, reporting and rail grinding planning tool.
    45. 45. BAR GAUGE
    46. 46. Taking measurements of rail profile before and grinding with bar-gaug
    47. 47. Star Gauge to check Crown Radius
    48. 48. Surface Roughness > 12 Microns Poor Finish Stays a Long Time
    49. 49. Quality Control Examples –Straw Colour and Missed Grind
    50. 50. Poor Finish – Blueing and Large Facets
    51. 51. Rail ‘blueing”Poor cutting (low pressure) Grinding stoneNot set correctly. Grinding on the outside diameter (OD)
    52. 52. • Sequencing Monitor - Skipping Obstructions • Safety systems • Calling Patterns • Feeding Patterns • Working of motors • Water Spray System • Calling Patterns • Pre & Post GQI
    54. 54.  Self propelled Diesel powered vehicle.  Can work in both directions.  Negotiate cant up to 185 mm.       Traveling speed 80 Kmph when self propelled and 100 Kmph in train formation. 25 kmph on 1 in 33 Grade Speed with buggies down – 40kmph Grinding Speed - 2.4 to 24 kmph Can grind on a 100 m radius curve Stopping Distance – 400 m from 80 kmph on a level track
    55. 55.  Self propelled car  Pilot, Guard and T.I. to be provided by the division in two shifts for first three months  Operating speed  10kmph @ 0.20mm  15kmph @ 0.13mm  Speed Cert to be issued and CRS sanction to be obtained
    56. 56.  Joint monthly prog. at zonal & weekly prog. At Divl      level 4 hours corridor block daily and 6 hours block on weekends by SL working, trains cancellation/ regulation Controller to allow RGM in the section following a train to save time Goods trains carrying highly inflammable material like Naptha to be regulated on adjacent line during block Obstructions in the track Passage of trains after the grinding block
    57. 57.  Spark Guards of different designs  Water Storage – Front Control Car 20000 lit      - Water Tank 55000 lit Water Pump – One 30hp 945 lit/min Sleeper Spray – 2 Sets 7.6 lit/min Ditch Spray – 2 Sets 100 lit/min Water Cannons – 2 Sets 220 lit/min upto 31m No. of Fire Extinguishers at different locations in the car
    58. 58.  Water to be arranged  Fuel arrangement  Hydraulic oil  Grinding stones for 600 hrs of working included with machine  RDSO to issue the specs and list of suppliers for grinding stones
    59. 59.  Zonal Railways to send vetted indents to COS every year  Diesel to be provided by RCDs( Railway Consumers Depots)  COS to place order on oil Cos.  Sufficient fuel imprest to be created - 5 lakhs; this will cater for other unforeseen expenses also
    60. 60.  300m or 2X150m sidings at every 50kms  Connectivity at both ends  Lighting, watering, approach road and other facilities to be provided  Lodging and Boarding of staff  Stabling either on unwired sdg or sdg should be with OHE isolation system
    61. 61.  Dust Collection System  Laser Based Rail Profile Measurement System on both ends of the consist  LORAM’s Software – GDMS - The software stores the data, analyses and compares the data and works out the grinding efficiency  Recommendation of target profile, pattern and speed in different passes to achieve the target profile optimally
    62. 62. Thank You