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The OSI Model.pptx

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The OSI Model.pptx

  1. 1. THE OSI MODEL
  2. 2. WHAT IS THE OSI MODEL..? The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a conceptual model that provides a common basis for the coordination of ISO standards development for the purpose of systems interconnection. It is not used in real life, but it helps in understanding how the protocols in the real life works.
  3. 3. THE NEED… In 1969, the first network known as ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) was formed by the British Department of Defence, followed by IBM, Microsoft and other tech companies. The problem that they faced was the different architecture and protocols of the networks of different companies, hence raising a need to standardise the architecture to enable communication and transfer of data between computers of two different companies. And that’s when, at 1983, the OSI Model was devised by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
  4. 4. APPLICATION LAYER The application layer is used by end-user software such as web browsers and email clients. It provides protocols that allow software to send and receive information and present meaningful data to users For example: HTTP, FTP, SMTP, DNS
  5. 5. PRESENTATION LAYER The presentation layer is primarily responsible for translating data between layers and maintaining data integrity Examples include: SSL, HTTP, FTP
  6. 6. SESSION LAYER Session Layer controls the connections between computers. It establishes, manages, and terminates the connections between the local and remote application.
  7. 7. TRANSPORT LAYER Transport Layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users, providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. The transport layer controls the reliability through flow control, segmentation and desegmentation, and error control. Examples: UDP, TCP, ARP
  8. 8. NETWORK LAYER The main function of the Network Layer is to transfer network packets from the source to the destination. It is also known as the Packet Layer Examples: ICMP or ping, IGMP
  9. 9. DATA LINK LAYER The main functions of data link layer include framing, error detection and correction, acknowledgement, flow control, ensuring well- defined reliable service interface to the network layer, encapsulating packets from network layer to frames Examples: Ethernet, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), ARP
  10. 10. PHYSICAL LAYER The physical layer is the lowest layer of the OSI model. This layer controls the way unstructured, raw, bit -stream data is sent and received over a physical medium. This layer is composed of the electrical, optical, and physical components of the network. Examples: Copper or optical cables, hubs and switches, etc.
  11. 11. COMPARISON The model we use in real life is the TCP/IP model, and it is very closely related to the OSI model.
  12. 12. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Shoutout to NetworkChuck’s YouTube channel, that’s where I learned about this, you can get the video about OSI and TCP/IP at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CRdL1PcherM&t=379s Thanks By Pratik C.

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