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White Rust of Crucifers
Dr. Chinnamani Prasannakumar
Assistant Professor
PG & Research Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology
National College (Autonomous)
Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu- 620001, India
Crucifers
Cruciferous vegetables
are vegetables of the
family Brassicaceae with
many genera, species,
and cultivars being
raised for food
production such as
cauliflower, cabbage,
kale, garden cress, bok
choy, broccoli, Brussels
sprouts, mustard plant
and similar green leaf
vegetables.
Causative agent
 White rust, caused by Albugo candidans, is a disease of crucifers
that causes yield loss through defoliation, root injury, and
reduction of market quality.
 Spinach, horseradish, and mustard are affected more seriously
than other crucifers.
Albugo candidans
 Albugo candida, commonly known as white rust, is a species of oomycete
in the family Albuginaceae.
 A. candida is an obligate plant pathogen that infects Brassicaceae
species and causes the disease known as white rust or white blister
rust.
Clade: SAR
Phylum:Oomycota
Order: Albuginales
Family: Albuginaceae
Life cycle
 The primary infection occurs due to oospores perennating in the soil or
due to mycelium perennating on perennial hosts.
 These serve as primary inoculum when the environmental conditions are
favourable.
 Oospores germinate in presence of water to form a vesicle in which a
large number of zoospores are formed.
 These zoospores swim in a film of water and land on the suitable host,
germinate by germ tubes, enter the host and establish infection.
 The mycelium in the host is intercellular with globose haustoria.
 Soon the mycelium after absorbing nutrients and food materials from the
host, accumulates below the lower epidermis.
 Conidiophores, which are clavate, and formed at the tip of hyphae, begin
to produce conidiosporangia in basipetal succession.
 The pressure of these breaks open the lower epidermis and white rust
symptoms become apparent on the leaves.
The
conidiosporangia
produced during
early phase of the
growing season
cause secondary
infection in the host.
These are blown
away by wind or any
other agency, land
on the host surface
and germinate to
form zoospores.
The zoospores
germinate by
formation of germ
tubes which enter
the host and cause
secondary infection.
If the conditions are
favourable, this is
repeated.
When the conditions become unfavourable or during the later phase of the growing season,
the fungus begins sexual reproduction producing oospores. These oospores, being thick-
walled, can withstand the unfavourable conditions.
Symptoms of White Rust Disease
 The disease affects all the aerial parts of the plant, the roots
are not attacked.
 Symptoms may appear as a result of two types of infection:
1) Local infection
2) Systemic infection
Local infection
 Isolated spots or pustules appear on leaves or stems or inflorescence.
 The pustules are of variable size, measuring 1 -2 mm in diameter and are
raised shiny white areas.
 These may arise in close proximity and coalesce to form large irregular
patches.
 Usually, the pustules appear in circular or concentric arrangement with
one or two central areas.
 The host epidermis ruptures exposing white powdery mass consisting of
spores of the fungus.
 Pustules occurring on leaves are usually confined to the lower surface
only.
Systemic infection
 Young stems and inflorescence are infected.
 The fungus becomes systemic in these parts and the affected
tissues are stimulated to various types of deformities.
 The most prominent is Hypertrophy of the affected parts.
 Due to Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia of floral parts, these show
swellings and distortion.
 The peduncle and pedicel may become enormously thickened
upto 12-15 times, the normal diameter.
 Floral parts become fleshy, swollen, green or violet in colour, the
stamens falling off early.
 The petal may turn green sepal like and stamens and carpels are also
converted to swollen leaf like structures.
 The ovules are usually atrophied as also the pollen grains resulting in
total sterility.
 Pustules may also appear on these parts.
 However, the affected parts are full of oospores and starch.
 When the systemic infection has taken early, the growth of the entire
plant is checked, stunted and only small leaves may be formed.
Control Measures of White Rust Disease
 Clean cultivation and destruction of weed should be practiced.
 Crop rotation will avoid the soil borne primary inoculum.
 Spraying with 0.8 percent Bordeaux mixture or Dithane M-45 (0.2%)
may be undertaken to check the spread of the disease.
 Disease resistant varieties be preferred.

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White rust of crucifers

  • 1. White Rust of Crucifers Dr. Chinnamani Prasannakumar Assistant Professor PG & Research Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology National College (Autonomous) Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu- 620001, India
  • 2. Crucifers Cruciferous vegetables are vegetables of the family Brassicaceae with many genera, species, and cultivars being raised for food production such as cauliflower, cabbage, kale, garden cress, bok choy, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, mustard plant and similar green leaf vegetables.
  • 3. Causative agent  White rust, caused by Albugo candidans, is a disease of crucifers that causes yield loss through defoliation, root injury, and reduction of market quality.  Spinach, horseradish, and mustard are affected more seriously than other crucifers.
  • 4. Albugo candidans  Albugo candida, commonly known as white rust, is a species of oomycete in the family Albuginaceae.  A. candida is an obligate plant pathogen that infects Brassicaceae species and causes the disease known as white rust or white blister rust. Clade: SAR Phylum:Oomycota Order: Albuginales Family: Albuginaceae
  • 6.  The primary infection occurs due to oospores perennating in the soil or due to mycelium perennating on perennial hosts.  These serve as primary inoculum when the environmental conditions are favourable.  Oospores germinate in presence of water to form a vesicle in which a large number of zoospores are formed.  These zoospores swim in a film of water and land on the suitable host, germinate by germ tubes, enter the host and establish infection.  The mycelium in the host is intercellular with globose haustoria.  Soon the mycelium after absorbing nutrients and food materials from the host, accumulates below the lower epidermis.  Conidiophores, which are clavate, and formed at the tip of hyphae, begin to produce conidiosporangia in basipetal succession.  The pressure of these breaks open the lower epidermis and white rust symptoms become apparent on the leaves.
  • 7. The conidiosporangia produced during early phase of the growing season cause secondary infection in the host. These are blown away by wind or any other agency, land on the host surface and germinate to form zoospores. The zoospores germinate by formation of germ tubes which enter the host and cause secondary infection. If the conditions are favourable, this is repeated. When the conditions become unfavourable or during the later phase of the growing season, the fungus begins sexual reproduction producing oospores. These oospores, being thick- walled, can withstand the unfavourable conditions.
  • 8. Symptoms of White Rust Disease  The disease affects all the aerial parts of the plant, the roots are not attacked.  Symptoms may appear as a result of two types of infection: 1) Local infection 2) Systemic infection
  • 9. Local infection  Isolated spots or pustules appear on leaves or stems or inflorescence.  The pustules are of variable size, measuring 1 -2 mm in diameter and are raised shiny white areas.  These may arise in close proximity and coalesce to form large irregular patches.  Usually, the pustules appear in circular or concentric arrangement with one or two central areas.  The host epidermis ruptures exposing white powdery mass consisting of spores of the fungus.  Pustules occurring on leaves are usually confined to the lower surface only.
  • 10. Systemic infection  Young stems and inflorescence are infected.  The fungus becomes systemic in these parts and the affected tissues are stimulated to various types of deformities.  The most prominent is Hypertrophy of the affected parts.  Due to Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia of floral parts, these show swellings and distortion.  The peduncle and pedicel may become enormously thickened upto 12-15 times, the normal diameter.  Floral parts become fleshy, swollen, green or violet in colour, the stamens falling off early.
  • 11.  The petal may turn green sepal like and stamens and carpels are also converted to swollen leaf like structures.  The ovules are usually atrophied as also the pollen grains resulting in total sterility.  Pustules may also appear on these parts.  However, the affected parts are full of oospores and starch.  When the systemic infection has taken early, the growth of the entire plant is checked, stunted and only small leaves may be formed.
  • 12. Control Measures of White Rust Disease  Clean cultivation and destruction of weed should be practiced.  Crop rotation will avoid the soil borne primary inoculum.  Spraying with 0.8 percent Bordeaux mixture or Dithane M-45 (0.2%) may be undertaken to check the spread of the disease.  Disease resistant varieties be preferred.