Secondary 1 english curriculum framework


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Secondary 1 english curriculum framework

  1. 1. Cambridge Secondary 1English Curriculum Framework
  2. 2. Contents Introduction Stage 7 .....................................................................................................1 Welcome to the Cambridge Secondary 1 English curriculum framework. Stage 8 .....................................................................................................4 This framework provides a comprehensive set of progressive learning objectives for English. The objectives detail what the learner should know Stage 9 .....................................................................................................8 or what they should be able to do in English in each year of lower secondary education. They provide a structure for teaching and learning and a reference against which learners’ ability and understanding can be checked. The Cambridge Secondary 1 English curriculum promotes an enquiry- based approach to learning to develop thinking skills and encourage intellectual engagement. The curriculum is presented in five content areas. Phonics, spelling and vocabulary and Grammar and punctuation relate to use of English. Grammar and punctuation is further divided into Reading and Writing to reflect the different ways in which grammar and punctuation are applied in each of these skills. Reading, Writing, and Speaking and listening are about developing thinking skills and encouraging intellectual engagement. The learning objectives span knowledge and understanding and other qualities. This curriculum encourages learners who are confident, creative and intellectually engaged, capable of applying their skills to respond to a range of information, media and texts with enjoyment and understanding. Learners who follow this framework will develop a first language competency in English based on a curriculum designed to be successful in any culture and to promote cross-cultural understanding. The Cambridge Secondary 1 English curriculum framework continues the journey from the primary English framework and provides a solid Note for the Reading and Writing strands foundation upon which the later stages of education can be built. In the Reading and Writing strands the learning objectives listed under The Cambridge Curriculum is founded on the values of the University of Fiction apply to both fiction and non-fiction. The learning objectives Cambridge and best practice in schools. The curriculum is dedicated to listed under Non-fiction are only those that are more relevant in the developing learners who are confident, responsible, innovative and engaged. context of non-fiction. Each curriculum framework for English, mathematics and science is designed to engage learners in an active and creative learning journey.b Cambridge Secondary 1 English Curriculum Framework (for use from 2011)
  3. 3. Stage 7 Stage 7Phonics, spelling and vocabulary Writing• Spell correctly most words used. • Use a wide range of punctuation to make meaning clear, including generally accurate use of commas in complex sentences and to• Increase knowledge of word families, roots, derivations, morphology present dialogue. and regular spelling patterns. • Use correct grammar, including articles, word order and tenses in a• Use a dictionary and thesaurus effectively to further develop range of genres and text types. vocabulary. • Clarify relationships between ideas with an increasingly accurate and• Learn a range of vocabulary appropriate to their needs, and use growing use of connectives. words precisely in speech and writing to clarify and extend meaning and to interest their audience. • Provide clarity and emphasis in writing, using a variety of sentence lengths, structures and subjects.• Learn to use the terms ‘image’, ‘simile’, ‘metaphor’, ‘onomatopoeia’, ‘setting’ and ‘genre’. • Use a range of increasingly complex sentence structures to communicate meaning and to give fluency to their writing. • Build up detail and convey shades of meaning through sentenceGrammar and punctuation structure, e.g. controlling order of clauses, expanding verb phrases.Reading• Comment on the use of formal and informal language and discuss the writer’s motivation for making the choice.• Show awareness of the reasons for using longer and shorter sentences.• Begin to comment on the control of pace and meaning through choice of sentences and variety of sentence openings. Cambridge Secondary 1 English Curriculum Framework (for use from 2011) 1
  4. 4. Stage 7Stage 7 • Give an informed personal response to a text and provide some Reading textual reference in support. The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 7: • Understand how readers make choices about the texts they like reading, e.g. by author or genre and know a range of ways in which Fiction and poetry: suspense and horror stories, sci-fi and fantasy to respond to texts. novels, contemporary folk and fairy-tales, short stories (including those set in different times and places), older literature (including • Compare poems, showing awareness of poets’ use of language and drama), narrative and non-narrative poems, significant poems from its intended impact on the reader. before 1900. • Understand the different ways texts can reflect the social, cultural Non-fiction: contemporary biography, autobiography, letters and and historical contexts in which they were written. diaries, journalistic writing/writing with bias, news websites. Non-fiction Fiction and poetry • Extract the main points and relevant information from a text or ICT • Demonstrate understanding of features of narrative and non-narrative source, using a range of strategies such as skimming and scanning. texts by explaining and developing these features in their own discussion and writing. • Make relevant notes to select, collate and summarise ideas from texts. • Use inference and deduction to recognise implicit and inferred meanings. • Explore the range of different ways writers use layout, form and presentation in a variety of texts. • Identify and understand the main ideas, viewpoints, themes and purposes in a text. Support comments by quotation from more than • Explore the variety and range of ways in which the content of texts one location in the text. can be organised, structured and combined. • Identify and describe the effect of writers’ and poets’ use of literary, rhetorical and grammatical features, including imagery and figurative language. • Comment on a writer’s use of language, demonstrating an understanding of the implication of their use of vocabulary. 2 Cambridge Secondary 1 English Curriculum Framework (for use from 2011)
  5. 5. Stage 7 Stage 7Writing Non-fictionFiction and poetry • Use features and conventions of a wide variety of text types in order to write to inform, explain, describe, argue, persuade and comment.• Develop different ways of generating, organising and shaping ideas, using a range of planning formats or methods. • Practise note-taking using different styles for different purposes.• Understand the conventions of standard English and how to use them consistently in writing. Speaking and listening• Write to express a personal viewpoint. • Speak for a variety of purposes, such as to explain, describe, narrate, explore, analyse, imagine, discuss, argue and persuade.• Shape the overall organisation, sequence and presentation of a text to convey ideas clearly and effectively. • Deliberately shape talk for clarity and effect and to engage listener.• Mirror the purpose of the writing by appropriate use of paragraphs • Use a range of vocabulary appropriate to context, and use language and selection of linking words and phrases. to clarify meaning and to interest and convince their audience.• Use vocabulary precisely and imaginatively to clarify and extend • Practise speaking fluently and clearly at an appropriate pace and meaning and create specific effects. volume.• Vary sentence length and structure in order to provide appropriate • Develop the ability to listen courteously to others and be sensitive to detail and clarify relationships between setting, characters, themes, turn taking. plot, etc. • Begin to make significant contributions to group discussions,• Begin to develop character and voice in fiction writing. engaging with complex material, making perceptive responses and showing awareness of a speaker’s aims.• Explore some of the key linguistic and literary techniques used by writers, and begin to use them for intended effect. • Work in solo, paired and group assignments, including role-play.• Understand and use degrees of formality in a range of texts • Through role-play, show insight into texts and issues through choice according to context, purpose and audience. of speech, gesture and movement. • Explain features of own and others’ language, showing sensitivity to the impact of varying language for different purposes and situations. Cambridge Secondary 1 English Curriculum Framework (for use from 2011) 3
  6. 6. Stage 8 Phonics, spelling and vocabulary Grammar and punctuation • Spell most words correctly, including some complex polysyllabic ReadingStage 8 words and unfamiliar words. • Comment on the use of a wide range of punctuation to convey • Learn the spelling of difficult and commonly misspelt words and shades of meaning. develop strategies for correcting spelling. Writing • Learn an increasingly wide range of vocabulary appropriate to their needs. • Use accurate punctuation including commas in various situations, including parenthetical commas, colons, semi-colons, dashes and • Explain, using accurate terminology, how language is used to create brackets. effect, e.g. personification, figurative language, imagery, patterns and structure in the use of language, use of dialect or informal language. • Begin to use formal and informal language for specific purposes. • Create considered and appropriate effects by drawing independently • Demonstrate controlled use of a variety of simple and complex on the range and variety of their own vocabulary, and extending their sentences to achieve purpose and contribute to overall effect. vocabulary by noting down powerful words in books read. • Confidently use a range of sentence features to clarify or emphasise meaning, e.g. fronted adverbials, complex nouns or prepositional phrases. 4 Cambridge Secondary 1 English Curriculum Framework (for use from 2011)
  7. 7. Stage 8 • Compare poems from different cultures and times, commenting onReading different poets’ use of language and imagery to develop similar themes and elicit responses from the reader. The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 8: Stage 8 • Explore how different audiences choose and respond to texts. Fiction and poetry: political novels/stories with social issues, myths and legends from around the world, humour, short stories, significant • Explore why certain texts are important within a culture and show poems and drama from other cultures, poems since 1900. awareness that the context in which the text is written and read affects its meaning. Non-fiction: contemporary biography, autobiography, letters and diaries, journalistic writing, magazines and newspapers, reports and leaflets. Non-fictionFiction and poetry • Use a range of reading strategies to find relevant information and main points in texts, distinguishing between fact and opinion where• Recognise implied meaning, e.g. expression of opinion, inference of appropriate. character, meaning contained in an image, ironic effect. • Make relevant notes when researching different sources, comparing• Identify relevant points, synthesising and summarising ideas from and contrasting information. different parts of the text. • Explain how specific choices and combinations of form, layout and• Explore the range, variety and overall effect of literary, rhetorical and presentation create particular effects. grammatical features used by poets and writers of literary and non-literary texts. Include study of informal or formal style as well as • Demonstrate understanding of the effects created by features of the choice of words to create character. diaries, magazines and newspaper reports.• Comment on how the writer’s use of language contributes to the • Demonstrate understanding of the main features, including the overall effect on the reader, using appropriate terminology. structure, of each genre and text type studied.• Broaden their experience of reading a wide range of texts and express their preferences and opinions.• Trace the development of a writer’s or poet’s ideas, viewpoint and themes through a text and relate these to other texts read. Cambridge Secondary 1 English Curriculum Framework (for use from 2011) 5
  8. 8. Stage 8 Writing Non-fiction Fiction • Develop a consistent viewpoint in non-fiction writing by selecting from techniques and devices used by known writers, and drawing onStage 8 • Identify the most appropriate approach to planning their writing in a range of evidence, opinions, information and purposes. order to explore, connect and shape ideas. • Write in a range of forms for a variety of purposes, including: • Apply skills in editing and proofreading to a range of different texts and contexts. – autobiography (to entertain, inform, review or comment) • Develop ideas to suit a specific audience, purpose and task. – diary entries (to inform, explain, review, comment or explore) • Draw on their knowledge of a variety of sentence lengths and a wide – leaflets or newspaper reports (to inform) variety of sentence structures, including complex sentences, and – letters (to persuade, entertain, narrate or comment) apply it to their own writing to make their ideas and intentions clear and create a range of effects. – magazine articles (to describe, review or comment) • Use a range of cohesive devices with audience and purpose in mind. – reports (to review, inform, advise, or argue) • Experiment with different ways of presenting texts, bearing in mind – reviews (to inform, entertain or advise) the audience and purpose. – summaries. • Draw on knowledge of how and why writers use varying degrees of formality and informality to make appropriate choices of style and register in their own writing. • Understand the significance and importance of conventional standard English and the ways in which writers use non-standard forms in specific contexts for particular effects. • Create and control effects by drawing on the range and variety of own vocabulary. 6 Cambridge Secondary 1 English Curriculum Framework (for use from 2011)
  9. 9. Stage 8Speaking and listening• Give short presentations and answer questions, maintaining effective Stage 8 organisation of talk.• Adapt speech, non-verbal gesture and movement to meet an increasing range of demands.• Explore complex ideas and feelings, both succinctly and at length.• Take part in a simple debate following formal rules (proposer, seconder, etc.).• Engage with more demanding material through perceptive responses to other students’ talk, showing awareness of the speaker’s aims and extended meanings.• Conduct a discussion, drawing together ideas and promoting effective sharing of ideas.• Work in groups to formulate ideas and plans of action.• Develop skills in solo, paired and group assignments, including role-play and drama.• Help to plan and participate in a brief dramatic scene, demonstrating empathy and understanding of a range of characters through flexible choice of speech, gesture and movement.• Discuss the features of media productions such as news broadcasts, interviews and discussions, analysing meaning and impact of variations in spoken language. Cambridge Secondary 1 English Curriculum Framework (for use from 2011) 7
  10. 10. Stage 9 Phonics, spelling and vocabulary Grammar and punctuation • Spell correctly throughout a substantial text including ambitious or Reading complex polysyllabic words. • Develop precise, perceptive analysis of how language is used, • Continue to be aware of spelling errors and correct them. e.g. explaining how euphemisms conceal bias in a political statement or showing how language use reflects a character’s changing • Continue to extend range of language and use it appropriately. emotional state. • Show some appreciation of how the writer’s language choices WritingStage 9 contribute to the overall effect on the reader, e.g. demonstrating the effectiveness of imagery in contrasting texts or arguing that the use • Use a range of features to shape and craft sentences that have of highly emotive language in an advertisement is/is not individual merit and contribute to overall development of the text, counterproductive in its effect on an audience. e.g. embedded phrases and clauses that support succinct explanation; secure control of complex verb forms; use antithesis, • Shape and affect the reader’s response through conscious choices repetition or balance in sentence structure. and in planned ways by selecting ambitiously from a wide and varied vocabulary for a range of tasks, purposes and readers. • Demonstrate control of wide variety of sentence types used for intended purpose and desired effect. Reading The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 9: Fiction and poetry: short stories with similar themes for comparison, contemporary stories including dialogue with dialect, novels written through letters or diary accounts, texts from different cultures and traditions, older drama from other cultures, different poetic forms from around the world. Non-fiction: travel writing, advertising copy, reference books and encyclopedias – both concise and longer texts, reports and leaflets. 8 Cambridge Secondary 1 English Curriculum Framework (for use from 2011)
  11. 11. Stage 9Reading (continued) Non-fictionFiction and poetry • Select from a range of strategies and use the most appropriate ways to locate, retrieve and compare information and ideas from a variety• Analyse and respond to the range of ideas and differing viewpoints, of texts. purposes and themes in a variety of related texts. • Make notes using a range of different note-making formats and• Analyse in depth and detail writers’ use of literary, rhetorical and approaches (including mind-mapping and tabulating) when grammatical features and their effects on different readers. researching a variety of media. Stage 9• Discuss their own and others’ reading, take account of others’ views • Analyse how meaning, including attitude, can be conveyed in of what they have read, express informed opinions and make different ways according to structural and organisational choices. recommendations. • Demonstrate understanding of the features of a wider range of• Develop interpretations of texts, supporting points with detailed non-fiction and media texts, e.g. travel writing, advertising material. textual evidence. • Recognise ways in which writers use different registers and other• Analyse the structures of different poetical forms. Demonstrate methods to communicate with their audience. understanding of impact of vocabulary and meaning through the selection of appropriate quotations. • Understand the differences between formal and informal style.• Analyse how texts are shaped by audiences’ preferences and • Use a repertoire of reading strategies to analyse and explore different opinions. layers of meaning within texts, including bias.• Develop an understanding of how ideas, experiences and values are • Analyse how meaning is conveyed differently according to the form, portrayed in texts from different cultures and traditions. layout and presentation selected by the writer for specific purposes.• Understand how words are used for different purposes, e.g. to create atmosphere, to persuade the reader. Cambridge Secondary 1 English Curriculum Framework (for use from 2011) 9
  12. 12. Stage 9 • Deploy a range of punctuation and grammatical choices to enhance Writing and emphasise meaning, aid cohesion and create a wide range of Fiction effects. • Link a selection of ideas and planning choices explicitly to a clear Non-fiction sense of task, purpose and audience. • Establish and sustain a clear and logical viewpoint through the • Use the editing, proofreading and reviewing process, and revise as analysis and selection of convincing evidence, opinions and necessary, to evaluate the effectiveness and likely impact on the reader. appropriate information.Stage 9 • Select the most appropriate text format, layout and presentation to • Write to analyse, review and comment. create impact and engage the reader. • Write persuasively, e.g. in letters or in the script of a commercial. • Shape and craft language within paragraphs, and structure ideas • Write arguments with a sense of linked progression. between them, to achieve particular effects with purpose and audience in mind. • Establish and sustain character, point of view and voice in their fiction writing. • Begin to develop a range of registers and a personal voice. • Add detail, tension and climax to their narratives by shaping the reader’s response through conscious choices from a wide and ambitious vocabulary. • Understand ways to deploy range of formal and informal styles to enhance and emphasise meaning and create a wide range of effects. • Understand ways in which writers modify and adapt phrase and sentence structures and conventions to create effects, and how to make such adaptations when appropriate in their own writing. 10 Cambridge Secondary 1 English Curriculum Framework (for use from 2011)
  13. 13. Stage 9Speaking and listening• Use speaking and listening as a method of preparing for written assignments, exploring a wide range of subject matter with precision and effect.• Make increasingly significant contributions both as solo speakers and as members of groups.• Use speaking and listening to build up increasing personal Stage 9 confidence, managing and manipulating the content of their presentation.• Question and respond to others, shaping the direction and content of their talk with well-judged contributions.• Work in groups for a variety of purposes, such as taking decisions and planning and organisation.• Explore complex ideas and issues in drama, establishing roles and applying dramatic approaches with confidence.• Evaluate meaning and impact of a range of features in own and others’ discourse, including broadcast media. Cambridge Secondary 1 English Curriculum Framework (for use from 2011) 11
  14. 14. 12 Cambridge Secondary 1 English Curriculum Framework (for use from 2011)
  15. 15. University of Cambridge International Examinations1 Hills Road, Cambridge, CB1 2EU, United KingdomTel: +44 (0)1223 553554 Fax: +44 (0)1223© University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011V1Y04 *0994463294*