FINGERPRINT BASED EVM M. SAI PRATAP REDDY (09831A0473) P. RAGHUVEER REDDY (09831A0489) P. SAI PRANAY RAJ (09831A0491)
INTRODUCTION• The objective of voting is to allow voters to exercise their right to express their choices regarding specific issues.• Technology is being used more and more as a tool to assist voters to cast their votes.• The two types systems implemented for voting are: 1. Ballot Box 2. EVM• Electronic Voting Machines ("EVM"), was an idea mooted by the Chief Election Commissioner in 1977.• Knowing the disadvantages in the previous methods the biometric method of voting is being implemented.
INTRODUCTION (contd..)• In the biometric process we are utilizing the fingerprintauthentication of the individual.• The basic point of this system is to examine thefingerprint image of an individual and compare it to adatabase of the registered fingerprints .• They provide a quick, easy, efficient, and securemeasure through which, an individual with the exactauthentication can only cast the vote.
BLOCK DIAGRAM• POWER SUPPLY• FINGER PRINT SCANNER (NITGEN FIM)• MAX 232• MICRO CONTROLLER• KEYPAD & CONTROL UNIT• LCD DISPLAY• PC INTERFACE• ALARM / INDICATORS
FINGERPRINT SCANNER• The fingerprint scanner used here is NITGEN company based which is the leading manufacturer of FIM(Fingerprint Identification Module).• The methodology involves of storing the fingerprint images as database and during voting the input image is matched using the database.• The scanning process can be explained in detail with the adjacent diagram.
FINGERPRINT SCANNER FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS:• Optimally designed with SEIR(Surface Enhanced Irregular Reflection).• High resolution and endurance(scratches, chemical corrosion, physical impacts).• It also has a temperature sensor.• Working current 100mA.• Matching mechanisms – (1:1) and (1:N).• Image acquiring time: < 0.5s ; Image Searching time: 0.9s• Image template size: 256 bits• Modes : Storing & Recognition.
FINGERPRINT SCANNER• The techniques used here are: 1. Extraction algorithm 2. Matching algorithm• Extraction algorithm involves: - Image enhancement, - Image Analysis, - Thinning , - Ridge reconstruction & - Minutiae extraction• A template of this image is created for every fingerprint imagestored in the memory.
FINGERPRINT SCANNERMATCHING ALGORITHM:The matching algorithm finds out whether there is a match bycomparing two templates extracted by the characteristic pointextraction algorithm, specifically by comparing the positions ofeach characteristic point and the structure.
MAX 232• It is 16‐Pin IC known as Voltage Converter or Line Converter.• It converts the RS‐232 levels of the Fingerprint Scanner to the TTL voltage levels of μC .• MAX - Maxim Company 232- Series number• RS Recommended Standard was set by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) in 1960.• Using DB‐9 (Data Bit) Pin connector, we’ll connect the MAX‐232 to the Fingerprint Scanner.• We can connect two devices at a time to the MAX‐232.
MAX 232• RS‐232 Voltage levels : • TTL CMOS Levels :‐3V to ‐25V ------ Logic‐1 Logic +5V ------ Logic‐1+3V to +25V ------ Logic‐0 Logic 0V ------ Logic‐0
POWER SUPPLYOperation:• 1. Initially 230 V AC supply is reduced to (0-9V) with the help of a step down transformer having a capacity of 500mA.• 2. This low voltage is rectified with the help of bridge rectifier. The ripples are minimized with the help of capacitor filter to get a smooth DC supply. The rating of the chosen capacitor filter is 1000µF• 3. The regulated DC voltage is obtained by using a regulator IC 7805• 4. Another capacitor filter of rating 10µF is connected at the output of regulator IC to eliminate the voltage oscillations at the output due to the large voltage oscillations at the input of the regulator
MICROCONTROLLER (AT89S52)• A Micro controller consists of a powerful CPU coupled with memory, various I/O interfaces such as serial port, parallel port timer or counter, interrupt controller, data acquisition interfaces‐ADC, DAC, integrated on to a single silicon chip.• If a system is developed with a microprocessor, the designer has to go for external memory such as RAM, ROM, EPROM and peripherals.• But controller is provided all these facilities on a single chip. Development of a Micro controller reduces PCB size and cost of design.• One of the major differences between a Microprocessor and a Micro controller is that a controller often deals with bits not bytes as in the real world application.
FEATURES of AT89S52• The AT89S52 is a low‐power, high‐performance CMOS 8‐bit microcontroller.• 8K Bytes of In‐y System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory– Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles• 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range• Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz• 256 x 8‐bit Internal RAM• 32 Programmable I/O Lines• Three 16‐bit Timer/Counters• Eight Interrupt Sources• Full Duplex UART Serial Channel (receiver/transmitter: SBUF)• Low‐power Idle and Power‐down Modes• Fast Programming Time
LCD DISPLAY• The LCD display is used to display the messages during the action.• Here a 16x2 display is used. Each character is made of 5x7 dot matrix.• Displays have built in backlight (blue or green diodes).
KEYPAD & CONTROL UNIT• Here we have a keypad and a control unit as in the normal EVM’s.• The keypad is used to select a candidate from the given list of voter’s choice.• The control unit consists of the enable key and also to select the master (or) normal mode.• During registration to create the database we use a master mode.• For vote casting the individual has to cast his vote in the normal mode.• To avoid illegal and invalid votes we use a buzzer as an indicator.
ADVANTAGES:• Rigging of votes can be avoided.• Preserves voting secrecy due to fingerprint authentication.• No scope of invalid and illegal votes.• Highly tamper – proof.• Facilitates quick and accurate counting, possible to declare results instantaneously