CHAPTER:8SYSTEM ENGINEERING :<br />dfdfd<br />
What is System?A system is a set of components that is interact with each other to achieve a specific goal or objectives.E...
Characteristicsofsystem1.  Basic component	2. Interaction and structure.	3. Goal	4. Behaviour	5. life cycle.	*Basic compon...
System basic component.	Computer:-	keyboard , display unit, arithmetic unit, logic unit,			programs, magnetic discs.Intera...
Goal:         Every  system has a purpose , goal or objective. Without a common objective a system starts moving in all di...
The Elements of a system.    Or part of the system	There are main three part of the system.1. input2.process.3.output.Inpu...
 Process:	Process is defined as the activity that makes possible the transformation of input to output:	Man, machines, fun...
System Control:	control system modelCHANNEL OF FEEDBACK<br />INPUT<br />PROCESS<br />OUTPUT<br />SENSOR<br />COMPARISON UN...
System Control:	Since the system are designed to achieve specific objectives, ensuring the achievement of the objectives t...
Feedback Mechanism: the mechanism which provides a signal to the system, about the quality of performance, favorable or a...
Control: 	The role of the a control is to regulate the system operations and performance, and keep it in an equilibrium co...
System  Components: system component 		Business system.1.input:	 Row materials, plant and machinery, manufacturing 		 sell...
Type of System:-   1. Conceptual and physical system:Conceptualsystem is an orderly arrangement of independent ideas.	It ...
Type of System:-   2. Deterministic and Probabilistic system.	A system is called deterministic When the inputs, the proces...
Type of System:- 4.subsystem	If the system is large enough then it is composed of many subsystem. Each subsystem is then m...
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Book 2 chapter-8

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Book 2 chapter-8

  1. 1. CHAPTER:8SYSTEM ENGINEERING :<br />dfdfd<br />
  2. 2. What is System?A system is a set of components that is interact with each other to achieve a specific goal or objectives.Examples of system. Education system Computer system Solar system Transportation system Communication system The body’s nervous system Accounting system.<br />
  3. 3. Characteristicsofsystem1. Basic component 2. Interaction and structure. 3. Goal 4. Behaviour 5. life cycle. *Basic component or elements. Basic component means the various identifiable part of the system. For example.System basic component. Education:- Students, teachers, buildings, administration, text, books.<br />
  4. 4. System basic component. Computer:- keyboard , display unit, arithmetic unit, logic unit, programs, magnetic discs.Interaction and Structure An important feature of a system is that the basic components interact among themselves. In the computer system , what is being keyed in gets processed by the arithmetic unit or logic unit or both. The display unit shows the processed information.Structure  interaction establish relationship between basic component. This relationship that exist among the components and define the boundary between a system and its environment are called structure.<br />
  5. 5. Goal: Every system has a purpose , goal or objective. Without a common objective a system starts moving in all directions.-> To achieve the goal all the component work more effectively together in the system.Behaviour: Behaviour is the way a system reacts to its environment. Life cycle: Just like a human body , every system has birth, life and death. Building, automobiles, equipments have their life spans.<br />
  6. 6. The Elements of a system. Or part of the system There are main three part of the system.1. input2.process.3.output.Input: input is defines as the energizing or start-up component to which the system operate. The input may be raw materials, physical resources , human energy, knowledge or information. Unless the input data are accurate, output information cannot be expected accurate. A system may have single input and multiple outputs or may have several inputs and outputs. *General model of a system.<br />
  7. 7. Process: Process is defined as the activity that makes possible the transformation of input to output: Man, machines, functions, operations, organization and combinations of these may act as processor. Output: Output is defined as the result of an operation. It is a purpose or objective for which the system is designed. Though output is depends upon the input, its nature, utility and format may be vastly different from those of input.<br />
  8. 8. System Control: control system modelCHANNEL OF FEEDBACK<br />INPUT<br />PROCESS<br />OUTPUT<br />SENSOR<br />COMPARISON UNIT<br />CORRECTIVE<br />UNIT<br />STANDARD<br />
  9. 9. System Control: Since the system are designed to achieve specific objectives, ensuring the achievement of the objectives through system control, become the integral part of the system design. >sensor: ---The device that measure the output is called a sensor. --The sensor measure the output and compares it with the standard, if the measured output compares well with the standard, the system provides a feedback to continue the operation. -- if the measured output does not compare well with the standard, then a feedback is provided to the system to stop the operation.Comparison unit:The process of comparison of a measured output with the standard is done by a unit called as comparison unit.<br />
  10. 10. Feedback Mechanism: the mechanism which provides a signal to the system, about the quality of performance, favorable or adverse, is called feedback mechanism.  The feedback stop , regulate or continue the system operation. corrective unit.  the corrective unit is responsible for ensuring the system performance. The corrective unit , in its performance, will act on inputs and processes to bring the system under control.Control The process of measuring the output, comparing with the standard , sending the signal to the corrective unit and the corrective unit acting upon it, is called a control. Any break down in this path control, will affect the system performance adversely.<br />
  11. 11. Control: The role of the a control is to regulate the system operations and performance, and keep it in an equilibrium condition. The control unit is the heart and brain of the system. The control could either be internal or external to the system. Example: air condition , and traffic policeman. The concept of control is based on the condition of a feedback.If the feedback is positive ,, the measure of the output compares favorably with the standard or norm. the control will keep the system operating in the same condition. However, if the feedback is negative, the measure of the output is unfavorable when compared to the standard or norm, the control will act on the input or process to bring back the system to the state of equilibrium. <br />
  12. 12. System Components: system component Business system.1.input: Row materials, plant and machinery, manufacturing selling arrangement, accounting.2.Porcess : purchasing, manufacturing, selling, accounting.3.outputs: Quantity of production, sales, stock, income and profit.4.Sensor: Profit5.comparison unit: Expectation of profit vs actual profit.6.standard : Profit, target7.feedback: balance sheet and analysis8. corrective unit: managing director. Business decisions.<br />
  13. 13. Type of System:- 1. Conceptual and physical system:Conceptualsystem is an orderly arrangement of independent ideas. It is concern with theoretical structures, which may or may not be any counterpart in real world. Example; economics theory, philosophy, plan, accounting system, classification of policies etc.While the physical system can display activity and behavior. It is made by people, materials, machine energy and other physical things..<br />
  14. 14. Type of System:- 2. Deterministic and Probabilistic system. A system is called deterministic When the inputs, the process and the outputs are known with certainty. In deterministic system, you can predict the output with certainty. A system is called probabilistic, when the output can only be predicted in probabilistic terms. 3. Open and close system:An open system is one that interacts with its environment. A business organization is an open system because it exchanges men, material, money and information with the environment.A close system is a system which is self-contained. It does not exchange material, information or energy with its environment.<br />
  15. 15. Type of System:- 4.subsystem If the system is large enough then it is composed of many subsystem. Each subsystem is then made up of several smaller subsystem until we reach some parts that individually are not subsystem. A subsystem at the lowest level is often not defined as to the process. This subsystem is termed as black-box. The input and the output are known but not actual transformation from one to the other. In many cases the processor is so complex that we do not know its method of working not its boundaries. For example: economic system is a black box. Define input define output (processor not defined) <br />

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