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An Introduction to Research Methodology.pdf

  1. 1. Research Methodology: An Introduction(Class-2) By Prof. (Dr.) Pravat Kumar Rout 1
  2. 2. Emerging Research that changes the 21st Century 1/2 2 Communication Technology/Internet/ Computer Architecture Green Energy Biotechnology
  3. 3. Emerging Research that changes the 21st Century 2/2 3 Nanotechnology and its application particularly to Bio-remediation Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Pharma Science
  4. 4. Meaning of Research 1/5  noun the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. "the group carries out research in geochemistry“  verb  investigate systematically. "she has spent the last five years researching her people's history" 4
  5. 5. Meaning of Research 2/5  The word research is derived from the Middle French "recherche", which means "to go about seeking", the term itself being derived from the Old French term "recerchier" a compound word from "re-" + "cerchier", or "sercher", meaning 'search'. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577. 5 Seeking: to try to find or get something
  6. 6. Meaning of Research 3/5  Research is creating new knowledge: Neil Armstrong  Research is what I am doing when I don't know what I am doing: Wernher Von Braun  If we know what we are doing, it would not be called research: Albert Einstein 6
  7. 7. Meaning of Research 4/5  Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines. 7
  8. 8. Meaning of Research 5/5  Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.  This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes. 8 Question: Define the meaning of research
  9. 9. Methodology  Method is a particular procedure for accomplishing or approaching something, especially a systematic or established one.  Methodology is a system of methods used in a particular area of study or activity  Methodology involves studying the methods used in your field and the theories or principles behind them, in order to develop an approach that matches your objectives.  Methods are the specific tools and procedures you use to collect and analyse data (for example, experiments, surveys, and statistical tests). 9
  10. 10. Research Methodology  Research methodology is the specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyse information about a topic.  Research methodology by its definition means "the systematic way to solve the research problems" this is defined by Kothari 2004.  Research methodology is a way of explaining how a researcher intends to carry out their research.  It's a logical, systematic plan to resolve a research problem.  A methodology details a researcher's approach to the research to ensure reliable, valid results that address their aims and objectives. It encompasses what data they're going to collect and where from, as well as how it's being collected and analysed. 10
  11. 11. Characteristics/Features of Research 1/1 Features of Research  Empirical - based on observations and experimentation  Systematic - follows orderly and sequential procedure  Controlled - all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.  Employs hypothesis- guides the investigation process  Analytical - There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation  Objective, Unbiased, & Logical - all findings are logically based on empirical.  Employs quantitative or statistical methods - data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically. 11 Empirical: based on experiments and practical experience, not on ideas Hypothesis: an idea that is suggested as the possible explanation for something but has not yet to be found to be true or correct Analytical: using careful examination in order to understand or explain something Interpretation: an explanation or understanding of something Logical: seeming natural, reasonable or sensible Characteris tic: a quality that is typical of somebody/ something and that makes him/her/it different from other people and things Question: What are the major characterist ics of research
  12. 12. Objectives of Research  To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. (explorative or formulative research)  To explain the unknown/unexplained phenomenon. (descriptive research)  To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group. (diagnostic research)  To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else. (hypothesis testing research)  To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables.  To study social life and understand social behavior.  To draw new conclusion from old knowledge pool. 12 Question: What are the major objectives of research Objective: something that you are trying to achieve; an aim
  13. 13. Why do you do research? 13 Make life worthy and happy Expands your knowledge base Keeps you up to date Builds your credibility Sparks connections Encourages curiosity Give strength to mind and thinking Create possibility to survive
  14. 14. What Goes Into A Research Plan 1/6  Once you’ve identified the objectives of research, it’s time to organize your thoughts and streamline your research goals.  Step-1: Set Smart Goals Your research objectives should be SMART—Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-constrained. When you focus on utilizing available resources and setting realistic timeframes and milestones, it’s easier to prioritize objectives. Continuously track your progress and check whether you need to revise your expectations or targets. This way, you’re in greater control over the process. 14
  15. 15. What Goes Into A Research Plan 2/6  Step-2 Create A Plan  Create a plan that’ll help you select appropriate methods to collect accurate information. A well-structured plan allows you to use logical and creative approaches towards problem-solving. The complexity of information and your skills are bound to influence your plan, which is why you need to make room for flexibility. The availability of resources will also play a big role in influencing your decisions. 15 A goal without a plan is just a wish A fool with a plan is better off than the genius without a plan Failing to plan is failing to fail
  16. 16. What Goes Into A Research Plan 3/6  Step-3 Collect And Collate  After you’ve created a plan for the research process, make a list of the data you’re going to collect and the methods you’ll use. Not only will it help make sense of your insights but also keep track of your approach. The information you collect should be:  Valid: Logical, rigorous and objective  Reliable: Can be reproduced by other people working on the same subject  Accurate: Free of errors and highlighting necessary details  Timely: Current and updated  Complete: Includes everything required to support your argument/suggestions 16
  17. 17. What Goes Into A Research Plan 4/5  Step-4 Analyze And Keep Ready: Data analysis is the most crucial part of the process and there are many ways in which the information can be utilized. Four types of data analysis are often seen in a professional environment. While they may be divided into separate categories, they’re linked to each other.  Descriptive Analysis: The most commonly used data analysis, descriptive analysis simply summarizes past data. For example, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) use descriptive analysis. It establishes certain benchmarks after studying how someone has been performing in the past. 17
  18. 18. What Goes Into A Research Plan 5/6  Diagnostic Analysis: The next step is to identify why something happened. Diagnostic analysis uses the information gathered through descriptive analysis and helps find the underlying causes of an outcome. For example, if a marketing initiative was successful, you deep-dive into the strategies that worked.  Predictive Analysis: It attempts to answer ‘what’s likely to happen’. Predictive analysis makes use of past data to predict future outcomes. However, the accuracy of predictions depends on the quality of the data provided. Risk assessment is an ideal example of using predictive analysis.  Prescriptive Analysis: The most sought-after type of data analysis, prescriptive analysis combines the insights of all of the previous analyses. It’s a huge organizational commitment as it requires plenty of effort and resources. A great example of prescriptive analysis is Artificial Intelligence (AI), which consumes large amounts of data. You need to be prepared to commit to this type of analysis. 18
  19. 19. What Goes Into A Research Plan 6/6  Step-5: Review And Interpret: Once you’ve collected and collated your data, it’s time to review it and draw accurate conclusions. Here are a few ways to improve the review process:  Identify The Fundamental Issues, Opportunities And Problems And Make Note Of Recurring Trends If Any  Make A List Of Your Insights And Check Which Is The Most Or The Least Common. In Short, Keep Track Of The Frequency Of Each Insight  Conduct A SWOT Analysis And Identify The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities And Threats  Write Down Your Conclusions And Recommendations Of The Research 19 Interpret: to explain or understand the meaning of something Question: Write down the basic steps of a research planning
  20. 20. Types of Research: According to its Purpose 1/3 Theoretical research:  also referred to as pure or basic research, focuses on generating knowledge, formulation of a theory, regardless of its practical application.  Theoretical research is a logical exploration of a system of beliefs and assumptions.  Basic research is an investigation of basic principles and reasons for the occurrence of a particular event or process or phenomenon.  Results of this kind are usually oriented towards the formulation of theories and are usually based on documentary analysis, the development of mathematical formulas. 20 Type-1: Theoretical Research For example, a philosophical dissertation, since the aim is to generate new approaches from existing data without considering how its findings can be applied or implemented in practice.
  21. 21. Types of Research: According to its Purpose 2/3  Here, the goal is to find strategies that can be used to address a specific research problem. Applied research draws on theory to generate practical scientific knowledge, and its use is very common in STEM fields such as engineering, computer science and medicine.  This type of research is subdivided into two types:  Technological applied research: looks towards improving efficiency in a particular productive sector through the improvement of processes or machinery related to said productive processes.  Scientific applied research: has predictive purposes. Through this type of research design, we can measure certain variables to predict behaviours useful to the goods and services sector, such as consumption patterns and viability of commercial projects. 21 Type-2: Applied Research For example, market research, because by examining consumption patterns, strategies can be developed for the development of new products and marketing campaigns, etc.
  22. 22. Critical Analysis 3/3  Applied research is usually based on knowledge or results obtained through theoretical research.  In fact, it is common for research projects to first establish the theoretical framework both to define the field of study and to identify possible theories that could be tested or applied to solve the specific problem posed in the project.  Pure research focuses on understanding basic properties and processes. Applied research focuses on the use of information to create useful materials. 22
  23. 23. Types of Research: According to your Depth of Scope ¼ Exploratory research:  Exploratory research is defined as a research used to investigate a problem which is not clearly defined.  It is conducted to have a better understanding of the existing problem, but will not provide conclusive results.  is used for the preliminary investigation of a subject that is not yet well understood or sufficiently researched. It serves to establish a frame of reference and a hypothesis from which an in-depth study can be developed that will enable conclusive results to be generated.  Because exploratory research is based on the study of little-studied phenomena, it relies less on theory and more on the collection of data to identify patterns that explain these phenomena. 23 Type-1 Exploratory Research For example, an investigation of the role social media in the perception of self-image. Exploratory: done in order to find something out
  24. 24. Types of Research: According to your Depth of Scope 2/4  The primary objective of descriptive research is to define the characteristics of a particular phenomenon without necessarily investigating the causes that produce it.  Includes survey and fact-finding inquiries of different kinds. Describe the state of the affairs.  Researcher has no control on variables. He can only report what has happened or what is happing. 24 Type-2 Descriptive Research For example, investigating how the public census of influential government officials differs between urban and non-urban areas. Descriptive: that describes somebody/something, especially in a skilful or interesting way
  25. 25. Types of Research: According to your Depth of Scope ¾  Explanatory research is the most common type of research method and is responsible for establishing cause-and-effect relationship that allow generalizations to be extended to similar realities.  It is closely related to descriptive research, although it provides additional information about the observed object and its interactions with the environment. 25 Ty p e- 3 Type-3 Explanatory Research For example, investigating the brittle behavior of a specific material when under compressive load Explanatory: giving an explanation
  26. 26. Types of Research: According to your Depth of Scope 4/4  The purpose of this type of scientific research is to identify the relationship between two or more variables.  A correlational study aims to determine whether a variable changes, how much the other elements of the observed system change. 26 Type-4 Correlational Research Correlational : a connection or relationship between two or more facts, numbers, etc.
  27. 27. Types of Research: According to the Type of Data Used ½  Qualitative methods are often used in the social sciences to collect, compare and interpret information, has a linguistic-semiotic basis and is used in techniques such as discourse analysis, interviews, surveys, records and participant observations.  In order to use statistical methods to validate their results, the observations collected must be evaluated numerically. Qualitative research, however, tends to be subjective, since not all data can be fully controlled. Therefore, this type of research design is better suited to extracting meaning from an event or phenomenon (the ‘why’) than its cause (the ‘how’). 27 Type-1 Qualitative Research For example, examining the effects of sleep deprivation on mood. Qualitative: connected with how good something is, rather than with how much of it there is
  28. 28. Types of Research: According to the Type of Data Used 2/2  Quantitative research study delves into a phenomena through quantitative data collection and using mathematical, statistical and computer-aided tools to measure them.  This allows generalized conclusions to be projected over time. 28 For example, conducting a computer simulation on vehicle strike impacts to collect quantitative data. Type-2 Quantitative Research Delve: to search inside something Quantitative: connected with the amount or number of something rather than how good it is
  29. 29. Types of Research: According to the Degree of Manipulation of Variables 1/3  It is about designing or replicating a phenomenon whose variables are manipulated under strictly controlled conditions in order to identify or discover its effect on another independent variable or object.  The phenomenon to be studied is measured through study and control groups, and according to the guidelines of the scientific method. 29 Type-1 Experimental Research For example, randomised controlled trial studies for measuring the effectiveness of new pharmaceutical drugs on human subjects. Experimental: connected with experiments or trying new ideas
  30. 30. Types of Research: According to the Degree of Manipulation of Variables 2/3  Also known as an observational study, it focuses on the analysis of a phenomenon in its natural context.  As such, the researcher does not intervene directly, but limits their involvement to measuring the variables required for the study.  Due to its observational nature, it is often used in descriptive research. 30 Type-2 Non- Experimental Research For example, a study on the effects of the use of certain chemical substances in a particular population group can be considered a non- experimental study.
  31. 31. Types of Research: According to the Degree of Manipulation of Variables 3/3  It controls only some variables of the phenomenon under investigation and is therefore not entirely experimental.  In this case, the study and the focus group cannot be randomly selected, but are chosen from existing groups or populations.  This is to ensure the collected data is relevant and that the knowledge, perspectives and opinions of the population can be incorporated into the study. 31 Type-3 Quasi- Experimental Research For example, assessing the effectiveness of an intervention measure in reducing the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Quasi: that appears to be something but is not really so; partly, almost
  32. 32. Types of Research: According to the Type of Inference 1/3  In this type of research, reality is explained by general laws that point to certain conclusions; conclusions are expected to be part of the premise of the research problem and considered correct if the premise is valid and the inductive method is applied correctly. 32 Type-1 Deductive Investigation Inference: a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence Deductive: using knowledge about things that are generally true in order to think about and understand particular situations or problems
  33. 33. Types of Research: According to the Type of Inference 2/3  In this type of research, knowledge is generated from an observation to achieve a generalization. It is based on the collection of specific data to develop new theories. 33 Type-2 Inductive Research Inductive: using particular facts and examples to form general rules and principles
  34. 34. Types of Research: According to the Type of Inference 3/3  It is based on observing reality to make a hypothesis, then use deduction to obtain a conclusion  and finally verify or reject it through experience. 34 Type-3 Hypothetical- Deductive Investigation Hypothetical: based on situations that have not yet happened, not on facts Deductive: using knowledge about things that are generally true in order to think about and understand particular situations or problems
  35. 35. Types of Research: According to the Time in Which it is Carried Out ½  It is the monitoring of the same event, individual or group over a defined period of time.  It aims to track changes in a number of variables and see how they evolve over time.  It is often used in medical, psychological and social area. 35 Type-1 Longitudinal Study (also referred to as Diachronic Research) For example, a cohort study that analyses changes in a particular indigenous population over a period of 15 years.
  36. 36. Types of Research: According to the Time in Which it is Carried Out 2/2  Cross-sectional research design is used to observe phenomena, an individual or a group of research subjects at a given time. 36 Type-2 Cross-Sectional Study (also referred to as Synchronous Research)
  37. 37. Types of Research: According to The Sources of Information 1/2  This fundamental research type is defined by the fact that the data is collected directly from the source, that is, it consists of primary, first-hand information.  Primary research is data which is obtained first-hand.  This means that the researcher conducts the research themselves or commissions the data to be collected on their behalf.  Primary research means going directly to the source, rather than relying on pre-existing data samples. 37 Type-1 Primary Research
  38. 38. Types of Research: According to The Sources of Information 2/2  Unlike primary research, secondary research is developed with information from secondary sources, which are generally based on scientific literature and other documents compiled by another researcher.  Secondary research involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research.  Secondary research is contrasted with primary research in that primary research involves the generation of data, whereas secondary research uses primary research sources as a source of data for analysis. 38 Type-2 Secondary research
  39. 39. Types of Research: According to How the Data is Obtained 1/4  Documentary research, or secondary sources, is based on a systematic review of existing sources of information on a particular subject. This type of scientific research is commonly used when undertaking literature reviews or producing a case study.  Documentary research is the research conducted through the use of official documents or personal documents as the source of information. 39 Type-1 Documentary (cabinet)
  40. 40. Types of Research: According to How the Data is Obtained 2/4  Field research study involves the direct collection of information at the location where the observed phenomenon occurs.  Field research is a qualitative method of research concerned with understanding and interpreting the social interactions of groups of people, communities, and society by observing and interacting with people in their natural settings. 40 Type-2 Field
  41. 41. Types of Research: According to How the Data is Obtained 3/4  Laboratory research is carried out in a controlled environment in order to isolate a dependent variable and establish its relationship with other variables through scientific methods.  Scientific study conducted in a laboratory or other such workplace, where the investigator has some degree of direct control over the environment and can manipulate the independent variables. 41 Type-3 From Laboratory
  42. 42. Types of Research: According to How the Data is Obtained 4/4  Mixed research methodologies combine results from both secondary (documentary) sources and primary sources through field or laboratory research. 42 Type-4 Mixed-Method: Documentary, Field and/or Laboratory Question: Write various types of research methodologies based on specific objective
  43. 43. Critical Factors 1/1 43  It is important to understand that research itself is a process that is defined by the approach taken to it in the first place.  While research uncovers some aspect of how the world is, it also reflects in large part how, where, and when we have asked the questions.  The process of research is cyclic in nature and is interlinked at every stage  The Research Process is a step-by-step information skills framework that improves student metacognition by making the learning process explicit.  The steps of the process are not necessarily linear and can often overlap.
  44. 44. 44 Locate: How do I find the Information? Select: What Information is relevant and reliable? Organise: How can I use these information? Present: How can I communicate my research? Assess: What did I learn from this process? Initiate: What do I really need to find out? The steps of the Research Process
  45. 45. Step-1: Initiate 2/7  Brainstorm and define the research topic Steps in the process  What is my purpose?  How can I deconstruct the research topic?  What are the key words and ideas of the task?  What is my inquiry Question Focus or Thesis? 45
  46. 46. Step-2: Locate 3/7  Steps in the process: What do I already know? What do I still need to find out? What sources do should I use?  How do I find the information? 46
  47. 47. Step-3: Select 4/7  Steps in the process: What information can I leave out?  How do I know if the information I found is credible, reliable and relevant? How will I record the information I need?  How do I read for understanding? 47
  48. 48. Step-4: Organise 5/7 Steps in the process: Have I enough information for my purpose? How can I best summarise and paraphrase the information. How can I use this information? How do I reference my information sources 48
  49. 49. Step-5: Present 6/7  Steps in the process: What will I do with this information? With whom will I share this information? How will I communicate or share this information?  How can I compose more sophisticated written responses? 49
  50. 50. Step-6: Assess 7/7  Steps in the process Did I fulfil my purpose? How did I go with each step of the information process? How did I go - presenting the information? Where do I go from here? What did I learn from this process? For collaborative group work: did each member fulfil their role? 50
  51. 51. The process of Research/The research Approaches 51 Chose a topic Review the literature Formulate the problem Develop the research questions Chose and organise the research design Gather the data Analyse the data Interpret the data Communicate the findings
  52. 52. Criteria for the Good Research/Attributes of Good Research Study 52 Criteria for Good Research Systematic Empirical Replicable or Sustainable Logical Ethical Significant Contribution
  53. 53. Reason why research is important? For self  Research expands your knowledge base  Research gives you the latest information  Research helps you know what you’re up against  Research builds your credibility  Research helps you narrow your scope  Research teaches you better discernment  Research introduces you to new ideas  Research helps with problem-solving  Research helps you reach people  Research encourages curiosity 53 No matter what career field you’re in or how high up you are, there’s always more to learn. The same applies to your personal life. No matter how many experiences you have or how diverse your social circle, there are things you don’t know. Research unlocks the unknowns, lets you explore the world from different perspectives, and fuels a deeper understanding. In some areas, research is an essential part of success.
  54. 54. Reason why research is important? Other  Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organization.  Research provides the basis for nearly all Govt. policies in our economic system.  Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry.  Research is equally important for social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems.  For philosophers and thinkers, research may be mean the development for new ideas and insights and new theories. 54
  55. 55. The problems encountered by researchers in India 1/3 55 The lack of scientific training in the methodology of research Insufficient Interaction to Institute-Institute, Institute-Industry, Institute-Scientific organization etc. Misuse/mis- handling/leaking-of- information of the research due to lack of adequate rules and regulations Overlapping of research studies due to lack of information and direction and according to the need of nation Does not exist any code of conduct for the researchers Lack of getting sufficient assistance/funding/other beneficiary to research
  56. 56. The problems encountered by researchers in India 2/3 56 Library management and functioning is not satisfactory at many place National or Societal benefit research direction is not well defined Industries In India are not well equipped with research and development Job prospective and specifying the nature of job confined to Ph.D. degree holders Too much effort to add and search for previous work Copying of data (Plagiarism), Paper Oriented Research, Citation, H-index, H10- Index, Biasing with IF, Business on Publication
  57. 57. The problems encountered by researchers in India 3/3 57 The outlook of researcher and research students Lack of confident to take up a new study specially explorative study Research: a mere formality to fulfil course requirement
  58. 58. 58 Wishing to do better research with your supervisor Next Class: Interpretation and Report Writing
  59. 59. Question  Q-1: “It is often said that there is not a proper link between some of the activities under way in the world of academics and in most business/ Industries in our country”. Account for this state of affairs and give suggestions for improvement.  Q-2: “Research is much concerned with proper fact finding, analysis, and evaluation. “ Do you agree with this statement? Give reasons in the support of your answer.  Q-3: Why you feel the research is beneficial to you in future looking to your aim, limitations, and passion. 59