Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Biogas Generation as a means to Boost Self sufficiency of a
Rural settlement

Submitted by: Pratham S. Pincha
Class: X Sem...
Aim : To study the Appropriate method for Boosting Self Sufficiency of a Rural
settlement w.r.t. energy generation.
Object...
INTRODUCTION

<

Population

Urban area

Depend for
livelihood
majorly on
Rural area

Agriculture
and cattle
rearing
Also,...
The Issue & Need
Approximate Traditional
Utilization of Cow Dung

As cooking fuel, in form of
Cow Dung cakes.
1. Inefficie...
Why Biogas?
3
FOODER

2

LIQUID
MANURE

BIOGAS

COMFORT
&
SAVING

ENVIORNMENTAL
PROTECTION

1

The cycle of Organic matter...
Why Biogas?
WATER

3
FOODER

2

ENVIORNMENTAL
PROTECTION

DUNG + URINE

LIQUID
MANURE

BIOGAS

COMFORT
&
SAVING

Animal : ...
Why Biogas?
WATER

3
FOODER

2

ENVIORNMENTAL
PROTECTION

DUNG + URINE

LIQUID
MANURE

BIOGAS

COMFORT
&
SAVING

Biogas Si...
Conditions to produce Biogas

Digestible
Substrate, i.e.
Organic matter
+ Water

A vessel where
Substrate is not
in contac...
Basic parts of Biogas plant
1. INFLUENT COLLECTING TANK
(Mixing tank) :
- To homogenize various substrates & to
setup requ...
Types of Biogas Plants
On the Basis of Feed method the 3 Types are:

BATCH PLANTS
- Filled & Emptied
completely after a fi...
Types of Biogas Plants
On the Basis of the type of construction the 3 well performing & Mature
Designs suitable for Farmin...
Types of Biogas Plants
On the Basis of the type of construction the 3 well performing & Mature
Designs suitable for Farmin...
Working system of Biogas plant
THE FIXED DOME TYPE ONCE CONSTRUCTED WELL ARE ROBUST & OF RELIABLE PERFORMANCE

System of t...
Construction of the Biogas plant
Principle of statics of
fixed dome plant
(7)

Sketch/Photo source: gtz/GATE

(D)

(7)

(C...
The Complete Biogas unit
‘BIOGAS UNIT’
• Signifies the importance of
integrated planning when
applying Biogas technology
•...
The Studied Case
Quantitative data & General information:

Name of the Village: Churni, Melghat, Nr. Chikaldhara, Maharash...
The Studied Case
Agricultural
farms

Cow dung
storage

Typical schematic section showing
activity distribution across the ...
The Studied Case
STREET

Cow dung
storage

Shed for
Calves

The annually collected dung

Residence
Cattle shed
Shed for
Ca...
Principles & Considerations for Layout & Design
1. The sloping ground (ideal)
Stable higher than gas plant
2. On Flat Grou...
Principles & Considerations for Layout & Design

Mtr cu.?

•The gas pipe shall be securely
Deciding criteria for Gas
mount...
The Proposed

Kitchen
The Zero Grazing unit
(Cattle shed)

Toilet

The Residence

Gas pipe
The Biogas plant
Expansion cham...
The Proposed

Plan of the Zero Grazing Unit (Cattle shed)
Management of Resources
Utilization of Biogas for Cooking and Lighting
The group of 10 cows (milking and non-milking) will...
Factors Hindering Spread Of Biogas
Technical:
Technical, Economical & Cultural.
• Too large a capacity plant - under feedi...
Factors Hindering Spread Of Biogas
Economical:
•It is more profitable to maintain a community-size system as a fertilizer ...
References
• Consultancy project report on:
Integrated cycle of Cow- Project for Rural Self Sustainable Economic Developme...
Acknowledgments
First and foremost I offer my sincerest gratitude to my guide, Mrs. S.L.Swami who has
supported me in the ...
Thank You.
Explanation of the Terms
BIOGAS :
• Produced by Bacteria during Digestion
under Airless condition
• Mainly consists of CH4...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Biogas Generation as a Means to Boost Self sufficiency of a Rural Settlement as a part of 9th semester work, Bachelors of Architecture, PIADS, Nagpur

5,204 views

Published on

Aim: To study the Appropriate method for Boosting Self Sufficiency of a Rural settlement w.r.t. energy generation.
Objectives: To identify & understand the possibilities on which Self-Sufficiency of a settlement can be further enhanced on the parameters based on Occupation, Lifestyle, by-products & Available resources at Decentralized level (Unit level)
Probable method:
 Generation of Biogas to achieve Self-sufficiency in Energy demands.

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Biogas Generation as a Means to Boost Self sufficiency of a Rural Settlement as a part of 9th semester work, Bachelors of Architecture, PIADS, Nagpur

  1. 1. Biogas Generation as a means to Boost Self sufficiency of a Rural settlement Submitted by: Pratham S. Pincha Class: X Semester, B.Arch Venue: P.I.A.D.S., Nagpur Seminar Guide: Mrs. S.L. Swamy
  2. 2. Aim : To study the Appropriate method for Boosting Self Sufficiency of a Rural settlement w.r.t. energy generation. Objective : To identify & Understand the possibilities on which Self-Sufficiency of a settlement can be further enhanced on the parameters based on Occupation, Lifestyle, by-products & Available resources at Decentralized level (Unit level) Probable method : Generation of Biogas to achieve Self-sufficiency in Energy demands. Scope & Limitation : • To study the Concept, Working system, Types, Construction, Design considerations for the Biogas Unit. • To Study the Application of the Biogas plant with other Allied activities. • To Study the Application of Decentralized Agricultural Biogas unit.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION < Population Urban area Depend for livelihood majorly on Rural area Agriculture and cattle rearing Also, rural areas have large Bovine population as domestic farm animals. Female Bovine provides Milk, Male Cattle are used as Draft animals. In addition, Large quantity of Dung is Produced by Bovine Population It is of Great value to local communities – though not given Economic importance
  4. 4. The Issue & Need Approximate Traditional Utilization of Cow Dung As cooking fuel, in form of Cow Dung cakes. 1. Inefficient utilization as a fuel. (only 11%) 2. Pollute local & Surrounding Environment. In Building const., plastering etc. 1/3 As Organic manure 2/3 1. Inefficient utilization 2. Dumped in heaps Methane released 3. Health Problems (Breading of Flies & Mosquitoes)
  5. 5. Why Biogas? 3 FOODER 2 LIQUID MANURE BIOGAS COMFORT & SAVING ENVIORNMENTAL PROTECTION 1 The cycle of Organic matter & the Benefits of an Agricultural Bio gas Unit Sketch/Photo source: gtz/GATE A Biogas Unit:  3 Components (1,2 & 3)  Form Natural Cycle  All 3 has Direct Benefits to Farmer & his Economy.
  6. 6. Why Biogas? WATER 3 FOODER 2 ENVIORNMENTAL PROTECTION DUNG + URINE LIQUID MANURE BIOGAS COMFORT & SAVING Animal : Dung Gas plant : Manure 1 The cycle of Organic matter & the Benefits of an Agricultural Bio gas Unit Sketch/Photo source: gtz/GATE Plantation: Fodder
  7. 7. Why Biogas? WATER 3 FOODER 2 ENVIORNMENTAL PROTECTION DUNG + URINE LIQUID MANURE BIOGAS COMFORT & SAVING Biogas Significance: Clever way of Exploiting Nature, without Destroying 1 Optimizes Farm Economy The cycle of Organic matter & the Benefits of an Agricultural Bio gas Unit It support Self Reliance & Sustainable Development Sketch/Photo source: gtz/GATE
  8. 8. Conditions to produce Biogas Digestible Substrate, i.e. Organic matter + Water A vessel where Substrate is not in contact with air (O2 absent) A digestion temperature between 15*C – 35*C A Retention time longer than 30 days  If methane producing bacteria present in the Substrate (present in Dung) Biogas production begins in 3 to 5 days.
  9. 9. Basic parts of Biogas plant 1. INFLUENT COLLECTING TANK (Mixing tank) : - To homogenize various substrates & to setup required consistency. 4. DISPLACEMENT PIT (SLURRY STORAGE) - The fully Digested slurry leaves the Digester through the Outlet pipe into it. 1 4 2 3 2. DIGESTER 3. GAS HOLDER & GAS PIPE - The bacteria multiply & produce Biogas into the Digester. - Digester provides the required conditions for this process - The Biogas is stored until consumption into the Gasholder - The gas pipe carries the Gas to the Desired place of Consumption. *Depending on the plant type & requirements Variations & Additions in components are possible Sketch/Photo source: gtz/GATE
  10. 10. Types of Biogas Plants On the Basis of Feed method the 3 Types are: BATCH PLANTS - Filled & Emptied completely after a fixed retention time. CONTINUOUS PLANTS - Charged & Discharged regularly - Generally used as farmers Biogas plant with automatic discharge at overflow. - Gas production is Constant & Higher SEMI-BATCH PLANTS - Operated when straw & dung are digested together.
  11. 11. Types of Biogas Plants On the Basis of the type of construction the 3 well performing & Mature Designs suitable for Farming Households are: A. FIXED-DOME PLANT : C. PLASTIC COVERED / BALLON PLANT: 3. Gas collects in a floating steel gas holder 1. Gas collection 2. Expansion Chamber B. FLOATING-DRUM PLANT : 4. The gas collected under an inflating plastic cover 5. A wooden roof to protect plastic against sunlight Main Building Material Plastered Brickwork. A. 2 1 B. 3 C. 5 4
  12. 12. Types of Biogas Plants On the Basis of the type of construction the 3 well performing & Mature Designs suitable for Farming Households are: A. FIXED-DOME PLANT : B. FLOATING-DRUM PLANT : C. PLASTIC COVERED / BALLON PLANT: - Relatively low cost - Long life (20yrs or more) - Least Maintenance. - Simple Mechanism - No day/night temp Fluctuations so better Bacteriological processes - Labor intensive – Employment - Great care-design& workmanship. - Which rises according to the volume of gas production - Easy to understand & operate - Provide Gas at constant pressure - Stored Gas-volume recognizable - Expensive , Maintenance Intensive (painting, cleaning) - Drum life is Short(abt 10years) - Standardized prefabrication - Suitable for high ground water table - high digester temp warm climate - Uncomplicated Cleaning, Emptying & Maintenance - Low gas pressure, short life, damage, not repaired locally A. 2 1 B. 3 C. 5 4
  13. 13. Working system of Biogas plant THE FIXED DOME TYPE ONCE CONSTRUCTED WELL ARE ROBUST & OF RELIABLE PERFORMANCE System of the Fixed-Dome plant Sketch/Photo source: gtz/GATE
  14. 14. Construction of the Biogas plant Principle of statics of fixed dome plant (7) Sketch/Photo source: gtz/GATE (D) (7) (C) (7) (3) (10) (7) (7) (5) (B) (10) (3) (6) (1) (1) (A) (1) (6)
  15. 15. The Complete Biogas unit ‘BIOGAS UNIT’ • Signifies the importance of integrated planning when applying Biogas technology • Describes the total package offered to the farmers Its main components are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Components of Agricultural Biogas unit Sketch/Photo source: gtz/GATE Biogas plant Cattle stable Toilet (optional) Slurry distribution system Fodder grass or vegetable plantation 6. Place of gas consumption 7. Dung & Urine collection chamber
  16. 16. The Studied Case Quantitative data & General information: Name of the Village: Churni, Melghat, Nr. Chikaldhara, Maharashtra. Residing communitie(s) : Gawali Community Basic Occupation / Livelihood : Cattle Rearing & Making Milk products Total Area of the Village: 56.22 Hectares (562200 sq. mt.) Number of Residing Families : 61 Families Total Human Population : 210 8-12 Bovine/Residence, (abt 100 kg dung/day) Total Livestock (Cattle) Population : 459
  17. 17. The Studied Case Agricultural farms Cow dung storage Typical schematic section showing activity distribution across the Hillock Agricultural farms Well Street Street on Ridge & Fields on slope A C T I V I T Y PAT T E R N & B U I LT U S E M A P
  18. 18. The Studied Case STREET Cow dung storage Shed for Calves The annually collected dung Residence Cattle shed Shed for Calves Kitchen Milking space Cattle shed Agricultural farms Plan of a complete Dwelling Unit of Churni Village: (Residence, Cattle shed, Cow dung storage etc.) Cattle shed & Milking Space
  19. 19. Principles & Considerations for Layout & Design 1. The sloping ground (ideal) Stable higher than gas plant 2. On Flat Ground – Stable elevated to allow Dung & urine to enter the plant by Gravity. • • • Position of gas plant to Stable floor (1) on sloping ground, (2) on Horizontal ground Sketch/Photo source: gtz/GATE • The outlet of plant directed towards the fields. Handling Slurry demands high labor input, hence, proper planning required. Overflowing shall never accumulate on neighbor's or Public ground. Plant shall be functional even when attendance & Maintenance is poor.
  20. 20. Principles & Considerations for Layout & Design Mtr cu.? •The gas pipe shall be securely Deciding criteria for Gas mounted on the wall and shall lead holder volume: directly to the kitchen. • Regular & equally distributed •The digester shouldover D-N & gas consumption be located directly besideGas storage can from D-D – the animal shelter, which should have a paved be smaller. floor. ••Urine and dung can be swept into Irregular & Concentrated gas theconsumption – largereffort. inlet pipe with little gas holder •The plant shall has a sunny location •The vegetable garden - situated directly adjacent to the digested slurry store. A Farmyard Biogas plant Sketch/Photo source: gtz/GATE •The well - an adequate distance away from the biogas plant.
  21. 21. The Proposed Kitchen The Zero Grazing unit (Cattle shed) Toilet The Residence Gas pipe The Biogas plant Expansion chamber Slurry Distribution system Layout of Biogas Unit, Residence & Cattle shed Fodder grass or vegetable plantation
  22. 22. The Proposed Plan of the Zero Grazing Unit (Cattle shed)
  23. 23. Management of Resources Utilization of Biogas for Cooking and Lighting The group of 10 cows (milking and non-milking) will produces daily 100-125 kg dung. • This is sufficient to produce 4 m3 biogas daily. • One person needs 0.24 m3 biogas daily for cooking food (5 person requires 1.2 m3 biogas daily). • One mantle lamp of 100 candle power needs 0.13 m3 biogas/h (for 4 h lighting 0.52 m3 biogas requirement). • Total biogas requirement for cooking and lighting is 1.72 m3 biogas daily for a family of 5 members. • Along with above 1 kWh electricity can be generated from 0.75 m3 biogas. Slurry management • Along with 4 cubic meter biogas 30 kg dry slurry will be produced daily. • This will amount 10.95 tones per year per biogas plant. • This biogas spent slurry is used for organic farming and cultivation of medicinal plants.
  24. 24. Factors Hindering Spread Of Biogas Technical: Technical, Economical & Cultural. • Too large a capacity plant - under feeding - failure to produce gas. • Low winter temperatures • Faulty construction • Cheaper trainees or those with no training at all.
  25. 25. Factors Hindering Spread Of Biogas Economical: •It is more profitable to maintain a community-size system as a fertilizer plant than as a source of cooking gas - subject to the viable provision of an alternative energy source for cooking. •Macro-environment which determines price structures of conventional fuels most likely acts as a disincentive to adopt renewable technologies. •The system of grants and loans may hinder the correct choice of plant for different users. Cultural: •Cultural practices may also hinder general uptake - particularly regarding the use of latrines in biogas systems. •Traditional cooking practices may also need to be altered.
  26. 26. References • Consultancy project report on: Integrated cycle of Cow- Project for Rural Self Sustainable Economic Development Prepared by: Dr. Virendra Kumar Vijay Centre for Rural development & Technology Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi • ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIO-ECONOMIC, HEALTH AND OTHER POSITIVE IMPACTS OF BUILDING HOUSEHOLD BIOGAS PLANTS IN RURAL INDIA By: Raymond Myles, Secretary General-cum-Chief Executive, INSEDA, St. Soldier Tower, Vikas Puri, New Delhi- 110018 • Improved Biogas Unit for Developing Countries by Ludwig Sasse, Christopher Kellner & Ainea Kimaro A Publication of the Deutsches Zentrum für Entwicklungstechnologien – GATE in: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH – 1991 • Biogas Digest - Volume II Biogas - Application and Product Development
  27. 27. Acknowledgments First and foremost I offer my sincerest gratitude to my guide, Mrs. S.L.Swami who has supported me in the project with her patience and knowledge whilst allowing me the room to work in my own way. I also benefited by discussion with Prof. Ajay Thomare, Prof. Ketan Kimmatkar & Prof. R.K. Bhargava for the study & Research on related works. I gratefully thank Salman Khan & Pranav Pathrabe for spending their valuable time for Preliminary Study Trips. I also gratefully acknowledge Mr. Sunil Deshpande & Mrs. Nirupama Deshpande for their advice & the time spared for Valuable Discussions. Many thanks go in particular to the Residents of Churni & Lavada village, Melghat for their support. Where would I be without my family? My grandparents , parents , uncles, aunts & Siblings deserve special mention for their inseparable support and prayers. My Mother is the one who sincerely raised me with her caring and gentle love knowing and providing me with all my needs always. Lastly, I offer my regards and blessings to all of those who supported me in any respect during the making of the project.
  28. 28. Thank You.
  29. 29. Explanation of the Terms BIOGAS : • Produced by Bacteria during Digestion under Airless condition • Mainly consists of CH4 & CO2 • Combustible if > 50% CH4 • Biogas from Animal Dung = 60% CH4 SLURRY : (N,P,K) • Digester content or Digested Substance flowing out of the plant. • Found in different conditions inside the Digester as shown in the figure. The big-chemical process of anaerobic digestion Sketch/Photo source: gtz/GATE

×