Actual Job Performance and Effectiveness of Learning of BSHRM and HRM Students 20013-20143

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Actual Job Performance and Effectiveness of Learning of BSHRM and HRM Students 20013-20143

  1. 1. ACES POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE TADECO Road, San FranciscoPanabo City 8105, Philippines Tel. # (0063) (084) 822-4182 email address: apc_ panabo @ yahoo.com March 6, 2014 IA MARI T. GESTA English Teacher Aces Polytechnic College Panabo City Dear Ma’am: You are chosen as an expert grammarian on our thesis. “Actual Job Performance and The Effectiveness of Learning in BSHRM/HRM Students in ACES Polytechnic College A.Y. 2013-2014.” In view of this, I would appreciate very much if you can share your expertise by checking and rating the content. Please feel to write your comments, suggestions and recommendations that will improve our thesis Thank you very much for your kind cooperation and valuable contributions in this request. Very truly yours, Researchers: JUSTINE NICOLE D. ESTRELLA JOHN PAUL C. PESCADERO
  2. 2. GILIAN MIE Q. BATAS GLADYS C. EUGENIO Noted: VENES L. GATELA, MAED Adviser ACES POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE TADECO Road, San FranciscoPanabo City 8105, Philippines Tel. # (0063) (084) 822-4182 email address: apc_ panabo @ yahoo.com Actual Job Performance and The Effectiveness of Learning in BSHRM/HRM Students in ACES Polytechnic College A.Y. 2013-2014 In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the degree Bachelor of Science In Hotel and Restaurant Management
  3. 3. By: Justine Nicole D. Estrella John Paul C. Pescadero Gilian Mie Q. Batas Gladys C. Eugenio Professor Venes L. Gatela Instructress March 6, 2014 Table of Contents Acknowledgement Dedication Chapter 1
  4. 4. The Problem and Its Background Statement of the Problem Hypothesis Theoretical Framework Scope and Limitation Study Significance of the Study Definition of Terms Abstract Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature Synthesis Chapter 3 Research Methodology
  5. 5. Acknowledgement The success and final outcome of this project required a lot of guidance and assistance from many people and we are extremely fortunate to have got this all along the completion of our novel project work. Whatever we have done is only due to such guidance and assistance and we would not forget to thank them. First of all we would like to articulate our special thanks of gratitude to our Almighty God who constantly there in our side. He is the one who inspired us despite of our difficulties in all subjects that we have been encountered and he never leaves us alone. That’s why were very grateful to have him. Secondly to our Professor Venes L. Gatela, who contributes in stimulating suggestions and encouragement, helped us to coordinate our thesis project. Furthermore, we would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation to our very own respective parents for supporting our financial needs by doing this projects and believing that we could achieve this, without their love and support this project would not have been made achievable.
  6. 6. Last but not the least, to our dearest friends who always been there for us, for making us happy regardless of difficulties that we have been encountered just to accomplish this project. As well as the panels especially in my project presentation that has improved our presentation skills thanks to their comments and advices. Our recognition and appreciations also go to our colleague in developing the project and people who have enthusiastically helped us out with their abilities. Justine, Paul, Gilian and Gladys Dedication First of all the researchers would like to thank our Almighty God who always guide us. Secondly to our instructress Professor Venes L. Gatela for giving her time and sharing her knowledge about the said project, without her we cannot make this project possible. This Project Paper is lovingly dedicated to our respective parents who have been our constant source of inspiration especially for financial aspect. They have given us the drive and discipline to tackle any task with enthusiasm and determination. Without their love and support this project would not have been made possible.
  7. 7. To our dearest friends who are always there for us, for making us happy despite of difficulties that we have encountered just to fulfill this paper works. The researchers need to express our gratitude and deep appreciation to our colleagues whose friendship, hospitality, knowledge, and wisdom have supported, enlightened, and entertained us over the many years of our friendship. They have consistently helped us keep perspective on what is important in life and shown us how to deal with reality. Justine Paul Gilian Gladys Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the Actual Job Performance and Effectiveness of Learning of the 25 student-respondents of nd 2 year Hotel and Restaurant Management and 3rd year Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management of Aces Polytechnic College, Panabo City. Employing descriptive – correlation method of research with Mean and
  8. 8. Pearson r as the statistical tools, it was established in the study in the actual job performance had significant relationship to the effectiveness of learning of the student – respondents. It is hence suggested that the management and the BSHRM/HRM students should perform the training from learning experience to motivate the students to be more efficient to the responsibilities in school.
  9. 9. Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction This study is part of the research project entitled “Actual Job Performance and Effectiveness of Learning in BSHRM/HRM Students in ACES Polytechnic College Sy. 2013-2014”. The students have used the following quote, attributed to Confucius, to express their conviction that experiential learning is effective: I HEAR AND I FORGET I SEE AND I REMEMBER I DO AND I UNDERSTAND. One must learn by doing the thing, for though you think you know ityou have no certainty, until you try. The great difficulty of education is to get experience out or ideas. It is hard to argue that experience will not lead to learning under the right conditions. However, it will be argued that the resultant learning can be error unless care is taken to assure that those conditions occur. The purpose of this chapter is to delineate the components
  10. 10. of “experiential learning” so that the necessary conditions for “proper” learning can be specified. What the student takes away from a particular experience is often idiosyncratic to his/her perceptions of the experience, and is somewhat outside the control of the instructor. The instructor is responsible for providing the experiential stimulus, and the quality of that stimulus will vary greatly depending upon the pedagogical approach used. Thus, much of the chapter will deal with the issue of which approaches facilitate experiential learning. One effective way of expanding classroom learning is to organize students into teams as learners or consultants and link the teams to public organizations. These methods also provide students the chance to be actively involved in their education in ways that motivate and facilitate their ability to connect theory and practice. The most effective method to develop the competence and skills of students is through hand – on training – the on-the-job training (OJT). This process exposes the students to the different fields and learned. Such observation and analysis of organizations in their natural environment falls within the tradition of experiential learning and “cooperative inquiry” and
  11. 11. students as adult learners. Education limited to the classroom may not connect theory to practice. From an experiential learning perspective, learning increases. Moreover, it allows the students to become familiar and made known with the actual operation of the firm and the state-of-the-art of the facilities, equipment and technology used. Many opportunities for development can be found on-the-job. Trainees are able to learn as they contribute to the goals of the firm. Morale, productivity, and professionalism will normally be high in those individuals that employ a sound OJT program. Learning can be in printed or oral form. Lecture is telling someone about something. Learning is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspects of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture format. There are some variations in lecture method. The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not.
  12. 12. The paper examines the effectiveness of active learning implemented in two undergraduate students at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Several learning activities were implemented during student seminar sessions. The effectiveness of these activities was investigated using questionnaires and interviews to explore students’ attitudes as well as the Study Process Questionnaire to measure student approaches to learning. Results showed that active learning made a valuable contribution to the development of independent learning skills and the ability to apply knowledge. It also helped to create interest in the curriculum and to prepare students for their future careers. The activities used affected the quality of student learning by shaping the way that students are studied and meeting desired learning outcomes. University students frequently under-achieve because of negative attitudes, poor planning, and lack of awareness of approaches to different types of teaching/learning situations in universities. Many Hong Kong students joining the university are brought up in the traditional style of education where, for instance, teachers dominate student’s learning providing everything for them;
  13. 13. students have very little chance to manage their “free time”; the pacing of the work is imposed in detail from outside; and learning is highly examinationoriented. Broadly speaking, student learning programmes or teaching learning strategies programmes can be divided into three broad areas: (1) traditional study skills approaches that teach the generic study skills, (2) conceptual change approaches that put much more emphasis on what is going on ‘inside the students’ heads, and (3) contextual approaches that emphasize contextbased, client-based and departmental-based study. In Philippines, the Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management (BSHRM) program is geared towards equipping students with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude to provide quality service in the hospitality industry. Its primary concentration is on the development of practical and management skills which are achieved through the combination of theoretical classes, practicum exercises and experiential learning. Locally, the BSHRM/HRM students having an experiential learning wherein they are going to indulge On-the-Job Training and gain more specific learning which is gaining experience, confidence, initiative, high level of
  14. 14. responsibility and flexible work schedule regarding to the said trainings. The school provides practicum activities for the students to become knowledgeable and skillful students for the future job performance. Statement of the Problem The study focused on Actual Job Performance and The Effectiveness of Learning in 2 nd year HRM and 3 rd year BSHRM students in Aces Polytechnic College A.Y 2013-2014. Specially, it aims to answer the following questions: • How effective doer they acquired in Actual Job Performance? • Did the experiential learning help the students to their academic studies? • What are the impacts of experiential learning in the student’s developments? • How will the actual job performance help the improvement of the corresponding students in APC?
  15. 15. • Is the on- the- job training improves the degree of students’ creativity? Hypothesis The following hypothesis will be tested in this research: • There is a significant learning of the students in actual job performance which enhances their learning experiences through On-the-Job Training (OJT). • There is a difference regarding the two traditions linked by investigating the relationships between school-based (academic) and work-based (experiential) learning approaches of students. Theoretical Framework This study focuses on training session which provides the students with task specific knowledge and skills in work area. Job instruction technique, coaching and job rotation are the common forms of on- the-job training methods. The instructor prepares job breakdown on the job, while watching an experienced worker performs each step of the job. Job instruction technique consists of four steps, preparation, present, try out and follow up
  16. 16. (Blandchard and Thacker, 1999). Job rotation makes the students more selfmotivated, flexible, adaptable, innovative, eager to learn and able to communicate effectively (Jerris, 1999). Coaching is becoming a very popular means of development, and often includes working one- on- one with the learner to conduct needs of assessment, develop and action plan and support the learner to accomplish the plan (Kirwan, 2000). The actual job performance refers to the students who had undergone experiential learning. The student who had an on-the- job training will prove the effectiveness of actual job performance when it comes to learning process.
  17. 17. Independent Variable Dependent Variable Actual Job Performance Effectiveness of Learning • Training • Experience • Flexible Work • • nd Schedules rd 2 year HRM and 3 year BSHRM in ACES Confidence Reputation • Initiative
  18. 18. Figure 1. The Theoretical and Conceptual Framework of the Study RESEARCH PARADIGM Scope and Limitation Study
  19. 19. The study focused on determining the actual job performance and the effectiveness of learning in students taking degree courses in the evening session. The respondents are only those students who are currently enrolled in Aces Polytechnic College, 2 nd year Hotel and Restaurant Management (HRM) and 3rd year Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management (BSHRM). Significance of the Study The researchers of this undertaking desire to make significant contribution to the better improvement and further development of the on-thejob training program. To the students who are enrolled in their practicum course, this will give those brighter understanding and deeper awareness to the different factors that would affect their on-the-job training performance. The results of this study will help the practicumers improve specific areas among themselves to become professionals. To the academe, this would provide insights and recommendations on how to help the practicumers on-the-job training effectively properly managed,
  20. 20. to the professors and on-the-job training coordinators it would also provide information regarding the status of the practicumers that would encourage them to help the students by giving prompt, specific and helpful feedback, and to the cooperating firms, industries and companies who accepts student trainees this would guide them how to handle and supervised praticumers. Furthermore, the findings of this study can serve as resources among researchers undertaking related field. In determining the actual job performance and the effectiveness of learning in selected students, the following will benefit from the result of the study. School. It will help them in monitoring the students in the formulation of the future modifications of strategies to be more effective in the field of studying lessons. Students. The study will provide basis for better understanding of the respondents. It will give them more clear perspective on how the specific learning and characteristics of the respondents affect their learning’s. A
  21. 21. chance to focus research interests, prepares for graduate school, and has close contact with researchers in their field of interest Instructor. It will help them to acquire knowledge, who provides education for students (adults) and secures the learning of the students. Highly motivated students contribute to their research programs Researchers. It will provide an additional area of knowledge and study in the field of works and they may also use the result of the study farther similar to what study is. Definition of Terms The following terms were defined operationally: Calibration is the relation between the degree of confidence students have about their performance and their actual performance.
  22. 22. Coaching is a process of one- on- one guidance and instruction to improve knowledge, skills and work performance. Experience refers to the nature of events someone or something has undergone. Experiential learning is the process of making meaning from direct experience learning from experience. It focuses on the learning process for the individual. It is often used synonymously with the phrase experiential education; experiential education should be considered a broader philosophy of education. Job Rotation is the systematic movement of the students from job to job or project to project within an organization. On-the-Job Training (OJT) is refers to the program conducted by the cooperating firm, company or industry, sponsored by the school in order to expose the students to actual training. Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that
  23. 23. relate to specific useful competencies. It has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity, productivity and performance. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter presents the related literature and studies after the thorough and in-depth search done by the researchers. This will also present the synthesis of the art, theoretical and conceptual framework to fully understand the research to be done and lastly the definition of terms for better comprehension of the study. Training. The verb “to train” derived from the old French trainer, meaning “to drag”. Training can be described as “providing the conditions in which people can learn effectively”. To learn is “to gain knowledge, skill, ability” (King, 1968). In view of the sense, knowledge refers to the information we acquire and place into memory, how it is organized into the structure of what we already know and to our understanding of how and when it is used.
  24. 24. Thus knowledge can be seen as three district types; declarative, procedural and strategic (Kraiger and Salas, 1993). Declarative knowledge is a person’s store factual information about a subject matter. Procedural Knowledge consists of the person’s understandings about how and when to apply the facts that have been learned. Strategic knowledge consists of the person’s awareness of what he knows and the internal rules for accessing relevant facts and procedures to be applied toward some goal. Al-Khamis (2001) conducted a study on “Human Resource Development in Saudi Arabia: The College of Technology Role in Supplying Skilled Manpower to the Private Sector”. The purpose of the study was to assess the role of Colleges of Technology in relation to human resource development in Saudi Arabia, in general, and investigate and identify factors that have an impact on hiring Colleges of Technology graduates in the private sector, in particular. It was estimated that in United States during 1929-1982, twenty-six percent increased in production was attained due to education and training interventions (Desimone, 2002). According to a survey of human resource
  25. 25. managers in large organizations, training and development was the most important area, which human resource managers were suggested to go about. Training has also been imperative to fill the skills gap because many fresh graduates, when they come to work places, cannot meet the standards and requirements of modern organizations (Desimone, 2002). Focus of training and development activities is on change and/or improvement in knowledge, skills and attitude of employees (Desimone, 2002). Nadler (1984) believes training = learning related to job. Training can contribute to the effective use of the organization’s resources, but only if approached systematically. Finally, the study also sought to determine the degree of importance of each of these factors. John (2005) defined training as a planned process modify attitude, knowledge or skill behavior through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Its purpose, in the work situation, is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and future needs of the organization.
  26. 26. The importance of clearly defining needs before embarking on a training programme should be over-emphasized (Noorjahen, 2007). Training needs assessment is one of he factors that determine success of training to bring the said change (Iqbal, 2007). One goal of a performance is to judge the level of competency students achieve in doing trainings (Parker, Louie, & O’Dywer, 2009). Therefore, performance assessments can also produce useful information for diagnostic purposes to assess what students know. These assessment strategies can also be used to monitor student’s processing skills and problem-solving approaches, as well as their competence in particular areas while simulating learning activities. Experience. Learning theory and educational practice often are viewed as distinct, but in fact they should complement on one another. Neither is sufficient to ensure good teaching and learning. Theory alone may not fully capture the importance of situational factors. Practical experience without theory is situationally specific and lacks an overarching framework to organize knowledge of teaching and learning. Theory and practice help to
  27. 27. renew one another. Experiential learning is active learning or learning by doing in which students apply their theoretical, classroom knowledge through “real world” experience and application. By immersing students “in the field” and giving them opportunities for hands-on learning. Experiential learning opportunities have been growing in number and scope at the University of Toronto at Mississauga, and encompass many types of practical learning, or ‘learning by doing. Experiences take place in outside agencies or in various on-campus research settings, with faculty and/or community-based supervision. Learning is accomplished both by hands-on work and reflection. “Students remember only a fraction of what they hear but a majority of what they actively do.” (Hawtrey, 2007). According to Kolb (in Sternberg and Zhang, 2000), experiential learning distinguishes itself from cognitive and behavioral learning theories in that it emphasizes the primary role that experience plays in human learning and development. However, it has much in common with constructivism as this theory defines learning as "the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience". Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle
  28. 28. contains four critical components that facilitate learning: the concrete experience, the reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation. While Experiential Learning is commonly associated with the Outward Bound program, classroom teachers across many disciplines incorporate direct experiences for students as part of their school-based curricula (Moore 2010). Work organizations are becoming important partners in this learning society, as they provide more and more opportunities for continuous learning to their employees with the objective to optimize organizational learning as a whole (Karen et al., 2001). Maharasoa and Hay (2011) found from the study in South Africa that employability, or the prospects of post-graduation employment, is one of the greatest factors influencing a student’s choice of the course for study. Ashton and Sung (2002) stated that high performance working practices supported the climate of the organization in a way which result in a working environment which not only provide the potential for developing the personality of the worker, but also raises the productivity the organization.
  29. 29. The term learning experience refers to purposeful are intentional learning not just an incidental learning as cited by John (2005). Organizational view point is that human resource development is a process in which the employees of an organization are motivated to acquire and develop technical, managerial and behavioral knowledge skills and abilities (John, 2005). Experiential learning is active learning or learning by doing on which students apply their theoretical, classroom knowledge through “real world” experience and application. Experiential learning opportunities have been growing in number and scope at the University of Toronto at Mississauga, and encompass many types of practical learning, or “learning by doing”. It can be paid (cooperative) or unpaid, and can take the form of community service, internship or practicum placement, or project research. Experiences take place in outside agencies or in various on-campuses research settings, with faculty and/or community-base supervision. Learning is accomplished both by hands-on work and reflection. “Students remember only a fraction of what they hear but a majority of what they actively do”. (Hawtrey, 2007).
  30. 30. While Experiential Learning is commonly associated with the Outward Bound program, classroom teachers across many disciplines incorporate direct experiences for student as part of their school-based curricula (Moore, 2010). Flexible Work Schedules. A common problem identified in all the existing research literature is that there is no coherent theory of exactly how, through which pathways, various working time arrangements influence employee productivity, directly or indirectly (Kelly et al., 2008). Prior metaanalyses were driven by a set of hypotheses derived from a wide range of theoretical models. For example, they are typically rooted in some area within the occupational and organizational health psychology fields, applying models such as “job demands” (work stress), “work adjustment”, “job characteristics” and “person-job fit”. Flexible work options traditionally have been introduced largely to meet employer needs for flexibility or to keep costs down, although they may also have met employee needs and demands (Krausz et al., 2000). Most importantly, there is virtually no research finding that employees working on flextime have lower productivity than those on traditional fixed work
  31. 31. schedules (Yang and Zheng, 2011). According to Hernreich (2008), “Flextime has made our work force more efficient and more focused while they are working. It is a step backwards to go back to rock solid hours. As long as an employee is getting the job done, they should be treated like an adult.” Flexible work schedules such as flextime, telework, or compressed work weeks, are examples of increasing variation in the timing and duration of work hours, and the location of work. While standard work schedules have traditionally been the norm in organizations; growing numbers of employers are experimenting with a wide range of flexible work schedules at the same time as they are transforming employment systems and work processes across time zones and cultures. As the opening statement suggests, when implemented with both employer and employee interests in mind, flexible work schedules can increase efficiency, work focus, and empower individuals to self-manage work time (Halpern, 2005; Kossek, 2005). Flexible work schedules are an increasingly important issue for Industrial-Organizational (IO) psychology as they reflect the adaptation of human resource practices to the changing nature of work, such as the shift in the labor force to be
  32. 32. increasingly diverse in work time availability and the dramatic change in the design of work systems in response to a 24-7 global economy. Confidence. The Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management programme’s objective is to train students for operational for actual job performance. Confidence is the belief is oneself and abilities; it describes an internal state made up of what they think and feel about their selves in their job performance. It is not unusual to feel quite confident in some circumstances and less confident in others. It is also influenced by past events and how they remember, recalling a former success has a very different outcome in terms of our confidence levels than thinking about an occasion when they failed. Self-confidence can refer to how they feel about their selves and their abilities whereas self-esteem refers directly to whether or not they appreciate and value their selves. It may have been discouraged from being boastful but a healthy amount of self-liking and self-approval is necessary to have the confidence to perform the given task and participate as fully as to whatever makes life enjoyable and rewarding.
  33. 33. Self-confidence is considered one of the most influential motivators and regulators of behavior in Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management students (Bandura, 2000). A growing body of evidence suggests that one’s perception of ability or self-confidence is the central mediating construct of achievement strivings (e.g., Bandura, 2000; Ericsson et al., 2003; Harter, 2007; Kuhl, 2000; Nicholls, 2009). Ericsson and his colleagues have taken the position that the major influence in the acquisition of expert performance is the confidence and motivation to persist in deliberate practice for minimum of 10 years. At a certain point in the process of studying, students must determine whether they have adequately learned the concepts on which they will be tested, called a judgment of learning (Dunlosky, Serra, Matvey and Rawson, 2005). Students take many tests throughout their academic career. Successful students develop a set of expectations about what will be on the test and either memorize the appropriate information or develop knowledge schema (Crisp, Sweiry, Ahmed, & Pollitt, 2008).
  34. 34. The same type of judgment occurs again when answering test questions and students determine whether they have adequately answered each question, called a confidence judgment (Schraw, 2009). It is extremely important how accurate students’ judgments of learning and confidence judgments are as this impacts self-regulation of learning (Labuhn, Zimmerman, & Hasselhorn, 2010). A recent review of the contemporary literature on calibration found that while just over half of studies explicitly defined what was meant by calibration, very few grounded that definition in a theoretical framework (Parkinson, Dinsmore, & Alexander, 2010). What it means to be a poorly calibrated versus a well-calibrated learner is somewhat in doubt without conceptual assumptions from a model or theory of some sort. Furthermore, measurement of the confidence ratings upon which calibration is calculated should be congruent with the chosen theoretical framework. Confidence ratings are a type of self-judgment because students compare their performance to pre-established goals, or Woodworth and Thorndike’s mental standard. Self-reaction is the resulting behavior from self-
  35. 35. observation and self-judgment. Positioning calibration in the behavioral portion of the model implies that not only do personal factors and environmental factors influence calibration (as has oft been studied), but that calibration itself influences students’ Meta cognition, goals, and ability to confront the task. Therefore if students are poorly calibrated their performance is not expected to be as high as students who are wellcalibrated. In order to understand the role of calibration in the frameworks mentioned previously, we must be able to make valid inferences about the measurement of confidence and performance, and ultimately, the calculations of calibration used. Currently, there appears to be little consensus on what methods to use to calculate calibration (e.g., Parkinson, Dinsmore, & Alexander, 2010). Reputation. The ability of Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management in actual job performance is to acquire and maintain reputations for quality is a key ingredient for the efficient provision of complex goods and services in hotel industry. Akerlof (2002) further hypothesized that
  36. 36. this ingredient is sufficient, namely, hotelier’s concern for their reputation ensures that an unfettered market efficiently supplies such goods. The studies for educational services show that hypothesis is true only under the appropriate conditions. Specifically, if schools can select students based upon their ability with a good reputation, and then actual performance is efficient and encourages entry by high productivity schools. However, if schools use an effective learning to Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management students, then competition leads to stratification by parental income, increased transmission of income inequality, and reduced student effort in some cases lowering the accumulation of skill. For example, restaurants, social clubs, and hotels are perceived to be high quality when they serve exclusive clients. This matters because Holmstrom (2000) has shown that the incentive effect of reputation depends upon the existence of uncertainty regarding ability. Schools with good reputation are attractive to students because admission to such school signals high ability, thereby raising future income. Finally, it illustrates that a school’s reputation is a function of both the quality
  37. 37. of its students and school’s value added. Recently, the idea has emerged that a key to winning the talent war through recruitment is to place greater emphasis on an organization’s reputation for social responsibility, not just the company’s overall reputation or its reputation as a good employer. But few studies validly examine the degree to which a company’s social reputation or other aspects of its reputation are more or less important than other, more utilitarian job choice factors. An article tackling several subjects quickly and effectively, in which Lewis distinguishes a “reputation problem” from a “PR problem” (the latter he calls a “reality” problem) and suggests reputation is the product of “a mix of behavior, communication and expectation” at any given moment. According to David M. Furman’s 2010 monogram, Development of Corporate Image: A Historiographer Approach to a Marketing Concept provides a useful history of the origins of some of its aspects (although the focus is more straightforwardly on image) and is an excellent place to start. However, the basic uncertainty (or multiple certainties, if you will) is one of the issues that
  38. 38. make reputation management such a challenging business. The fact is, it is not an exact science. It is constantly, quickly, changing and evolving. Initiative. Seeing something that needs to be done and starting it. It means taking the first step rather than waiting for someone else or a “better time.” Schools today are given the task of not only educating students with the three Rs of Reading, writing, and arithmetic but also are expected to give students strong backgrounds in science, technology, global studies, and a diversity of so-called “21st century skills” such as critical thinking, collaboration, alertness, initiative, oral and written communication, analyzing information, and imagination (Wagner, 2008). Recognizing that we now live in a digital rather than analog world, many schools are implementing one-to-one computing initiatives to help accomplish these academic goals and many others are considering making the transition. According to Cesar Chavez (2010), Students must have initiative; they should not be mere imitators. They must learn to think and act for themselves - and be free. We believe a renewed commitment to limited government will
  39. 39. unshackle our economy and create millions of new jobs and opportunities for all people, of every background, to succeed and prosper. Under this approach, the spirit of initiative - not political clout - determines who succeeds (Paul Ryan 2011). A student who has an initiative at work is the employee who understands and is ready to do tasks without waiting for order. An initiative workforce is a valuable asset to any organization. Initiative is a skill that is very bit as important to our profession as effective communication and it can reap the rewards of taking initiative even when you don’t aspire to advance to the next job or move into management, but instead want excel in your current position. Initiative launches us on a journey of self-discovery and empowerment no matter where we are in our careers. It took to improve job performance of the students which can help you identify and act on opportunities more quickly, with more confidence and even better result. Researchers Michael Frese and Doris Fay define initiative as “work behavior characterized by its self-starting nature, its proactive approach, and
  40. 40. by being persistent in overcoming difficulties that arise in pursuit of a goal”. When you show initiative, you do things without being told; you find out what you need to know; you keep going when things get tough; and you spot and take advantage of opportunities that others pass by. You act, instead of reacting, at work. Most of us have seen initiative in action (Gray, 2010). Initiative has become increasingly important in today’s work place. Organizations want employees who can think on their feet and take action waiting for someone to tell them what to do. After all, this type of flexibility and courage is what pushes teams and organizations to innovate, and to overcome competition. SYNTHESIS According to different authors, there is really a great development of students in terms of applying learning in actual job performance of training, experience, less stress environment, flexible work schedules, confidence, reputation and initiative. It encourages in their academic performance as well
  41. 41. as their actual performance. Any student can make improvement in their study which can help them to success in their academic field. Many suggestions are identified with related to the actual job performance and effectiveness of learning. As mentioned by the following authors Hawtrey, Sternberg, Zhang, Hernreich, Crisp, Sweiry, Ahmed, & Pollitt that there should be a complement of theory and practice before having an actual job performance. Experiential learning can gain more knowledge and improving the student’s skills, to become more efficient with their upcoming jobs that fit to their courses. Moreover, the researchers believe, it is discern to know the significant relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variables learning in actual job performance. Chapter 3
  42. 42. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Respondents Mean Descriptive Equivalent 2 nd Year Hotel and Restaurant Management of ACES Polytechnic rd College and 3 Year Bachelor of Science in 2.36 High Hotel Restaurant Management of ACES Polytechnic College The first and second implement on Actual Job Performance and Effectiveness of Learning was consistent with stressors associated with the job itself and work trainings, shift work (essentially defined as work during nonstandard hours) and the number of hours worked have a significant effect on the physical, psychological, and emotional well-being of students (Presser,
  43. 43. 2004) and work schedules that involve weekends and holidays (Almeida, 2004), common in hotel work, create challenges for student as a trainee. The teachers who develop useful assessments, provide corrective instruction, and give students second chances to demonstrate success can improve their instruction and help students learn (Guskey, 2000). The questionnaire was nd rd intended for the 2 Year HRM and 3 Year BSHRM students to determine the level of the Effectiveness of Learning. It composes 25 items. Each of the six areas contains three-item statements. The researchers submitted the questionnaires to the grammarian for corrections. After corrections were made, a panel of experts validated the two sets of questionnaires. The mean rating of the questionnaires is 2.36 or high. The respondents answered each of the questionnaires based from their opinions and how they reflected on them. The survey had been conducted upon the request of the researchers with the respondents’ approval. The results or the scores from the two respondents served as the bases of their learning via actual job performance.
  44. 44. All the questionnaire for actual job performance and the effectiveness of learning of students were retrieved from the internet and were based from prominent authors. The researchers made the questionnaires from the collaboration of different survey questions carefully selected to fit the study. In analyzing the level of actual job performance of the students, the following rating scale has been used: Range of Means Descriptive Level Interpretation This means that the 2.60-3.00 Very High actual job performance is always done or at the times. This means the 2.20-2.59 High Actual job performance oftentimes done. This means that 1.80-2.19 Moderate Actual job performance is sometimes done. This means that 1.40-1.79 Low Actual job performance
  45. 45. is rarely done. This means that 1.00-1.39 Very Low Actual job performance is never done. In analyzing the level of effectiveness of learning of the students, the following rating scale has been used: Range of Means Descriptive Level Interpretation This means that 2.60-3.00 Very High The respondents have applied the learning at all times or always. This means that the 2.20-2.59 High respondents have applied the learning oftentimes. This means that the 1.80-2.19 Moderate respondents have
  46. 46. applied the learning sometimes. This means that the 1.40-1.79 Low respondents have applied the learning rarely. This means that the 1.00-1.39 Very Low respondents have never applied the learning. The responses on actual job performance and effectiveness of learning rd of 3 year BSHRM and 2 nd year HRM students are presented and discussed in this section. The order of the discussions is centered on sub-topics stated in previous chapter. In particular, the study required answer to the following problems: level of actual job performance and effectiveness of learning among the students selected; significant relationship between actual job performance and effectiveness of learning of the respondents.
  47. 47. Data Gathering Procedure The following steps were followed in gathering of important data for study: 1. Permission to conduct the study. The researchers have sought the permission to conduct the study from the President/CEO of the Aces Polytechnic College Dr. Francisco P. Dela Peña, Jr. Upon the approval of the Administrator of the college, the researchers have sought the permission from the college administrator of the said college. 2. Administration and Retrieval of the Questionnaire. Upon the approval to conduct the study, the researchers requested the list of the student-respondents along with the class schedules from the registrar’s office. Upon the conformity of the students, the researchers have distributed the questionnaire to the respondents. The respondents had
  48. 48. given time to answer the questionnaire with close supervision of the researchers. Statistical Treatment of the Study In analyzing the data, the following statistical tools were used in the study: Mean. According to Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary (2009), this has been the average value of a set of absolute deviations from the mean of a set of observations. It has been utilized in determining the level of Actual Job Performance and Effectiveness of Learning relationship of the two respondents. Pearson r. This is the magnitude and direction of the association between two variables that were on an interval or ratio scale (Archambault, 2000). In this study, the researchers determined to find out whether significant relationship exist between Actual Job Performance and Effectiveness of Learning of 2 nd year Hotel and
  49. 49. rd Restaurant and 3 year Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management of Aces Polytechnic College. Level of Actual Job Performance among the Respondents The actual job performance involve in the study are training, experience and flexible work schedule. These relate to the student who undergone on the job training. The data for each indicator of actual job performance were discussed below. Training. The data of this training are found in Table 2. As shown in the table, the overall mean of training is 2.28 or high as a descriptive value. It means that the respondents of the two oftentimes have high responses. The overall result means that the training in actual job performance had obtained a good impact towards the student’s performance to perform their job well through the knowledge that they have learnt from school. The data show that the respondents’ belief that the students proves confident to mingle with the guest/customers because they were trained. In order to reach and improve their training skills of the establishment of being able to perform their job well is 2.40 or high, 2.24 or high for respondents
  50. 50. comment to the students handles guest/customers in front of many people, completes with others because of his/her knowledge, experience and skills is 2.20 or high. Among the items under the training, the students have highly performed on how they show knowledge on training. It also shows that the students are aware of what they are doing in the establishment. The two items below under training get a high response from the students. This means that the students shall acquired to handle the guest in front of many people to treat them in a proper way it is because it is one of the standards in hotel operation to be courteous all through-out. And these factors are really important to compete with others with knowledge, experience, and skills in order to be more efficient and effective in trainings that they have applied.
  51. 51. Table 2 Level of Actual Job Performance of Students in terms of Training Descriptive Item Mean Equivalent guests/customers because I was trained. 2.40 High Handles him/her in front of many people. 2.24 High 2.20 High 2.28 High Shows confident to mingle with the Competes with others because of his/her knowledge, experiences and skills. Overall Mean
  52. 52. Furthermore, the data support the idea of Parker, Louie, & O’Dywer, (2009) that one goal of a performance is to judge the level of competency students achieve in doing trainings. Therefore, performance assessments can also produce useful information for diagnostic purposes to assess what students know. These assessment strategies can also be used to monitor student’s processing skills and problem-solving approaches, as well as their competence in particular areas while simulating learning activities. Experience. The data in Table 3 reveal the overall mean scores on experience. As shown in the table, the overall mean of experience is 2.31 or high as a descriptive equivalent. This means that the experience has been highly performed by the students. It also reveals that the students applied and enhance their knowledge through their experience.
  53. 53. The data show that the mean rating is 2.40 or high will help them to do a good performance through experience because they are able to perform their responsibilities and obligations in the establishments, 2.20 or high which helps the students to work easily, and helps them to be chose in applying job is 2.32 or high. Along with the three items under the experience the students have highly performed shows experience. This means that the experiential learning is active learning or learning by doing in which students apply their theoretical, classroom knowledge through “real world” experience and application. By immersing students “in the field” and giving them opportunities for hands-on learning. Table 3 Level of Actual Job Performance of Students in terms of Experience Descriptive Item Mean Equivalent
  54. 54. Helps me to do a good performance. 2.40 High Helps me to do my work easily. 2.20 High Helps me to be chosen easily in applying job. 2.32 High 2.31 High Overall Mean
  55. 55. Moreover, the data support the idea of Hawtrey (2007) that experiences take place in outside agencies or in various oncampus research settings, with faculty and/or community-based supervision. Learning is accomplished both by hands-on work and reflection. Students remember only a fraction of what they hear but a majority of what they actively do. Flexible Work Schedule. Presented in Table 4 are the responses of the overall mean of flexible work schedules of the selected students. The table shows that the overall mean of flexible work schedules of actual job performance is 2.31 or high as a descriptive equivalent. This means that the flexible work schedules has been applied or performed by the students who undergone actual job performance. Also the data show that the respondents answers’ switches their schedule with their co-OJTs is 2.28 or high because they are able to manage their personal time in terms of unexpected reasons, 2.2 or high is lightens their household chores before going to work, and 2.16 or moderate shows
  56. 56. that sometimes they can maximize their times doing in extracurricular activity while they are having their OJT. Data analysis shows that the respondents are highly performed by the students who switches their schedule and lightens their household chores before going to work because of their personal matters. The third item shows Table 4 Level of Actual Job Performance of Students in terms of Flexible Work Schedules Descriptive Item Mean Equivalent Switches my schedule with my co-OJTs. 2.28 High Lightens my household chores before going to 2.2 High 2.16 Moderate work. Maximizes my time doing extracurricular
  57. 57. activity. Overall Mean 2.31 High moderate it is because mostly of the students can’t do extracurricular activities while having an OJT. Moreover, the data support the idea of Yang and Zheng, (2011) that the flexible work schedules of the students working on flextime have lower productivity than those on traditional fixed work schedules.
  58. 58. Summary of the Level of Actual Job Performance of Students. Presented in Table 5 is the Summary of the Level of Actual Job Performance of Students. In the table, the overall means score for actual job performance is 2.27 or high. For indicators, training is 2.28 or high, 2.31 or high for experience, 2.31 or high for flexible work schedules has been performed by selected students. Generally, as shown from the data actual job performance highly applied by the respondents. It further denotes that the students have enough knowledge to apply the actual job performance in an establishment. The results also imply that both actions from the students in school must be done in order to achieve an excellent performance on actual job performance. Level of Effectiveness of Learning The effectiveness of learning involve in the study are confidence, reputation, and initiative. This relate on how the students acquire the learning from the training during their OJT. The data of each element under the effectiveness of learning were discussed below.
  59. 59. Table 5 Summary of the Level of Actual Job Performance of Students Descriptive Indicator Mean Equivalent Training 2.28 High Experience 2.31 High Flexible Work Schedules 2.213333 High Overall Mean 2.27 High
  60. 60. Confidence. Presented in table 6 are the responses of the overall mean of the respondents on confidence. The table shows that the overall mean of the confidence is 2.43 or high as the descriptive equivalent. This means that the respondents of the school oftentimes have high responses. Analysis of data shows that the respondents are satisfied the outcome of their training. Data show that the mean rating is 2.60 or very high is helping them to be more confident about their selves, 2.36 or high for the students which make them feel positive in dealing with their companions, and 2.32 for their capabilities in sharing their ideas to others.
  61. 61. The figures shows that in confidence they have performed highly in all items, helps me to be more confident about myself, makes me feel positive in dealing with my companion and enhances my capability in sharing my ideas to others. These would tell that the respondents are highly confident about their selves after undergone on the job training. Besides, the data supported the idea of Dunlosky, Serra, Matvey, & Rawson, (2005) at a certain point in the process of studying, students must determine whether they have adequately learned the concepts on which they will be tested, called a judgment of learning. The same type of judgment occurs again when answering test questions and students determine whether they have adequately answered each question, called a confidence judgment (Schraw, 2009). Table 6 Level of Effectiveness of Learning of Students in terms of Confidence
  62. 62. Descriptive Item Mean Equivalent Helps me to be more confident about myself. 2.60 Very High Makes me feel positive in dealing with my 2.36 High 2.32 High 2.43 High companion. Enhances my capability in sharing my ideas to others. Overall Mean
  63. 63. Reputation. The data in table 7 reveal the overall mean score for the responses on reputation. As shown in the table the overall mean of reputation is 2.53 or high is a descriptive equivalent. It simply means that the two courses often times have high responses. Data analysis shows that the respondents are satisfied with the learning process during their training especially with the hotel have a good standard with good reputation as well. Data proved that the mean rating for representing their school is 2.20 or high, showing their excellence on their job activity is 2.36 or high and helping their personality to get a job easily is 3.04 or very high. Data show that the two items of reputation are performed by the selected students which are trained with professionalism and employees’ modesty and in third item it show a very high which means in gaining reputation you can easily apply job. Data also show that establishments need to possess good reputations towards their trainees in order for them to be more popular to other competitors.
  64. 64. Moreover, the data are supported the idea of David M. Furman (2010) suggests reputation is the product of “a mix of behavior, communication and expectation” at any given moment. However, the basic uncertainty (or multiple certainties, if you will) is one of the issues that make reputation management such a challenging business. The fact is it is not an exact science. It is constantly, quickly, changing and evolving. Table 7 Level of the Effectiveness of Learning of Students in terms of Reputation Descriptive Item Mean Equivalent Represents my school. 2.20 High Shows excellence on my job activity. 2.36 High Helps my personality to get a job easily. 3.04 Very High
  65. 65. Overall Mean 2.53 High Initiative. Presented in table 8 are the responses of overall mean of the respondents on initiative. The table shows that the overall mean of initiative is 2.37 or high as a descriptive equivalent. This means that the 3 items of the effectiveness of learning have been applied to the students who undergone training.
  66. 66. Data show that the mean rating of the respondents for Performing without the help of others is 2.40 or high, working without the guidance of others is 2.36 or high and doing a task on his/her own is 2.36 or high. Data analysis shows that the respondents oftentimes applied through the learning that they acquire from the undergone training. Moreover, the data supported the idea of Cesar Chavez (2010), Students must have initiative; they should not be mere imitators. They must learn to think and act for themselves - and be free. Schools today are given the task of not only educating students with the three Rs of Reading, writing, and arithmetic but also are expected to give students strong backgrounds in science, technology, global studies, and a diversity of so-called “21st century skills” such as critical thinking, collaboration, alertness, initiative, oral and written communication, analyzing information, and imagination (Wagner, 2008).
  67. 67. Table 8 Level of the Effectiveness of Learning of Students in terms of Initiative Descriptive Item Mean Equivalent Performs without the help of others. 2.40 High Works without the guidance of others. 2.36 High Does a task on his/her own. 2.36 High 2.37 High Overall Mean
  68. 68. Summary of the Level of Effectiveness of Learning of Students. Presented in table 9 is the summary of the level of effectiveness of learning using the survey questionnaire to the following sections: confidence, reputation, and initiative. The level of effectiveness of students has an overall mean rating 2.44 with a high descriptive equivalent this means that effectiveness of learning has been often times perform by the students. It further denotes that the students applied the learning in order to perform excellently the elements of effectiveness of learning.
  69. 69. Confidence has a means score of 2.43 or high as a descriptive equivalent, reputation has a mean score of 2.53 or high and 2.37 or high for initiative. Data analysis shows that the students of the 2 selected courses have often times perform the learning outcomes of the On-the-Job training (OJT). Also means that the students are taking their training seriously to do their essential task and that is to secure and ensure that the learning that they gained through the training are effectively applied. Table 9
  70. 70. Summary of the Level of the Effectiveness of Learning of Students Descriptive Indicator Mean Equivalent Confidence 2.43 High Reputation 2.53 High Initiative 2.37 High Overall Mean 2.44 High
  71. 71. Questionnaire on the Level of Actual Job Performance of 2 HRM and 3 rd nd year year BSHRM in ACES Polytechnic College 20122013 We are the group of graduating students from the BSHRM fourth year in ACES Polytechnic College of Panabo City. This is a survey questionnaire for the research that we are conducting regarding the Level of Actual Job Performance and Effectiveness of Learning of 2 nd year HRM and 3 rd year BSHRM in ACES Polytechnic College for our Elec 2 subject. Your response to this survey is very valuable. Your answer will be appreciated and rest assumes that we will keep it as confidential. The following options are: Scale 3 Extent Always Description It includes almost always true of me. It happens almost all the time and
  72. 72. represents a strong pattern in your Students state profession because he/she... a. shows confident to mingle with 1 2 3 the guests/customers because I was trained. b. handles him/her in front of many people. c. competes with others because of his/her knowledge, experiences and skills. learning behavior. 2 Sometimes It includes almost occasionally true of Students can compete because it... 1 2 3 a. helps me to do a good performance. b. helps me to do my work easily. c. helps me to be chosen easily in applying job. me. It happens occasionally in your learning behavior. 1 Never It includes almost never true of me. It does not happen very often in your learning behavior. A. Training
  73. 73. B. Experience C. Flexible Work Schedule Questionnaire on Effectiveness of Learning of 2 3 rd nd year HRM and year BSHRM in ACES Polytechnic College 2012-2013. A. Confidence Students aware of my shared information because 1 2 3 OJT... a. helps me to be more confident about myself. b. makes me feel positive in dealing with my companion. c. enhances my capability in sharing my ideas to others. Students can easily adjust because It... a. switches my schedule with my co-OJTs. b. lightens my household chores before going to work. c. maximizes my time doing extracurricular activity. B. Reputation 1 2 3
  74. 74. Students keep image because I ... 1 2 3 1 2 3 a. represents my school. b. shows excellence on my job activity. c. helps my personality to get a job easily. C. Initiative Students keep learning’s for the futures job because he/she... a. performs without the help of others. b. works without the guidance of others. c. does a task on his/her own. Chapter 4 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Presented in this chapter are the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study. Summary
  75. 75. The study focused on Actual Job Performance and Effectiveness of Learning in 2 nd rd year HRM and 3 year BSHRM students in Aces Polytechnic College A.Y 2013-2014. Specially, it aims to answer the following questions: • How effective doer they acquired in Actual Job Performance? • Did the experiential learning help the students to their academic studies? • What are the impacts of experiential learning in the student’s developments? • How will the actual job performance help the improvement of the corresponding students in APC? • Is the on- the- job training improves the degree of students’ creativity?
  76. 76. Conclusion On the basis of the foregoing findings, the following conclusions are drawn: 1. There is a high level of actual job performance among the selected respondents. 2. There is a high level of effectiveness of learning among the selected respondents. 3. There is a significant relationship between actual job performance and effectiveness of learning. Recommendations On the basis of foregoing findings and conclusions, following recommendations are offered: 1. This study must applied for all the HRM and BSHRM students in order for them to enlighten their minds in terms of understanding, information and knowledge about the factors of trainings to perform their responsibilities as a students.
  77. 77. Moreover, this study must aid the students to be more competent and eligible for their future jobs and professions. 2. This study serves as a guide to the students of Aces Polytechnic College to be aware on how effective the learning is. It is important for them to provide a curative learning to enhance their knowledge and skills for their chosen fields in life. 3. The schools must provide the most effective method to develop the competences and skills of students in through hands – on training – the on-the-job training (OJT). This process exposes the students to the different fields and learned. Moreover, this is a great help for the schools management to maintain and patronize their school’s image. 4. Similar study maybe conducted to test the validity of the results of the study and to discover the other factor that will improve higher performance of the students.
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  84. 84. JUSTINE NICOLE D. ESTRELLA Purok Alpine, Rempohito Subd., New Pandan, Panabo City Davao Del Norte justinenicoleestrella@yahoo.com Cell No. 09304976402/822-4197 PERSONAL BACKGROUND: Age: 20 Yrs. Old Date of Birth: October 29, 1993 Place of Birth: Ormoc City Civil Status: Single Citizenship: Filipino Religion: Roman Catholic Height: 5’2 Weight: 40 kg Father’s Name: Lutgardo D. Estrella Mother’s Name: Jemma D. Estrella EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:
  85. 85. Elementary: Doña Nenita R.Floirendo Elem. School High School: Panabo National High School College: Aces Polytechnic College WORKING EXPERIENCE: OJT Housekeeping and FBS The Royal Mandaya Hotel J. Palma Gil, Davao City On Call Waitress RJ’3 Travellers Dine Panabo City SKILLS: Encoder REFERENCES: Julio Baluran Businessman New Pandan, Panabo City Delia Geraldo Businesswoman New Pandan, Panabo City Chemny Camilo BSHRM/HRM Coordinator San Francisco, Panabo City
  86. 86. GLADYS C. EUGENIO Purok 7 Southern Davao, Panabo City pioustormgladys@gmail.com Cell No. 09127696639 PERSONAL BACKGROUND: Age: 20 Yrs. Old Date of Birth: October 05, 1993 Place of Birth: Metro Manila Civil Status: Single Citizenship: Filipino Religion: Protestant Height: 5’3 Weight: 55 kg Father’s Name: Leopoldo L. Eugenio Mother’s Name: Julita C. Eugenio EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND: Primary: Doña Nenita R.Floirendo Elem. Secondary: Panabo National High School College: Aces Polytechnic College WORKING EXPERIENCE: OJT Housekeeping and FBS The Royal Mandaya Hotel J. Palma Gil, Davao City
  87. 87. On Call Waitress RJ’3 Travellers Dine Panabo City SKILLS: Encoder REFERENCES: Julio Baluran Businessman New Pandan, Panabo City Delia Geraldo Businesswoman New Pandan, Panabo City Chemny Camilo BSHRM/HRM Coordinator San Francisco, Panabo City

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