Solid Waste Management in Mumbai, India

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This presentation talks about the Waste Scenario in Greater Mumbai region of India - waste generated and collected and its journey to landfills; Greater Mumbai is a highly populous region with Municipal Corporation in charge to deal with the ever-worsening Waste situation!

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Solid Waste Management in Mumbai, India

  1. 1. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MUMBAI, INDIA By Pratima Pandey Participant, UNESCO-IHE Course on Solid Waste Management 2013
  2. 2. CONTENTS OF PRESENTATION 2 • Population; Area; Income; Geography; Climate; Economic activities General Profile of City • Amount; Source and Composition Waste Generation • Quantity collected - Frequency, modes • Quantity NOT collected - Its destination Contd. Waste Collection
  3. 3. CONTENTS OF PRESENTATION (CONTD.) 3 • Technologies in use for disposal/recycling/recovery of waste Waste Disposal/Recovery • Legal; Institutional – Government/NGOs; Stakeholders across the chain; Policy framework Current Waste Management Framework
  4. 4. GENERAL PROFILE 4 Greater Mumbai consists of ‘Island city’ and Suburbs; area: 437.71 Sq Km ((MCGM, 2013)); under single Municipal administration Mumbai Metropolitan (Urban Agglomeration) India’s most populous (Census 2011a, GoI)- consists of 7 areas including Greater Mumbai Capital of the state of Maharashtra (south-west Indian coast); was called ‘Bombay’ till November 1995
  5. 5. GENERAL PROFILE (CONTD.) 5 Population Around 12 Mn (Census 2011b, GoI) 41.3% of total Urban households live in Slums (Chandramouli, Census Commissioner, India) Climate – Moderately hot, humid almost throughout the year
  6. 6. GENERAL PROFILE - ECONOMY 6 Per-capita Income around 0.12 million per annum (ToI, 2011) Other prominent Industries - Hindi Films (Bollywood); Food and Hotels; Clothing and Textile Mills Main business – Finance; Among World’s top 10 commerce centers in terms of financial flows (Nakaskar, 2011) India’s Financial capital – Center of commerce and entertainment
  7. 7. WHAT A WASTE! 7
  8. 8. WASTE GENERATION  “Municipal solid waste" includes commercial and residential wastes generated in a municipal or notified areas in either solid or semi-solid form excluding industrial hazardous wastes but including treated bio- medical wastes” ( MSW Rules, 2000)  Garbage generated for 2011-12: 9,200 metric tones (Ghanekar, 2013)  Approximate Composition (in order of volume)  Compostable matter  Sand & Fine earth (from street sweeping)  Paper/cardboard  Others (plastics, glass, metals etc.) from residential and commercial premises (Source: MCGM) 8
  9. 9. WASTE COLLECTION  Agency-in-Charge – Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM, from hereon; also called BMC); Ministries involved are Ministry of Urban Development and Ministry of Environment & Forests)  Salient features:  Street Sweeping – 100% street cleaning in 1 or 2 shifts (67% by municipal staff and 33% roads by private contractors)  Power sweeping introduced in Island City area  Garbage management in 4 main beaches given to private entities on 5-year contracts  Collection 83% through collection bins and 13% house-to-house collection (Source: MCGM)  Frequency :  1396 number of trips each day. (MCGM, around 2007-08) 9
  10. 10. WASTE COLLECTION (CONTD.)  Waste NOT COLLECTED = 15% of the amount generated. (Ghanekar, 2013)  Reason cited, IRONICALLY, is want of resources (when MCGM is the Richest Corporation in India (Pradhan, 2007) 10
  11. 11. WASTE COLLECTION PILOT SCHEMES 11 Slum Adoption Scheme: • Honorarium to Community-Based Organizations (CBOs) to lead slum- cleaning; authorized to collect small amounts per household in lieu of services provided Advanced Locality Management (ALM) – • Street communities interact with Ward o officers; for civic issues like promoting • rag-pickers for dry waste collection and composting for wet-waste (Source: MCGM)
  12. 12. WASTE DISPOSAL - JOURNEY OF WASTE… Source: MCGM (around 2007-08) 12
  13. 13. WASTE RECOVERY  Recovery…NOT REALLY!  No substantive segregation at source, despite MSW rules (2000) (Ghanekar, 2013)  Biogas production; vermin-composting at initial stages  Informal Recycling - by ‘Rag pickers’  (some affiliated to co-operative rag pickers’ unions): Sell recyclable stuff (paper, plastic, cardboard etc) to scrap dealers 13
  14. 14. WASTE RECOVERY – DHARAVI SLUM – RECYCLING HUB? 14  One of World’s largest slums  Recycling Micro- entrepreneurship  Estimated 15,000 single- room factories  Estimated Overall Output: A mind-boggling £700M  Around 80% of plastic waste (among other things) recycled, employing 10,000 people (Source: The Observer, 2007)
  15. 15. WASTE MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK  Laws:  Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Rules (2000) made it mandatory for local municipal bodies to enforce segregation at source (MSW Rules, 2000)  Greater Mumbai Cleanliness and Sanitation Bye-laws, 2006 – Maintaining general cleanliness; fixing fines and monitoring 15 Stakeholders Institution in Charge – Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM Informal Rag- pickers and Recyclers NGOs and recycling companies Citizens
  16. 16. ISSUES FOR THE CASE-STUDY  Insufficient updated documentation of Waste-related Data and information  On the Ground:  Sheer size of the population and corresponding Waste generation; High and rapidly increasing volume of Solid Waste 10000 MTPD by 2025(MCGM)  No apparent practice of even the most basic scientific waste management practices like waste segregation at source 16
  17. 17. REFERENCES  Census 2011a, GoI  http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov- results/paper2/data_files/India2/Table_3_PR_UA_Citiees_1Lakh_and_A bove.pdf Census 2011b, GoI  http://www.census2011.co.in/census/city/365-mumbai.html  MCGM, 2013 http://www.mcgm.gov.in/irj/portal/anonymous?NavigationTarget=navurl:// c4b79f15e55f98176905a7c2c7d910ee  ToI, 2011  http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-03- 23/mumbai/29177565_1_capita-income-pci-thane-and-pune  Nakaskar, 2011  http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-07- 20/mumbai/29793908_1_south-mumbai-mumbai-houses-bfsi  MCGM, around 2007-08  http://www.mcgm.gov.in/irj/portal/anonymous/qlcleanover 17
  18. 18. REFERENCES (CONTD.)  MCGM  http://www.mcgm.gov.in/irj/go/km/docs/documents/MCGM%20Department%20List/ City%20Engineer/Deputy%20City%20Engineer%20(Planning%20and%20Design)/ City%20Development%20Plan/Solid%20Waste%20Management.pdf  MCGM (2013)  http://www.mcgm.gov.in/irj/portal/anonymous/qllisthistory  MSW Rules (2000)  envis.mse.ac.in/lawspdf/SOLID%20WASTE.pdf  Pradhan (2007)  http://www.financialexpress.com/news/bmc-to-open-green-channel-for- octroi/214127  Ghanekar (2013)  http://www.hindustantimes.com/India-news/Mumbai/Garbage-in-Mumbai-is-BMC-s- mess/Article1-1028016.aspx  The Observer, 2007  http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2007/mar/04/india.recycling  Greater Mumbai Cleanliness and Sanitation Bye-laws, 2006  http://www.mcgm.gov.in/irj/portal/anonymous/qlblaw 18
  19. 19. THANK YOU! 19

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