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Career orientation

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Career orientation

  1. 1. Orientation to Career Guidance and Counselling in Developing Countries William Borgen Educational and Counselling Psychology & Special Education Faculty of Education University of British Columbia Bryan Hiebert Department of Educational Psychology & Leadership Studies Faculty of Education University of Victoria 1
  2. 2. The Need for Career/Life Planning We guide our boys and girls to some extent through school, then drop them into this complex world to sink or swim as the case may be. Yet there is no part of life where the need for guidance is more emphatic than in the transition from school to work - the choice of a vocation, adequate preparation for it, and the attainment of efficiency and success. (Frank Parsons) 2
  3. 3. Traditional Assumptions  There are a series of individual attributes or traits that draw people to certain occupations.  These attributes or traits are pivotal to effective and desired decision-making.  Occupations that match the vocational interest of individuals are accessible to them.  Occupations are stable enough in their characteristics for assessment instruments that match the traits of individuals with occupational characteristics are useful over time.  Once secured individuals have the capability to stay involved in desired occupations or career trajectories. 3
  4. 4. Counselling and Guidance Within a Context of Uncertainty Societal Context Family Personal Selfidentity Career 4
  5. 5. Societal Contexts Rapidly Changing Social, Cultural and Economic Realities •Poverty/Structural Unemployment •Violence •Migration •HIV/AIDS •The Education System •Globalization 5
  6. 6. Some International Examples  Countries are looking for information and approaches that address the issues of individuals and also inform policies to serve the broader society (Kenya, Nigeria, Bhutan)  The context in which people are making occupational, vocational and career decisions is evolving rapidly and unpredictably (India, Africa, Eastern Europe/Asia, Argentina, North America)  Perceived status of occupations is a major issue 6
  7. 7. Revised Assumptions  Several factors influence choice of occupations or career paths, including individual attributes or traits, family perspectives, rapidly evolving cultural influences such as poverty, addiction, conflict, displacement and discrimination, along with internationalization and rapid change in labour market opportunities.  These factors are differentially important within and across cultural contexts.  Occupations of choice may not be accessible.  Many tasks and processes related to occupations are unstable.  People need the skills and attitudes required to successfully manage rapid and unpredictable changes that characterize many occupations and career trajectories.  Career Development is an emerging professional activity7
  8. 8. Services Related to Career Development Advice or Advising  If I give general information regarding external requirements, I am doing vocational or career advising (Implies general information is sufficient for the issue presented) Guidance  If I make a judgment about what information is being sought and provided it I am providing vocational or career guidance. (Implies tailored information is sufficient). Counselling  If I explore the other person’s perspective, tentatively offer other perspective to be considered (including information based on the initial exploration) and jointly discuss possible action planning, I am providing vocational or career counselling. (Implies that a counselling process is needed to consider the utility of different insights, feelings, and information and the applicability of different possible actions regarding the issue.) 8
  9. 9. Constructs Central to Career Development Occupational  Occupational refers to an activity that is focused on considering a particular job. Vocational  Vocational refers to a focus on an individual’s talents, passions and interests in considering areas of work. Career  Career refers to broader issues, such life development, work-adjustment, work-dysfunction, and integration of life roles with other life roles over time that may or may not be directly related to work. 9
  10. 10. A Proposed Research/Service Grid Advising Guidance Counselling Occupational Occupational Occupational Occupational Advising Guidance Counselling Vocational Career Vocational Advising Vocational Guidance Vocational Counselling Career Advising Career Guidance Career Counselling See: Hiebert, B., & Borgen, W. A. (Eds.), Technical and vocational education and training in the twenty-first century: New roles and challenges for guidance and counselling (pp. 13-26). Paris: UNESCO. 10
  11. 11. What students are telling us… 11
  12. 12. Older Adolescents in High School Problems Identified  Schooling  Identity and SelfConcept  Family  Employment See: Borgen, W. A., & Hiebert, B. (2006). Youth counselling and career guidance: What adolescents and young adults are telling us. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 28, 389-400 . 12
  13. 13. Coping Strategies of Adolescents  Individual Problem Solving  Disengagement – distancing, avoidance  Resignation  Giving Up 13
  14. 14. The Nature of Assistance Desired Who – Friends, Family, Professional Helpers Qualities – Good listeners, trustworthy and honest – Knowledge about the issues being discussed – Experience similar to theirs What – Counselling, knowledge, advice and information – Comfort and reassurance 14
  15. 15. The “High 5” (+1) A Changing Theme For Career Development 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. + Change is constant Focus on the journey Follow your heart Keep learning Access your allies 6. Believe in yourself See: Redekopp, D. E., Day, B., & Robb, M. (1995). The "High Five" of career development. In B. Hiebert (Ed.). Exemplary career development programs and practices: The best from Canada. Greensboro, NC: ERIC/CASS . 15
  16. 16. The Challenge…  Career opportunities are a result of planned and unplanned developmental and environmental events.  Career decisions evolve over a life time.  Career development services need to be differentiated and available across the lifespan.  A new paradigm is needed to depict how people’s careers develop. 16
  17. 17. The Need…  Academics and practitioners will need to consider the new philosophical underpinnings, theoretical foundations, knowledge base, and expanded skill sets needed to embrace the new paradigm.  Career practitioners need a broader range of pre-service and in-service education that prepares them to offer advice, guidance and counselling for occupational, vocational and career related issues. 17
  18. 18. Guidance & Counseling Planner  An alternative metaphor for career/life planning See: Westwood, M. W., Amundson, N. E. & Borgen, W. A. (1994). Starting points: Finding your route to employment. Ottawa: Human Resources & social development Canada. Borgen, W. A. (1999). Implementing ‘Starting Points’: A follow-up study. Journal of Employment Counseling, 36, 98 – 114. Borgen, W. A. (1995). Starting points: Finding your route to employment (B.C. Edition). Victoria/Ottawa: Assessment, Counselling and Referral Initiative of MOEST and HRDC. 18
  19. 19. Professional Development: A Multi-Layered Approach Preparation for career practitioners  Orientation workshop • Philosophical underpinnings • theoretical foundations • For all professionals  Stakeholder involvement • Individual consultation • Group consultation  In-depth training for key service providers • Guidance practitioners • Counsellors  Training for trainers • For capacity building 19
  20. 20. Example from the Field 20
  21. 21. Career Guidance and Counselling Orientation Workshop: Implementing a Vision for Your Life 5-day interactive workshop • foundational career development theory • contemporary approaches for implementing career guidance programs in educational settings • Key resources available • knowledge and skill practice in appropriate instructional methods for career education Designed to help teachers and counsellors work more effectively with their school and college communities 21
  22. 22. Guidance & Counseling Planner Day 1: Context • Preparation, philosophy, theory Day 2: Taking Stock • Tools and resources Day 3: Providing services • Communication & collaboration Day 4: Building support • Policy makers, service providers, clients working together Day 5: Consolidation • Implementing, maintaining, sustaining 22
  23. 23. Orientation Workshop Plan Day 1: Context  What is career development • Career-life planning • Vision for your life • Foundational theories  Who are we serving • Labour market context • Voices of youth  Learn about career-life planning by examining your own career path 23
  24. 24. Orientation Workshop Plan Day 2: Taking Stock  Nature of services • Advising, Guidance, Counselling • Occupational, Vocational, Career • Meeting the whole person needs of students  Nature of training • Skills needed • Resources available  Tools and resources (for services + for training)  Understanding my own career path • How will I incorporate this in my job 24
  25. 25. Orientation Workshop Plan Day 3: Providing services  Communication and collaboration • Multiple skills for multiple roles • Constructs and skills for collaboration  Basic group process • Group member roles and norms • Stages of group development  Skill practice 25
  26. 26. Group Facilitation Model Group Design Pos t Gr oup e6 inati on St ag Term e5 Wor king e2 e4 Tran sitio n Member Needs & Roles e1 e3 Initia l p rou ss G ce o Pr Ap Lea pr de & oac r Sk he ills s Plan ning St ag St ag St ag St ag St ag Group Goals & Activities See: Borgen, W. A., Pollard, D. E., Amundson, N. E., & Westwood, M. J. (1989). Employment groups: The counselling connection (chapter 3). Toronto, ON: Lugus. 26
  27. 27. Orientation Workshop Plan Day 4: Building support  Policy support • Infrastructure needed • Resources needed • Program planning and evaluation • Policy makers, service providers, clients working together  Demonstrating the value of our work • Program planning and evaluation • Evaluation model • Tools for demonstrating value 27
  28. 28. Outcome Focused Evidence-Based Practice Quality Improvement Resources Counsellor • Skills • Interventions • Programs Client change • Knowledge • Skill • Attribute • impact See: Baudoin, R., et al.. (2007). Demonstrating value: A draft framework for evaluating the effectiveness of career development interventions. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 41, 146-157. CRWG web site: http://www.ccdf.ca/crwg 28
  29. 29. Outcome-Focused Evidence-Based Practice Input  Process  Outcome Intervention = Process + Outcome What will I do? + How is it working? Professional Practitioner 29
  30. 30. Orientation Workshop Plan Day 5: Consolidation, maintaining, & sustaining  Making it happen • Pulling it all together • Action planning & follow up • Vision for your life • Foundational theories  Workshop evaluation 30
  31. 31. Orientation Workshop Evaluation Before Regarding the Primary Objectives of this workshop, and knowing what you know now, how would you rate yourself before the workshop, and how would you rate yourself now? After Unacceptable Unacceptable Acceptable Acceptable 0 1 2 3 4 ave 0 1 2 3 4 ave 1 Clear understanding of basic career development theory 6 5 11 3 1 1.5 0 0 0 10 16 3.6 2 Knowledge about the factors that contribute to (or interfere with) people’s career development 4 10 6 5 1 1.6 0 0 1 6 19 3.6 7 11 3 4 1 1.3 0 0 2 6 18 3.6 8 5 4 5 1 1.4 0 0 1 5 17 3.3 3 Knowledge regarding basic skills used in career-life planning 4 Tools for demonstrating the value of careers guidance & counselling Awareness of the importance of 5 career-life planning in TVET 31 6 5 6 5 1 1.7 0 0 0 3 20 3.4
  32. 32. Evaluation Results  156 ratings (6 questions times 26 people): • • • • 84 (54%) ratings were unacceptable before the workshop 0 ratings were unacceptable after the workshop 6 (4%) ratings were excellent before the workshop 108 (69%) ratings were excellent after the workshop 32
  33. 33. Orientation Workshop Evaluation Generally Speaking, Unacceptable 0 1 1. how useful did you find the workshop? 2. how would you rate the workshop facilitation? 3. how would you rate the workshop facilities (room, etc.)? 4. how would you rate the food? Acceptable 2 3 4 Ave -- -- -- 1 25 4.0 -- -- -- 1 25 4.0 -- -- -- 18 5 3.0 -- -- -- 14 3 2.7 33
  34. 34. Orientation Workshop Evaluation For each component of the workshop listed below, please assess how useful that component was for you. Unacceptable Acceptable 0 1 2 3 4 Ave 1. General Model: Road Map -- -- 1 10 15 3.5 2. Exploring the Context -- -- 2 9 15 3.4 3. Factors Influencing Career Plans -- -- -- 8 18 3.7 4. Personal Career Line -- -- 1 12 13 3.5 5. Clarifying Roles (advising, guidance, counselling) -- -- -- 5 21 3.8 6. Assets and Resources -- -- 3 8 15 3.5 7. Skill Framework for service providers -- -- 2 6 18 3.6 8. Group process strategies -- -- -- 5 16 3.6 Skill Practice 10. Demonstrating value (evaluation) -- -- -- 9 17 3.7 -- -- -- 8 16 3.7 11. Infrastructure -- -- 3 13 10 3.3 12. Action planning -- -- -- 7 19 3.7 34 9.
  35. 35. Final Thoughts  One major barrier expressed by participants • lack of infrastructure and resources • Many schools do not have a career resource centre  Create the support you need • Lobby policy makers • Train your boss to give you the support you need  Create a mechanism to support follow up action  Create a capacity building mechanism • Training for trainers Lifelong learning & growth needs Lifelong guidance and counselling 35
  36. 36. Orientation to Career Guidance and Counselling in Developing Countries Questions or Comments? Thank you William Borgen borgen@interchange.ubc.ca Bryan Hiebert hiebert@ucalgary.ca 36

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