Six sigma


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Six sigma

  1. 1. By-NIDISH SEBASTIAN - 1021024 PRAVEEN SIDOLA - 1021026
  2. 2. Labels on Quality Programs/SystemsStatistical Process Control (SPC)Total Quality Management (TQM)Customer-focused QualitySix Sigma –Motorola Quality Engineer (CQE)American Society for Quality (ASQ) Enterprise -ToyotaJust-in-Time (JIT)Business Process Re-engineeringSupply Chain Management
  3. 3. Labels on Quality Programs/SystemsStatistical Process Control (SPC)Total Quality Management (TQM)Customer-focused QualitySix Sigma –Motorola Quality Engineer (CQE)American Society for Quality (ASQ) Enterprise -ToyotaJust-in-Time (JIT)Business Process Re-engineeringSupply Chain Management
  4. 4. Old view of “Quality Control”• time, cost, quality--choose any two• QA function to independently check up on and "control" production• remove and rework defective product through inspection P/F• cost of quality, optimal inspection and rejection
  5. 5. New Concept of Quality Management:Taguchi loss function• 99.9% Quality not good enough• 6-sigma --> less cost of failures• Cost of failure underestimated• Cost of Quality not understood• Increased Quality Eliminates Waste.• Quality is free
  6. 6. 99.9% is not good enough• 1 hour of unsafe drinking water every month• 2 unsafe plane landings per day at O’Hare Airport in Chicago• 16,000 pieces of mail lost by the U.S. Post Office every hour.• 20,000 incorrect prescriptions every year• 500 incorrect operations each week• 50 babies dropped at birth every day• 22,000 checks deducted from the wrong bank account each hour• 32,000 missed heart beats per person each year
  7. 7. Introducing Six Sigma.• Business improvement concept that focuses on meeting the needs of customers and bottom line benefit to your organization.• Customer satisfaction and improvement are the driving forces.• Six Sigma is seen as the ultimate goal in achieving near perfect processes through continual improvement.
  8. 8. Cont.• Sigma is standard deviation.• Six Sigma means that if there were 1 million opportunities for a defect to occur, there would only be 3.4 defects.
  9. 9. Sigma Capabilities. Defects per Million Yield  Opportunities (noCapabil (DPMO) defects) ity 2 308,537 69.1% 3 66,807 93.3% 4 6,210 99.4% 5 233 99.97% 6 3.4 99.99966%
  10. 10. Six Sigma Defined .• The ultimate goal is to eliminate defects and errors and the costs associated with poor quality.• Six Sigma improvement is the Define-Measure- Analyze-Improve- Control (D-M-A-I-C) cycle.
  11. 11. DMAIC Steps.Define Determines the scope and purpose of the project and includes a Project Charter, a process map of the problem to be investigated and an analysis of customers to determine the Voice of the Customer (VOC), resulting in Critical to Quality variables, or CTQs (sometimes CTC, Critical to Customer).Measure The collection of information on the current situation. Baseline data on defects and possible causes are collected and plotted, and the sigma capability levels are calculated.Analyze Determines the root causes of defects and explores and organizes potential causes.Improve The development of solutions that are implemented to remove the root causes and then measured and evaluated for desired results.Control Standardizes the improvement process to maintain the gains. The new standard practices are documented, and performance is monitored.
  12. 12. DMAIC Steps.
  13. 13. Six Sigma Training Levels.• Once committed to Six Sigma methodology, learning can be organized by degree of employee involvement:• Yellow Belt• Green Belt• Black Belt• Master Black Belt• Champion
  14. 14. Benefits of Six Sigma.• Focus on customers. • Systematic problem• Improved customer solving. loyalty. • Employee motivation.• Reduced cycle time. • Data analysis before decision making.• Less waste. • Faster to market.• Data based decisions. • Team building.• Time management. • Improved customer• Sustained gains and relations. improvements.
  15. 15. The Six Steps To Six Sigma Using.• STEP 1. Identify the product you create or the service you provide• STEP 2. Identify the costumers for your product or service and identify costumer requirement.• STEP 3.Identify your need• STEP 4.Define the process for doing your work.• STEP 5.Mistake proof ihe process• STEP 6.Ensure continuous improvement by D-M- A-I-C.
  16. 16. Motorolas Six Sigma Program.• Six Sigma – Beyond Quality Excellence to Total Business Excellence. By – Keki R. Bhote Founding father of the team the Original Six sigma process• In 1988, Motorola Corp. became one of the first companies to receive the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. Reference - “The Ultimate Six Sigma” Written By - Mr Keki R. Bhote
  17. 17. Motorola Six Sigma Process• Faith that the 10:1 quality improvement target could be achieved.• Total customer satisfaction• Powerful new tools• Cycle time Reduction• Designs for ease of manufacturing• Manufacturing Innovation• True partnership with key supplier• Training for all employees Reference - “The Ultimate Six Sigma” Written By - Mr Keki R. Bhote
  18. 18. Self- assessment chart & scoring System• Customer - 125• Leadership - 125 (Personal Philosophies & value - 60)• Organization - 75 (revolutionizing the organization Culture -65)• Employees - 75• Measurement - 75• Tools - 75• Design - 75• Supply chain Management - 75• Manufacturing - 75 Reference - “The Ultimate Six Sigma” Written By - Mr Keki R. Bhote
  19. 19. Indian Example ( TELCO of Pune ) TIME Tool Implememted period Result 6 1 General months Cost Of poor quality 35% reduction in COPQ Profit 33% profit increses 15 2 Design of Expriment months Number of people trained 1747 Number of DOE project Start - 428 / complited -268 Multiple Environments over 6 3 stress Testing (MEOST) months Number of Project Start 23 / complited 12 Field Failure Rates reduce 4:1 to 0 Warrenty Cost Reduce 21.6% Reference - “The Ultimate Six Sigma” Written By - Mr Keki R. Bhote
  20. 20. Indian Example ( TELCO of Pune ) Cont. 34 Supply Management months Commoditeis 19 commodities Actual $6 Million / Projected $7.12 Saving Million 1 Month5 New Product Introduction s Activity in Quality / cost / cycale time 9 Month6 Variation Reduction s 1254 ( 409 with cPk greater then 2.0, Number of project 845 with cPk greater then 1.33) Precontrol Chart 409 (complited 233/ Process 176) 6 Month7 Poka- Yoke s Number of project Completed 177
  21. 21. Costs & Limitations.• Institutionalizing Six Sigma into the fabric of a corporate culture can require significant investment in training and infrastructure.• The infrastructure needed to support the Six Sigma environment varies. Some companies organize their trained Green/Black Belts into a central support organization.• Others deploy Green/Black Belts into organizations based on project needs and rely on communities of practice to maintain cohesion.
  22. 22. Costs & Limitations.• Six Sigma does not include specific integration of ISO9000 or National Quality Award criteria.• Six Sigma raises the expectation from 3-sigma performance to 6-sigma. Yet, it does not promote "Zero Defects" which many people dismiss as "impossible."
  23. 23. Reference -“The Ultimate Six Sigma”Written By - Mr Keki R. Bhote