Sales Promotion Schemes Project Report
One of the most difficult marketing decisions facing companies is how much to spend
on promotional John Wanamaker, the departmental - store magazine, said, "I know
that half of my advertising is wasted but I don't know which half."
Thus it is not surprising that industries and companies vary considerably in how much
they spend on promotion. Promotional expenditures might amount to 30-50% of sales
in case in cosmetics industry and only 10-20% in the industrial equipment industry.
Within a industry, a low and high spending companies can be found.
How do companies decide on their
promotion budget? There are mainly
four methods of sales promotion :
• Affordable Method :
Many companies set the promotion
budget at what they think the
company can afford. One executive
Advertising Effectiveness Project Report
explained this method as follows :
"Why, it’s simple. First I go upstairs Internal Customer Satisfaction Project Report
to the controller and how much they
can afford to give us this year. He
says a million and half. Later, the
boss comes to me and asks how much
we should spend and I say ‘Oh about
a million and half."
It is a method which is uncertain one
and makes long term planning
• Percentage of Sales Method :
Many companies set their promotion
expenditures at a specified percentage
of sales. Accordingly the sales is set
on the basis of sales.
In this a specified sales percentage is decided for the promotional budget Advantages
of this method :
First, its use means that promotional budget vary with what a company can afford.
Second, it encourages the management to think in terms of the relationship among
promotion costs, selling price, and profit per unit,
Third, it encourages the competitive stability to the extent that competing firms spend
approximately the same % of their sales on promotion.
Inspite of the advantages, the % sales method has little to justify it. Its reasoning is
circular : It views sales as the determiner of the promotion rather than as a result. It
leads to budget setting by availability of funds rather than by marketing opportunities.
• Competitive Parity Method :
Some companies set their promotional budget to achieve share-of-voice parity with
other competitors. Two arguments are made in support of competitive parity method.
One is that the competitors expenditure represents the collective wisdom of the
industry. The other is that maintaining a competitive parity helps prevent promotional
Neither argument is valid. There are no grounds for believing that competition knows
better what should be spent on promotion.
• Objective and Task Method :
The objective & task method calls upon marketers to develop their promotion budgets
by defining their specific objectives, determining the task that must be performed to
achieve these objectives, and estimating the cost of performing these tasks.
Deciding on the promotion mix :
Companies face the task of distributing the total promotion budget over the five
promotional tools :
• Sales Promotion
• Public Relations and Publicity
• Sales Force
• Direct Marketing.
Whatever method a company adopt for promoting its product it must be from above
What is Sales Promotion ?
Promotion is the final element in the marketing mix. After the nature of product is
decided, its price fixed and the methods of distribution decided, the manufactures has
to take effective steps in meeting the consumers in the markets. In the present
consumer oriented markets it is the duty of manufacturers to know what is required by
the consumer. It is also their duty to make the customers know where, when how and
at what prices. The products would be available.
Meaning of Promotion
The term promotion is the term and includes mainly three type of sales activity :
1. Mass impersonal selling methods (Advertising).
2. Face to face personal selling (Salesman ship).
3. Activities other than personal selling and advertising such as point of purchase
display (P.O.P.) show and exhibitions, demonstrations and other non securing selling
efforts. This form of activity is called ‘Sales Promotion’.
There are two type of promotion blends :1. Pull Blend.
2. Push Blend.
Both of these are closely related to the channel of Distribution.
1. A pull blend is one in which mass impersonal, sales efforts are given the greatest
emphasis. The purpose of pull blend to pre-sell to the final consumers. So that they
demand the product at the retail level of distribution. The firm adopting this strategy
would spend more on advertising and sales promotion rather than in personal selling.
These efforts pull down the product from the manufacturer.
2. A push blend emphasizes personal selling. Naturally firms adopting this method
develop a strong sales force at both the distributor and the dealer level. This method
would tends to push the product through the channel of distribution.
Promotion and Selling
The term promotion is very often used as a synonym for selling. But selling is a
narrow term which includes only transfer of title or personal selling. Promotion
on the other hand is broader in its outlook and includes a variety of activities
used ultimately for increasing sales volume.
Promotion and Sales Promotion
Similarly the terms sales promotion can not be taken to mean what is commonly does.
Sales promotion, is only a part of the promotion. Basically promotion is an "exercise"
in information persecution and influence. Promotion has come to mean the over all
co-ordination of advertising selling, publicity and public relations. Promotion is a
helping function designed to make all other marketing activities more effective and
efficient. But sales promotion as such helps only the selling activity still, there exit
same difference of opinion on the real connection of the term sales promotion.
Acc. to A.H.R. Delons :"Sales promotion means any step that are taken for the purpose of obtaining or
Acc. to W.Q. Kelly Opines :"Muddled misused misunderstood that is sales promotion Acc. to him the field of
sales promotion as a marketing activity is still vaguely defined and organized.
Sales Promotion and Advertising
There is no universally accepted distribution between these two terms. To same
advertising includes all forms of mass media communication directed towards
influencing the end consumer. Sales promotion on the other hand, includes the form
of mass communication directed towards information and influencing the channel of
distribution (e.g. distributors, retailers etc.). Hence a price of product literature
distributed by retailers in sales promotion. These sales promotion merges on one side
in to advertising and on the other in to personal salesman ship. It is concerned with the
dissemination of information to whole salers, retailers, customers (both actual and
potential, and to the salesman).
Sales promotion is concerned with the creation. Application and dissemination of
material and techniques that supplement advertising and personal selling. Sales
promotion makes use of direct mail, catalogues, trade shows, sales contests,
premiums, samples, windows displays and other aids. Its purpose is to increase the
desire of salesman, distributors and dealers to sell a certain brand to make consumers
more eager to buy that brand. Personal selling and advertising do include prospects to
make these decisions. Sale promotion provides an extra stimulus.
Objective of Sales Promotion
1. To increase sales directly by publicity through media which are complementary to
press and poster advertising.
2. To disseminate information through sales man dealers etc. So as to insure the
product getting in to satisfactory use by the ultimate consumer.
3. To attract new consumer.
4. To face the competition effectively.
5. To help salesman in selling more to the retailers and consumers.
6. To check seasonal decline in sales. Generally speaking sales promotion involves
rendering the following services:(a) Services to dealers.
(b) Services to own salesman.
(c) Special publicity.
Sales Promotional at different levels
1. Sales promotion at Dealers Level :It may include various schemes some of which are discussed here.
(i) Advertising Materials :The advertising material prepared by the company such as store signs, banners, shelf
signs, board etc. are distributed to sub dealer for display purposes this is in fact a
method of advertising.
(ii) Store Demonstration :In the promises of the whole saler or the retailer the products sales personnel will
conduct special demonstration for the companies product. A personal demonstration is
good to introduce a new product at its peculiar advantage can be high lightened and
the consumer’s doubt clear. It can be used to restimulate an old product. A good
demonstration with a great dealer of action will draw heavy crowds in to the store and
will attract attention to the product.
(iii) Special Display and Shows :These are in seasonal in character but could be arranged in an elaborate manner and
for all the products of an company. Usually these are arranged along with trade fair
and exhibition. Besides effecting sales these shows impress the company’s name
generally on the public.
Sales promotion at consumer’s level
The various schemes of sale promotion at Consumer’s Level may include.
1. Coupons (A Chit of Stated Value) :These are given directly to the consumer these coupons are in most cases kept inside
the package. The consumers many receive a price reduction of the stated values of the
coupon at the time of purchase. The retailer receives reimbursement for the value of
the coupon form the manufacturer. Coupons act as a short run stimulus to the sale of
the product, since they are directly tied with the purchase of the item. They encourage
the retailer to stock the product.
What is important is that a coupon offer does not spoil the named price of the brand
nor does it un pair the margin of the dealers. But it is not easy to measure the
effectiveness of a coupon offer. One over knows how many customer would have
bought the product without the incentive. It is also difficult to find out how many
customers were held after the coupon offer expired.
2. Price-off-offer (Also known as bargain offer price packs) :This offer is intended to stimulate the sales during a slump season. In this method the
customer is offered a reduction from the printed price list. It is also used when a
substitute for competing product enters the market.
Many experts on sales promotion fed that ‘Off Schemes’ are among the weaker and
less desirable methods of promotion. These can be trade resentment particularly when
the retailer raises the price to retain his margin. Secondly that is not conductive to
building up brand loyalty. Consumers may simply shift to the products that offer this
3. Samples :In the hope of converting a prospect into a customer a sample (Some quantity of the
product) may be given. This helps the consumer to verify the real quality of the
product. Various pair manufacturing companies offer this method. For developing
brand loyalty this method is quite useful. Sampling is a fast method of demand
creation because one knows the result as soon as the consumer has had time to use the
sample and buy the brand.
Disadvantage of Sampler :-
Offering sample in quit expensive. There is the cost of producing samples. The
distribution costs are also high. Sample have to be mailed to potential customers or to
be distributed through retail shops. There are also problems when the real product
does not resemble the sample supplied.
4. Money Refund Offer :An offer usually stated on the package is that manufacturers will return with in a
stated period part or all of the purchaser’s money if he is not completely satisfied with
5. Trading Stamps :A premium in the form of stamps is given by the sellers to consumers while selling
goods. The number and value of stamp that the buyer receives depends on the values
of the purchase. These stamps are redeemable through premium catalogues at the
stamp redemption centres.
6. Buy-Back Allowance :
This an allowance following a previous trade deal not offer a certain amount of money
for new purchases based on the quantity of purchases on the first trade deal. It extends
the life of a trade deal and helps to prevent part deal sales decline. It greatly
strengthens the buyer’s motivation to co-operate on the first deal.
7. Premium :There are various forms of premiums provided by the manufacturer as sales
promotional devices :(a) Coupons are supplied for effecting price reductions.
(b) Factory in pack premium these are popular in the case of Body food and Tin food
items, Spoons, Cups, Measuring, Glass etc. and such other items are packed with the
product in the box itself. Factory in pack premium are particularly goods for product
meant for children. The Binaca Toothpaste packs contain animal shape toys. These are
very attractive and qutie popular among the children.
(c) Self Liquidating Premiums :The cost of the premium is collected from the buyer himself. But when the buyers
pays for it he has to pay only a considerably low price for the premium. This is
possible for the manufacturer purchases the items in bulk at a premium and his cost
per unit as is substantially low.
Other Steps by Manufacturer for Promoting Sales
Dealers can be helps in different ways :1. Communicating Market News :Often this service is reciprocal the manufacturer may acquaint his dealer with the fact
relating to his production and prices while the dealer may familiarize him in return
with the information bearing on charges in the consumer's demand, their like and
dislike complaints and criticism, substitutes etc.
2. Inviting to Sales Conference and Convention :The gestures of regard and respect pave the way for better relation and co-operation.
3. Offering Reasonable Terms of Sale :Of all the forms of encouragement, the monetary incentive evokes immediate
response. Hence every producer must offer the most responsible terms of sale such as
longer periods of credit and higher rates of descants.
4. Supplying suitable packages and useful things.
5. By taking the return back.
6. By furnishing them with sales literature and display materials.
Meaning :Goods are produced for market. Manufacturers have to make efforts to sell all they
produce. When the manufacturers uses various sales efforts to obtain increased sales
volume for his product it is called aggressive selling or offensive selling. The sales
efforts which a manufacturer makes to retain his customers i.e. to protect his already
established market against against his competitors is termed as defensive selling. In
contrast to this aggressive selling is concerned with the sales efforts made with the
express objective of selling more by expanding the market for the product of the
Aggressive Selling and Defensive Selling :Aggressive selling is based on the answer to the question how much does the firm
gain (in term of sales with profit) by using this method defensive selling is based on
consideration as to how much the firm will lose if it does not use this method increase
of sales can be obtained from two sources:1. New customers if the market is expending.
2. From the competitors i.e. those consumers who were purchasing similar product of
competiting firms, if the market for the product is static.
Acc. to H. Whitehead :"In case of an expanding market all the firm may stand to gain by following the
methods of aggressive selling but if the market is static manufacturer of a new market
will have to be much more aggressive to capture the established market of
When Aggressive selling is resorted ?
Usually manufacturer of a new product has to do aggressive selling :1. When the product has been improved.
2. When the manufacturer’s product is supervisor in quality to the product of the
3. When the total market for the product or line of product to expanding.
4. If the manufacturer’s share of the market is comparatively small.
5. If the manufacturer has unused production capacity with heavy investment in plant
and equipment he will like to develop the demand for his product rapidly so that
demand for his product is equal to the optimum production capacity of his plant ; and
6. When primary demand for a product must be created and provision must be made
in the channel of distribution to educate consumers regarding the new product and to
instruct them in its use.
Method of Aggressive Selling :Sales promotion efforts use for aggressive selling may be divided in two classes.
1. Trade Promotion.
2. Consumer Promotion.
1. Trade Promotion :Under trade promotion methods special incentives are offered to the trader to buy
products of the firm. Such incentive may take one or more of the following firm :(a) Cash Allowance :-
A definite percentage of discount is allowed on the purchase of given unit of a
(b) Extra Product :Instead of giving any cash allowance extra product is given with each unit of product
ordered. For instance if a box normally contains 20 Cakes of Soap, special box
contains 25 cakes may be made and sold at the same price as that of the box of 20
(c) Gifts :Various gifts are awarded in return for an order of a particular magnitude.
2. Consumer Promotion :Under consumer promotion method special incentives are offered to the consumers to
buy the firms product. The more prominent amongst such incentives are as following.
(a) Coupons :A coupon of a giving value is sent to the consumer. By presenting this coupon to the
retailer consumers can purchase a particular product mentioned on the coupon at a
reduced price. The retailer sells the products mentioned. In the coupon to such
consumer (consumers presenting the coupons) under and agreement with the
manufacturer at a price lower than the user retail price. Thus the consumer get the
benefit of reduced price to the extent of the value of the coupons.
(b) Self Liquidating Offers :Under this system, the firm offers an article at an attracting price if the consumer send
a given sum of money accompanied by a given number of box tops from the packages
of a particular product the benefit to the consumer is that he receives the articles at a
(c) Bargain Packs :Under this system a product is sold at a reduced price for a short period Bargain pack
method encourages new consumers to try the product. It is also helpful in obtaining
large displays in the shops.
(d) Sampling :The method involves giving the product or a small quantity of the product to a
consumer free with the hope that the customer will be favourable impressed with its
actual use and will eventually become a regular purchaser of the product.
A firm selling new product or an extensively improved product finds this methods
useful. Also a firm whose market is hold by competitors whose free sampling almost
The above mentioned methods may be reinforced by adopting.
(i) Direct method of selling through.
(ii) Offer of door to door selling.
(iii) Hire purchase and installment payment methods of selling and by forming
Other Methods of Aggressive Selling :(i) Employment of ‘Missionary Salesman also known as Promotional Salesman’.
These salesman call upon retailers and aggressively promote a product.
(ii) Instead of using wholesalers, the firm may develop its own sales force to call
directly on retailers.
(iii) The firm may follow a compromise method by employing a manufacturer’s agent
and giving him a large enough commission to encourage him to sell product
intensively and aggressively.
(iv) New territory exploitation sales promotion has a particularly important role in
developing the company’s product in new territories.
(v) Increment and promotions.
(vi) Letters to dealer and Customer.
In fact, an ingenious sales manager can devise any number of incentives schemes for
promoting the sales volume.
Project Report - Sales Promotion
Data Collection :There are two main sources for collecting data. These are :1. Primary Data.
2. Secondary Data.
1. Primary Data :
It is the data that is collected for the first time. It is fresh and the originally collected
by the surveyor.
In this Project - Sales Promotion Schemes, the researcher contacted 250 customers
and situated on the various points of the Sonepat, Panipat, Karnal & nearby areas.
The response were collected personally by the reasearch through a structural
questionnaire, consisting of 20 questions.
2. Secondary Data :
Secondary data is the one which is collected by the some one else and already used in
some or the other form. Here the secondary data used was the theoretical aspects of
promotional tools and the statistical method made use of.
Sample :A sample of 250 customers was chosen from Sonepat, Panipat, Karnal & nearby
areas. The sample chosen was fully on the basis of convince of the researcher. It was a
Analysis and interpretation :The total data was presented in simple tables, graphs and percentage method was used
Limitation :Due to time and money constrains the present study was confined only to a sample of
250 customers and that too of Sonepat, Panipat, Karnal & nearby areas.
Age : 18-30 30-40 Above 40
3000-5000 5000-7500 7500-10000 10000-15000 Above 15000
1. Have you heard about the brand Grasim/Grasim Suiting?
2. Have you ever seen the Advertisement of Grasim ?
3. Where did you saw the Advertisement
On T.V. In Magazine Hoarding Others
4. Does it provides the sufficient information about the product you needed ?
Yes No Partially
5. Can you recall the content of Grasim Advertisement ?
Yes No Partially
6. What do you think about the consistency of Grasim’s advertisement ?
Excellent Good Average Poor
7. Which channel do you watch most frequently ?
DD1 DD2 Zee T.V. Sony Star Plus Zee News Others
8. Have you ever heard about "Mr. India" "Mr. International" Contest
organised by Grasim ?
9. Do you found these events as are effective advertisement medium ?
Yes No Partially
10. What type of advertisement do you like the most ?
Personality Symbol Musical Fantasy Life Style
11. Which other advertisement can you recall ?
Raymonds Siyaram Vimal OCM
Mayur Dinesh Grasim Digzam
12. Which advertisement is most consistent ?
Raymonds Siyaram Vimal OCM Mayur Dinesh
13. Which brand in the fabric is the most frequently advertised on T.V. ?
Raymonds Siyaram Vimal OCM Mayur Dinesh
14. Have you purchased Grasim Product ?
15. Have you satisfied with the product ?
Fully Satisfied Partially Satisfied Dissatisfied
16. Do you know the new product launched by Grasim viz. coolers, WWF,
17. Do you recommend the product to others if you are satisfied with it ?
Frequently Occasionally When asked Never
18. Which Media do you like is the most efficient for advertising fabric ?
Electronic Print Outdoor Mail Word of mouth
19. Do you feel good when you see the advertisement of the brand which you
have purchased ?
20. What time of the day do you feel the best for the advertisement on TV ?
Morning Mid-day Evening Late night