Motivation

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Motivation

  1. 1. MOTIVATION
  2. 2. Defining MotivationMotivationThe processes that account for an individual’sintensity, direction, and persistence of efforttowards attaining a goal. Key Elements 2. Intensity: how hard a person tries 3. Direction: towards what a person tries 4. Persistence: how long a person tries 6–2
  3. 3. Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow)There is a hierarchy offive needs—physiological, safety,social, esteem, andself-actualization; aseach need is substantiallysatisfied, the next needbecomes dominant. 6–3
  4. 4. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Higher-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.Lower-Order NeedsNeeds that are satisfiedexternally; physiologicaland safety needs. 6–4
  5. 5. Hierarchy of Needs TheoryPhysiological: Safety: Social:Includes hunger, thirst, Includes security and Includes affection,shelter, sex, and other protection from belongingness,bodily needs. physical and acceptance, and emotional harm. friendship.Esteem: Self-actualization:Includes internal esteem factors such as The drive to become the best oneself-respect, autonomy, and achievement; is capable of becoming; includesand external esteem factors such as growth, achieving one’s potential,status, recognition, and attention. and self-fulfillment.
  6. 6. Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)Theory XAssumes that employees dislikework, lack ambition, avoidresponsibility, and must bedirected and coerced to perform.Theory YAssumes that employees likework, seek responsibility, arecapable of making decisions,and exercise self-direction andself-control when committed toa goal. 6–6
  7. 7. Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg)Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory•Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation. These aremotivational factors. Eg. Challenging work, advancement, growth in the jobRecognition, etc* Extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction. These aremaintenance factors.Hygiene FactorsFactors—such as company policy andadministration, supervision, and salary—that, wheninadequate in a job, dissatisfy workers. When thesefactors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfiedbut not necessarily motivated either. 6–7
  8. 8. David McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for Achievement Need for Affiliation The drive to excel, to achieve The desire for friendly in relation to a set of and close personal standards, to strive to relationships. succeed. Need for Power nPow The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. nAch nAff 6–8
  9. 9. Matching High Achievers and Jobs 6–9
  10. 10. Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) .Specific and difficult Goals with Feedback lead toHigher Performance Factors influencing the goals–performance relationship: Goal commitment, adequate self- efficacy, task characteristics, and national culture. Self-Efficacy The individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. 6–10
  11. 11. Equity TheoryEquity TheoryIndividuals compare their job inputs and outcomeswith those of others and then respond to eliminateany inequities. 6–11
  12. 12. Equity Theory (cont’d) 6–12
  13. 13. Equity Theory (cont’d)Choices for dealing with inequity:2. Change inputs (slack off)3. Change outcomes (increase output)4. Distort/change perceptions of self5. Distort/change perceptions of others6. Choose a different referent person7. Leave the field (quit the job) 6–13
  14. 14. Thank you

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