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  2. INTRODUCTION  Fundamental unit of life  THE FIRST CELL WAS OBSERVED BY ROBERT Hooke (slice of corK)  That was dead and suberized cell wall  FIRST LIVING CELL WAS OBSERVED BY Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
  3. GLYCOCALYX  OUTERMOST LAYER OF CELL  Carbohydrate molecules form a thin and loose covering over the entire surface of the cell membrane called glycocalyx.
  4. CELL MEMBRANE  Seperate extra cellular fluid to intra cellular fluid  Semipermeable in nature so ,freely permeable to fat soluble substances  Tipical thickness is about -75-110Å  Composition of membrane  Potein-55%  Lipid-40%  Carbohydrate -5%  STRUCTURE OF CELL MEMBRANE  DANIELLI-DAVSON MODEL-”SANDWICH OF LIPID”
  5.  UNIT MEMBRANE MODEL-JD ROBERTSON , GAVE STRUCTURAL MODEL ON THE BASIS OF ELECTRON MICROSCOPY  FLUID MOSAIC MODEL – SINGER AND NICOLSON  This model explain about fluid nature of plasma membrane here MOSAIC is the pattern produced by the protein present in the cell membrane
  6.  LIPID PRESENT IN CELL MEMBRANE ARE-1.Phospholipids 2. Cholesterol.  Protein molecules are classified into two categories:  1. Integral proteins 2. Peripheral protein  FUNCTION OF PROTEIN  Integral proteins provide the structural integrity of the cell membrane  Antigens: Some proteins act as antigens and induce the process of antibody formation  Pump  Channel proteins  FUNCTION OF CELL MEMBRANE  Protective function  maintenance of shape and size of the cell  Excretory function  Selective permeability
  7.  Cytoplasm – Cytoplasm of the cell is the jellylike material formed by 80% of water.  Provide medium for the various chemical reaction occurring in the cell  Cytoplasm is made up of two zones:  1. Ectoplasm:  2. Endoplasm  CELL ORGANELLES  MITOCHONDRION– membrane bound cytoplasmic organelle concerned with production of energy.  The outer membrane is smooth contains various enzymes such as acetyl-CoA synthetase and glycerolphosphate acetyltransferase.  The inner membrane is folded in the form of shelf-like inward projections called cristae  Cristae contain many enzymes and other protein molecules which are involved in respiration and synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  8.  FUNCTION OF MITOCHONDRIA-1.PRODUCTION OF ATP  2.Involve in the process of APOPTOSIS  Other functions of mitochondria include storage of calcium and detoxification of ammonia in liver  NUCLEUS  Nuclear membrane is double layered and porous in nature.  Nucleoplasm -highly viscous fluid that forms the ground substance of the nucleus. It is similar to cytoplasm present outside the nucleus  Nucleoplasm surrounds chromatin and nucleolus.  Chromatin –DNA HISTONE PROTEIN COMPLEX  Nucleolus- ribosomal factory  Function OF NUCLEUS  1. Control of all the cell activities that include metabolism, protein synthesis, growth  2. Synthesis of RNA  3. Formation of subunits of ribosomes
  9.  4.Control of the cell division through genes  5.Storage of hereditary information  ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM  Endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubular and microsomal vesicular structures  The endoplasmic reticulum forms the link between nucleus and cell membrane by connecting the cell membrane with the nuclear membrane  Types of Endoplasmic Reticulum– 1.ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.  2.SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM  1.ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM-  endoplasmic reticulum with rough appearance, Rough appearance is due to the attachment of granular ribosomes to its outer surface  FUNCTION OF ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM  1. Synthesis of proteins  2. Degradation of worn-out organelles
  10.  SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM –It is the endoplasmic reticulum with smooth appearance  FUNCTION OF SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM  1. Synthesis of non-protein substance  2. Storage and metabolism of calcium  3.Catabolism and detoxification  GOLGI APPARATUS  Golgi complex is a membrane-bound organelle, involved in the processing of proteins. It is present in all the cells except red blood cells  It consists of 5 to 8 flattened membranous sacs called the cisternae  Functions of Golgi Apparatus  1.Processing of materials  2.Packaging of materials
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