ECOSAN
A value proposition not to be flushed!

a primer on ecological sanitation
WHAT
In a ‘flush and forget’ world, talking
sanitation is not quite easy!
5

MAJOR ROADBLOCKS
IN SANITATION

BIG PICTURE

Access
Quality
Water use
Innovation
Sustainability of current
sanitation s...
1

5

MAJOR ROADBLOCKS
IN SANITATION

SANITATION

Access
India is still far from universal access to clean sanitation
Only...
5

MAJOR ROADBLOCKS
IN SANITATION

SANITATION

2

Quality
Poor sanitation has tremendous impact on quality of water

BIG P...
5

MAJOR ROADBLOCKS
IN SANITATION

SANITATION
3

Water use
Water Use: The current form of sanitation is water intensive

2...
5

MAJOR ROADBLOCKS
IN SANITATION

SANITATION
4

Innovation
Research on alternative sanitation systems is completely absen...
5

MAJOR ROADBLOCKS
IN SANITATION

5

Sustainability of current
sanitation system
Waste disposal in the conventional syste...
A sanitation re-think is called for if we are to improve
sanitation in the next decade!
Conventional Toilet

Soil

Water R...
Paradigm Shift
… from ‘flush and forget’ to ‘collect and reuse’
Ecosan Toilet

Soil
Is there a system that can address the road blocks by:

Environment

Sustainability

minimizing freshwater consumption
red...
ECOLOGICALSANITATION
can address these

roadblocks

A possible alternative to sanitation's ‘flush
and forget’ problem

ECO...
ECOLOGICALSANITATION

Design Innovation

can address these

roadblocks

Academic Research

also potentially address

NUTRI...
Design Innovation

ECOLOGICALSANITATION
Can address these

roadblocks

Wash area

Hole for
defecation

Pan for urination

...
ECOLOGICALSANITATION

The Process

can address these

roadblocks

1. Appearance of a
typical ecosan toilet.

2. Urine is c...
ECOLOGICALSANITATION

Using the manure

can address these

roadblocks

+ =

Urine

Wate
r

Collected urine is
diluted with...
Our field experiments in DESIGN

Bihar
Flood prone
6 toilets

Gujarat
Coastal region
20 toilets

Manipur
Prevent water con...
Academic Research
RESEARCH

also potentially address

NUTRITION

Collaboration with UAS, Bangalore to conduct
research in ...
Instances of Urine used as fertilizer
12th Century
CHINA

ALW integrated
Ecosan projects

Recycled ALW for
farming

1990s
...
Scientific studies on human urine

Application of ALW*
as a nutrient source
has a positive
impact on soil
properties and c...
Urine in numbers

1.37 liters/day

500 liters /year

NPK consumption in
Agriculture in India

generated in a year

1 Billi...
Inference
Experiment on soil

1.

Application of ALW

+
Soil

ALW
Water

F

Fertiliser

G

Urea

RD
N

8

G

in splits
in ...
Inference
Experiments with crops
Best results are observed in vine length, leaf
area index, number of branches, leaves per...
What did we find?

ALW

G in splits
on

Crops and Soil

2. Builds higher nutrient
content and mass in
the grain/fruit/root...
What did we find?
EFFECT ON COB
SIZE

EFFECT ON
YIELD/HA

40

35.58

24.92

25

30.55

30

30

28.41

30

43.36

20

25.66...
In a ‘flush and forget’ world, talking
sanitation is not quite easy!
FUTURE

We know that acceptance won’t be easy.
Intensive behaviour-change-communication
will be necessary for widespread a...
FUTURE

This is a small but important part of the
overall solution.
We feel this story should be told now!
FUTURE

What will Arghyam do ?

What can the government do ?

•Continue the research, take research
results to trial in pi...
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Ecosan advocacy Presentation

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This is an advocacy presentation prepared from the research conducted on Ecological Sanitation and its benefits to agriculture by University of Agricultural Sciences in collaboration with Arghyam foundation.

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Ecosan advocacy Presentation

  1. 1. ECOSAN A value proposition not to be flushed! a primer on ecological sanitation WHAT
  2. 2. In a ‘flush and forget’ world, talking sanitation is not quite easy!
  3. 3. 5 MAJOR ROADBLOCKS IN SANITATION BIG PICTURE Access Quality Water use Innovation Sustainability of current sanitation system SANITATION
  4. 4. 1 5 MAJOR ROADBLOCKS IN SANITATION SANITATION Access India is still far from universal access to clean sanitation Only 34% of the population has access to improved sanitation nationally BIG PICTURE 626 million of population still practices open defecation in India
  5. 5. 5 MAJOR ROADBLOCKS IN SANITATION SANITATION 2 Quality Poor sanitation has tremendous impact on quality of water BIG PICTURE 0.35 Million children die from water-related diseases annually
  6. 6. 5 MAJOR ROADBLOCKS IN SANITATION SANITATION 3 Water use Water Use: The current form of sanitation is water intensive 23% of the population have access to household connections nationally BIG PICTURE With increasing water scarcity, sanitation's water demand has become difficult to meet
  7. 7. 5 MAJOR ROADBLOCKS IN SANITATION SANITATION 4 Innovation Research on alternative sanitation systems is completely absent BIG PICTURE A paradigm shift in approach to sanitation is required.
  8. 8. 5 MAJOR ROADBLOCKS IN SANITATION 5 Sustainability of current sanitation system Waste disposal in the conventional system puts enormous stress on carrying capacity of the soil BIG PICTURE Dependence of current septic tank/pit based toilets on water and availability of land limits its use in high population density areas
  9. 9. A sanitation re-think is called for if we are to improve sanitation in the next decade! Conventional Toilet Soil Water Resources
  10. 10. Paradigm Shift
  11. 11. … from ‘flush and forget’ to ‘collect and reuse’ Ecosan Toilet Soil
  12. 12. Is there a system that can address the road blocks by: Environment Sustainability minimizing freshwater consumption reduction of water pollution efficiently managing solid waste making waste recycling a value proposition APPROACH Water closing the ecological loop containing the waste generated at its point of origin
  13. 13. ECOLOGICALSANITATION can address these roadblocks A possible alternative to sanitation's ‘flush and forget’ problem ECOLOGICAL SANITATION also potentially address NUTRITION It is an approach to sanitation where human waste is seen as a reusable nutrient source, which must be returned to the soil thereby “closing the ecological nutrient cycle” (soil nutrient to food production to food consumption to soil nutrient).
  14. 14. ECOLOGICALSANITATION Design Innovation can address these roadblocks Academic Research also potentially address NUTRITION
  15. 15. Design Innovation ECOLOGICALSANITATION Can address these roadblocks Wash area Hole for defecation Pan for urination 10’ 1’6 ’ ’’ 4 ’’ 1’4 ’’ 4’2’ 10’ ’ 1’2 ’’ ’ 6’0’’ Door 2’8’’ Ground level Based on region, availability of resources, time and budget a definite design can be selected for building an ecosan toilet 3’6’’ 3’ 6’4’’ A typical single seat ecosan toilet can be constructed for as low as Rs. 5000
  16. 16. ECOLOGICALSANITATION The Process can address these roadblocks 1. Appearance of a typical ecosan toilet. 2. Urine is collected in the middle basin. A pipe leads it to a container outside. Conversion from waste to wealth 3. Fecal matter is deposited in the storage compartment. 4. A handful of ash, dried leaves, sawdust or grain husk is spread over it and covered with lid. 5. Washing is done in the wash area. The water collects outside through a pipe. 6. Second chamber is used when first fills up. During this time the solid waste in the first chamber decomposes into manure.
  17. 17. ECOLOGICALSANITATION Using the manure can address these roadblocks + = Urine Wate r Collected urine is diluted with water (1:1) and used after storing for 2-4 weeks. Urine and water mixture is applied to plants in regulated quantity. Decomposition of solid waste into manure takes 8-12 months. After this it is applied/added to the soil as such.
  18. 18. Our field experiments in DESIGN Bihar Flood prone 6 toilets Gujarat Coastal region 20 toilets Manipur Prevent water contamination 20 toilets Chitoor, Andhra Pradesh Water Scarcity 20 toilets Kolar & Mysore,, Karnataka Hard rock and water scarce area 204 toilets in 4 villages
  19. 19. Academic Research RESEARCH also potentially address NUTRITION Collaboration with UAS, Bangalore to conduct research in nutritional value of human waste beginning with human urine.
  20. 20. Instances of Urine used as fertilizer 12th Century CHINA ALW integrated Ecosan projects Recycled ALW for farming 1990s SOUTH AFRICA 2003 INDIA Compost latrines and ALW diverting system introduced ALW used as fertilizer for potatoes and chillies in Manipur 12th Century JAPAN Recycled ALW for farming 18th Century NEPAL ALW used for growing fodder crops RESEARCH 2003 NETHERLANDS
  21. 21. Scientific studies on human urine Application of ALW* as a nutrient source has a positive impact on soil properties and crop growth. Test Tested on Observe Inference •Changes in soil parameters with varying ALW concentrations. •Comparative study of maize & banana crop growth with varying treatment with fertilizer , ALW & different ALW combinations. A combination of ALW + gypsum gives crop growth results at par (partially higher) with recommended dose of fertilizer. •Pot experiment with radish plants. *ALW - Anthropogenic Liquid Waste (Urine) RESEARCH Hypothesis
  22. 22. Urine in numbers 1.37 liters/day 500 liters /year NPK consumption in Agriculture in India generated in a year 1 Billion kg N kg P kg K N-Nitrogen | P- Phosphorus | K-Potassium million tons million tons million tons *WASTED N P K million tons million tons million tons **REQUIRED RESEARCH ALW
  23. 23. Inference Experiment on soil 1. Application of ALW + Soil ALW Water F Fertiliser G Urea RD N 8 G in splits in splits G 2. Highest content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, exchangeable calcium, magnesium and microU U U G nutrients in soil was recorded in plots treated with recommended doses of nitrogen through human urine along with gypsum in three split doses. 3. The highest total soluble solids were recorded when both laterite and red soil were applied with twice the recommended dose of N through human urine. U U U Gypsum U RDN supplied by ALW Recommend ed dose of nitrogen RESEARCH F Plots treated with only human or cattle urine have shown higher pH level in soil when compared to plots treated with FYM. However, plots treated with human/cattle urine and gypsum have similar pH level as plots treted with FYM. Similar observation has been made in electrical conductivity of soil. 4. Soil microbes like soil fungi, bacterial, actinomycetes, N-fixers and P-solublizer population is found higher in soil treated with two doses of urine and least in soil treated with chemical fertilisers.
  24. 24. Inference Experiments with crops Best results are observed in vine length, leaf area index, number of branches, leaves per plant of most of the study plants, with application of human urine with gypsum in 3 split doses. 2. Human urine applied with gypsum in 3 splits to Ashgourd, French beans, pole beans and pumpkin has given better yield in comparison with chemical fertilizer/ FYM,/cattle urine applied singly or in different combinations. 3. Content of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, copper and manganese is higher in fruit (Ashgourd, french beans, pole beans and pumpkin) harvested from the plot treated with recommended dose of human urine in combination with gypsum supplied in three split doses. 9 RESEARCH 1.
  25. 25. What did we find? ALW G in splits on Crops and Soil 2. Builds higher nutrient content and mass in the grain/fruit/root of the respective crops. 3. Cost- Benefit ratio marginally better than chemical fertilizer RESEARCH 1. Shows healthier crop growth
  26. 26. What did we find? EFFECT ON COB SIZE EFFECT ON YIELD/HA 40 35.58 24.92 25 30.55 30 30 28.41 30 43.36 20 25.66 19.93 15 20 10 10 5 0 Control(T1) Fertilizer(T2) ALW(T3) ALW in 6 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) CULTIVATION ECONOMICS (C:B) 0 Control(T1) Fertilizer(T2) ALW(T3) ALW in 6 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) CULTIVATION ECONOMICS (C:B) ALW in 6 split irrigations … ALW in 6 split irrigations + … ALW(T3) ALW(T3) Fertilizer(T2) Fertilizer(T2) Control(T1) Control(T1) 0% 20% 40% Cost CORN 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% Cost Benefit BANANA 60% Benefit 80% 100% RESEARCH 35 50
  27. 27. In a ‘flush and forget’ world, talking sanitation is not quite easy!
  28. 28. FUTURE We know that acceptance won’t be easy. Intensive behaviour-change-communication will be necessary for widespread adoption
  29. 29. FUTURE This is a small but important part of the overall solution. We feel this story should be told now!
  30. 30. FUTURE What will Arghyam do ? What can the government do ? •Continue the research, take research results to trial in pilot implementations •Facilitate the ongoing research and provide design inputs (ICAR institutions, NID etc.) •Continue funding ecosan toilets •Promote and support this approach (KVKs, women’s groups, media) •Explore how this can be implemented in small municipal settings through our urban projects •Integrate this knowledge into water and sewerage planning, pollution control planning, seed distribution

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