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Learning

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Learning

  1. 1. LEARNING
  2. 2. MEANING <ul><li>Learning is CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR ACQUIRED THROUGH PRACTICE, TRAINIG EXPERIENCE. </li></ul><ul><li>This is supplemented with 5 components: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Performance </li></ul><ul><li>2. Permanent Change </li></ul><ul><li>3. Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>4. Practice & Experience </li></ul><ul><li>5. Reinforcement </li></ul>
  3. 3. DEFINITION <ul><li>Learning may be defined as “A RELATIVELY PERMANENT CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR THAT OCCURS AS A RESULT OF PRIOR EXPERIENCE” </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is “THE PROCESS OF HAVING ONE’S MODIFIED, MORE OR LESS PERMANENTLY, BY WHAT HE DOES & THE CONSEQUENCES OF HIS ACTION, OR BY WHAT HE OBSERVES” </li></ul>
  4. 4. LEARNING THEORY <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>THEORIES </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Classical Conditioning Social Conditioning Operant Conditioning Cognitive Conditioning
  5. 5. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov introduced Classical Conditioning Theory in 20 th Century. </li></ul><ul><li>He states that “CLASSICAL CONDITIONG AS A PHYSICAL EVENT – TERMED A STIMULUS THAT INITIALLY DOES NOT ELEICIT A PARTICULAR RESPONSE GRADUALLY ACQUIRES THE CAPACITY TO ELICIT THAT RESPONSE AS A RESULT OF REPAETED PAIRING WITH A STIMULUS THAT CAN ELICIT A REACTION” </li></ul><ul><li>Thus classical conditioning is an event, repeated several times evokes a desired response. </li></ul>
  6. 6. OPERANT CONDITIONG <ul><li>Operant conditioning is also called INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING. </li></ul><ul><li>This refers to “ THE PROCESS THAT OUR BEHAVIOUR PRODUCES CERTAIN CONSEQUENCES & HOW WE BEHAVE IN THE FUTURE WILL DEPEND ON WHAT THESE CONSEQUENCES ARE” </li></ul><ul><li>Thus Operant Conditioning Theory is THE FUNCTION OF ITS CONSEQUENCES. </li></ul>
  7. 7. COGNITIVE THEORY <ul><li>The CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVE about learning is Cognitive Process. </li></ul><ul><li>This process assumes that “ PEOPLE ARE CONSCIOUS, ACTIVE PARTICIPANTS IN HOW THEY LEARN” . </li></ul><ul><li>This assumes that the “ ORGANIZATION LEARNS THE MEANING OF VARIOUS OBJECTS & EVENTS & LEARNED RESPONSES DEPENDING ON THE MEANING ASSIGNED TO THE STIMULI” . </li></ul>
  8. 8. COGNITIVE THEORY PROCESS FEEDBACK PRIOR LEARNING BEHAVIOURAL CHOICE PERCIEVED CONSEQUENCES
  9. 9. SOCIAL LEARNING <ul><li>This is also known as OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING, SOCIAL LEARNING, VICARIOUS LEARNING. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning Theory emphasizes “ THE ABILITY OF AN INDIVIDUAL TO LEARN BY OBSERVING OTHERS” </li></ul>
  10. 10. PRINCIPLES <ul><li>MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>REINFORCEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>PUNISHMENT </li></ul><ul><li>EXTINCTION </li></ul>
  11. 11. LEARNING STYLES <ul><li>Learning Styles are “ THE ABILITY OF AN INDIVIDUAL TO LEARN” </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Styles are of 4 types: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ACCOMODATOR </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIVERGNCE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASSIMILATION </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CONVERGENCE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. LEARNING & OB STIMULUS GENERALIZATION DISCRIMINATION STIMULI (WORK SITUATION) RESPONSE (CHOICE OF BEHAVIOUR) CONSEQUENCE (REINFORCEMENT) STIMULUS (NEW WORK SITUATION)
  13. 13. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Thus as there is Intra – personal learning, there is Organizational Learning too. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Learning is “ THE PROCESS THROUGH WHICH MANAGERS SEEK TO IMPROVE ORGANIZATION MEMBERS’ DESIRE & ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND & MANAGE THE ORGANOZATON & ITS ENVIRONMENT SO THAT THEY CAN ENHANCE ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS” . </li></ul>
  14. 14. THANK YOU

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