2013.05.04 deel 1.1 overtoom


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2013.05.04 deel 1.1 overtoom

  1. 1. Introduction to Environmental Psychology
  2. 2. Content1. Origin of environmental psychology2. Perception a. seeing b. gestalt c. depth3. Effects of the environment on us a. place attachment b. place identity c. territoriality d. personal space e. crowding f. privacy
  3. 3. 1. Introduction2 directions led to environmental psychology- from psychology (limitation of experimental settings)- from architecture (designing for a specific outcome)“A sense that architecture was a system with no feedback and psycholo-gists wanted to get the users involved”
  4. 4. 1. IntroductionDifferent viewpoints from laypersons, psychologistsand architects also result in badly formulated ques-tions for the other groupsDesire to solve real world problems
  5. 5. 1. Introduction4 ways of looking at the world:a. Deterministicb. Interactionalc. Organismicd. Transactional
  6. 6. 1. Introductiona. Deterministicrelationship between the person and environment iscausalif this is the case,then that happens
  7. 7. 1. Introductionb. InteractionalFocus on combination of person and environmentif this is the case,then there is a possibility that that happens.
  8. 8. 1. Introductionc. Organismicrelationship between the person and environment is partof a wholeif this is the case,then there is a possibility that that happens,which influences the rest of the system,either moving to or from the ideal end stateMemoriesassociationspreferences
  9. 9. 1. Introductiond. Transactionalrelationship between the person and environment is partof a wholeThere is no ideal end statechange and time are defining features of the systemMemoriesassociationspreferencesToday
  10. 10. 1. IntroductionBut, we first need to perceive the environment in or-der to move around
  11. 11. 2. PerceptionInformation comes in through the senses: smell touch pain sound vision taste
  12. 12. 2. Perception VisionGoal ->identify meaningful objects and ac-tivitiesseeing forms and patternsvisual system - image
  13. 13. 2. Perception Visionobjects are defined by contours ->edges or borderschanges in brightness or colour fromthe background
  14. 14. brain enhances contrast of borders ->lighter near dark border,darker near light border.2. Perception Vision
  15. 15. “ The whole is different from the sum ofits parts. ”the whole is defined by the way theparts are organisedBuilt in rules for organising el-ements into wholes ->6 rules2. Perception Gestalt
  16. 16. Proximity2. Perception Gestalt
  17. 17. Similarity2. Perception Gestalt
  18. 18. Closure2. Perception Gestalt
  19. 19. Good continuation2. Perception Gestalt
  20. 20. Common movement2. Perception Gestalt
  21. 21. Good form(simple, uncluttered, symmetrical, regular, predict-able)2. Perception Gestalt
  22. 22. Figure groundusually circum-scribed is seenas object,circumscribing asbackground2. Perception Gestalt
  23. 23. Pictorial cues:occlusionrelative image size for familiarobjectslinear perspective (convergence)texture gradient (decrease in sizeand spacing)position relative to horizondifferential lightingof surfaces2. Perception DepthMotion parallax
  24. 24. effects/ease of perceiving nature &fractal like environments3 theories:Attention restoration(kaplan & kaplan)being away - fascination -extent - compatibilityBiophilia (Wilson)Fractality (based on Mandelbrot)2. Perception Environment
  25. 25. source of all info about the environmentnot a sensation but a filtering processinvolves processing complex & often meaningful stimulicannot perceive everythinglecture affordances:what is there to see, not how things look2. Perception Concluding
  26. 26. Environmental stress -> too many stimuliBehaviour constraints -> walls, locks, height, fencesBehaviour settings -> culture, predefined rulesEnvironmental restoration -> extent, natureAesthetic preferences -> culturally based, learnedStereotyping -> associations between persons & environmentPlace attachment, place identity -> memories & personal identityTerritoriality, personal space -> control personal boundariesCrowding, privacy -> defensible space -> marking, control3. Effects on us Environment
  27. 27. (place) IdentityIdentity can be approached from the individual or grouplevel.Which identity-role is important directs behaviourWhen a place becomes part of your identity ->“I am a city-person” “I am a TU-Delft student”3. Effects on us Place identity
  28. 28. Place identityPlace reflects on the person’s identity, and the personmight see oneself different based on the place.Identity process theory (Breakwell)& place:distinctivenesscontinuityself esteemself efficacy3. Effects on us Place identity
  29. 29. Place attachmentUsually positive emotionalbonds to physical and so-cial settings that supportidentity and provide otherpsychological benefits.3. Effects on us Place attachment
  30. 30. Place attachmentSpace vs. placeSpace is the physical environment, where place is themeaning people attach to that space5 aspects of place attachment:sense of securityautonomyappropriationstimulationcongruence3. Effects on us Place attachment
  31. 31. TerritorialityA self-other boundary regulationmechanism that involvespersonalisation of or marking of a placeor object, and communication that itis ‘owned’ by a person or group.contrary to personal space theboundary is physical and more orless constant.3. Effects on us TerritorialityPersonalisation and ownership are designed to regulatesocial interaction and to help satisfy various socialand physical motives.
  32. 32. Territoriality3 types of territory:Primary - the space is ownedSecondary - control of the space is likely to changePublic - first come, first servedWhich space is which type of territory depends on per-ception of the person -> not necessarily equal foreveryone3. Effects on us Territoriality
  33. 33. Personal spaceAn invisible boundary surrounding a person’s body intowhich intruders may not come.It has three aspects:a portable territorya spacing mechanisma communication channel.3. Effects on us Personal space
  34. 34. Personal spacepersonal space is influenced by:genderreligionagepersonalityphysical settingculturelanguageseating arrangements3. Effects on us Personal space
  35. 35. CrowdingA personally defined subjective feeling that too manypeople are around. It is different from density in thatdensity is an objective measure of the number of peopleper unit area. Crowding is thought to be more relatedto proximity of others than density.3. Effects on us Crowding
  36. 36. Crowdingis influenced by:- locus of control- culture- gender- presence and behaviours of others nearby- group formation- quality of relationships- provision of information on density- architectural variations (long corridors)- sociofugal situations3. Effects on us Crowding
  37. 37. PrivacyA dynamic process involving selective control over aself-boundary which changes over time and settings.- desired privacy & achieved privacyIf both are the same the levelof privacy is optimal.functions of privacy:1. personal autonomy (self-worth, independence)2. emotional release (relax from social roles)3. self-evaluation (process of self esteem)4. limited and protected communication3. Effects on us Privacy
  38. 38. PrivacyBehavioural mechanisms:- verbal- personal space- rules about territory, possessions- cultural norms- eye contactDesigning for privacy:responsive environments that allow for flexible move-ment between separateness and togetherness (leaving adoor open)3. Effects on us Privacy
  39. 39. concluding3. Effects on us Concluding
  40. 40. No simple solutionsThe environment affects us in multiple and diverse waysand we affect the environment in diverse ways.The real question is how to design environments that donot determine, but facilitate behaviours that we neverthought of.Concluding
  41. 41. Enjoy the lecture seriesand get inspired!