Title :Rethinking Teacher Supervision and
Author : Kim Marshall
Publication : Jossey- Boss
Year : 2013
Edition : Second
Pages : 232
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was a teacher,
and Principal in
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Publishes a weekly
news letter Marshall
summarizes the ideas
and research from
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About the Publishers
Jossey-Bass publishes products and services to inform and inspire
those interested in developing themselves, their organizations and
institutions, and their communities. These offerings include print
and digital books, subscription content, e-Learning test prep,
webinars, and online courseware, workflow applications, websites,
and online assessment tools in all formats.
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Reason for choosing this book
As I am interested in the field of Educational
Supervision and Educational Evaluation, I chose this
My short experience of worked in Research and
Development division of an Educational institution
induced me to select this book.
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Organization of the book
The book has ten chapters
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School leaders are spending huge amounts of time on
a process that rarely improves classroom teaching.
Research has shown that quality of the instruction is
the single most factor in student achievement.
Every principal’s most important job is getting good
teaching in every classroom.
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C2 Supervision and Evaluation
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A research question
As a teacher , which two most improved your teaching and
your student’s learning?
1. Ideas from books and articles
2. PD workshops in school
3. Workshops and courses outside school
4. Supervision suggestions from administrators
5. End of year evaluations by administrators
6. Suggestions from colleagues
7. Team planning of units
8. Team looking at data
9. Student feedback
10. Natural Talent.
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Student feedback and natural talent got the maximum
Supervision suggestions from administrators did only
End of year evaluation by administrators did not get a
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Less effective practices of teachers
Lecturing to half tuned students.
– Calling On Pupil Who Already Knows The Answer
Pile of uncorrected student papers on the teacher’s
Working in Isolation. Cut off from helpful colleagues,
up-to date methods and technology.
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How schools can counteract?
Hiring teachers who are intrinsically motivated, hard
working, talented team players
Pay teachers well and give them the respect and
professional development they deserve.
Principals to create a working conditions conducive to
good teaching . Positive school culture, a clear vision
and mission, curriculum clarity, high quality
assessments, good classroom materials and
technology, time for teacher team work, a sane
schedule and smooth operations.
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A logical model of how supervision and
evaluation should work
Principals and teachers have a shared understanding
of good teaching
Principals are in classrooms a lot and see every day
teaching in action.
Principals are knowledgeable and perceptive
Teachers get frequent feedback and coaching.
Principals address mediocre and ineffective teaching.
Student learning is the central to the process.
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Most principals are addicted to HSPS- Hyperactive
Superficial Principal Syndrome
Trapped in the office dealing crisis one after another
Each day chopped up by interruptions
If escapes from the office wanders in the premises
without any systematic agenda.
Evaluation visits only if absolutely required
Teachers rarely get feedback and a very few authentic
conversation between the teachers and the Principal.
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2. Frequent- 10 observations a year for a teacher.
- How is the teacher handling the beginning, middle
and end of a lessons?
- How is the teacher handling the different classes and
/or subjects he or she teaches?
- Are there marked differences in the quality of
instruction in the morning, midday and afternoon?
- Is the quality of teaching sustained in different parts of
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3. Short ( 10 minutes stay )
4. Face to face feedback
- Possible to communicate lot of things in few minutes
- Can get answers to questions.
- Teacher can correct an possible misunderstanding of
something during observation.
- Principal can sense whether teacher is ready to receive
the critical feedback.
- Can also help in general assessment of how the year is
going and the plans for the future.
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- Best location for mini – feedback: Principal’s office or
Teacher’s classroom when student’s are not around.
5.Perspective- includes free range observations and detailed
- Hospitality. Warm and welcoming classroom
- Teaching. Learning experiences skillfully orchestrated.
- Learning. Evidence of what being taught is learned.
- Safety. Students can focus in learning
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Humility is the natural posture after mini- observations.
A good way to start a follow up conversation would be
“I was in your class for ten minutes and here’s what
“I am curious about what happened after I left”
“ Can you fill me in on that? I am not too familiar within
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- Most teachers prefer no writing in the class for
- Next preference is use of note pad
- Mini observation- 10 minutes.
- Follow up talk- 5 minutes
- Writing the follow up note – 15 minutes.
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10. Linked to teacher team work and school wide
11. Linked to end of the year teacher evaluation.
12. Explained the basic rationale behind mini
Let us watch a video on classroom observation
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Learning Walk and Walk Through
Carolyn Downey, in her book , The three minute
Classroom walk through has used the term walk
Walk through means a small team of administrators,
teachers or some outside observers periodically doing
a complete tour of the school focusing on particular
aspects of classroom instruction. ( For example,
student work on the walls).
Learning walk is usually spending two or three hours
scrutinizing a school, sharing their impressions and
give a general report, either verbally or in writing.
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Although learning walks can be helpful and
informative, mini- observations are potentially the
most powerful strategy for improving teaching and
They involve significantly more visits to all classrooms,
individual feedback to each teacher, and
individualized ,ongoing communication about
teaching and learning based on the observations.
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On the spot assessments
Individual accountability- students know that they may be
called at any time.
Live data- Immediate insight into student’s misconceptions
Future benefits- to the lesson to follow
The retrieval effect- researches say quick assessment of learning
make students retrieve and review what they have learned, forges
better brain connection and improves long term memory.
The growth mind set- sends an implicit message to students that
they can get smarter by working at understanding day by day.
Some internal assessments can kindle the rational thinking of
Let us watch a video
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1.Deciding on the domains on the
competencies of Teaching
Planning and preparation for learning
Delivery of instruction
Monitoring, assessment and follow up
Family and community outreach
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2. Deciding on a rating scale
4. Highly effective
2. Improvement necessary
1. Does not meet standards
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3. Sorting the criteria
A. Planning and preparation for learning
Knows the major subject matter well and has a good
grasp of child development.
Plans the year so students will meet the high standards
Plans more units with big ideas and covering most of
Plans on the spot assessments.
Anticipates students misconception and addresses it.
Designs lessons focused on measurable outcomes
Designs lessons that target several learning needs, styles,
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3. Sorting the criteria….
B. Classroom Management
Clearly communicates and consistently enforces high
standards for student behaviour.
Is fair and respectful to students and builds positive
Fosters positive interaction with the students
Develops students self –discipline and teaches them to take
the responsibility for their own actions.
Maximizes academic learning time
Uses incentives wisely to encourage and reinforce student
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3. Sorting the criteria….
C. Delivery of instructions
Conveys the student that you can do it.
Activates students previous knowledge and hooks
their interest in each lesson and unit.
Uses clear explanations, appropriate knowledge, and
examples to present materials.
Has students actively think about, discuss and use the
ideas and skills being taught.
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3. Sorting the criteria….
D. Monitoring assessment and follow up
Puts clear criteria for proficiency, including rubrics for
Frequently checks the students understanding.
Has students set goals , self assess , and know where
they stand academically at all times.
Uses data from interim assessment in adjust teaching,
re teach, and follow up with failing students.
Analyses data from assessments, draws conclusions
and shares them appropriately.
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3. Sorting the criteria….
E. Family and Community outreach
Communicates respectfully with parents.
Gives parents clear expectations for student learning
and behaviour for the year.
Responds promptly to parents concerns
Makes parents feel welcome in the classrooms
Uses report cards to give parents feedback on their
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3. Sorting the criteria
F. Professional responsibilities
Has good attendance
Uses correct grammar and spelling in professional contexts
Is punctual and reliable in paper work, duties and
Demonstrates professional demeanor and maintains
Is ethical and forthright, uses good judgment and
Shares responsibility with others.
Is positive team player and contributes ideas.
Listens thoughtfully to other’s points
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Creating the rubrics
Can be downloaded from
www. Marshallmemo.com. Click on “Kim
Publications” and scroll down.
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C8 Time Management
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Make sure staff know exactly what is expected in terms of classroom
instruction and discipline
Use a good personal planning system for a year. month. week and day.
Set up a schedule of meetings for key teams and make sure they
Use a good system for writing things down, prioritizing and following
Put competent people in key roles and delegate maximum
responsibility to them.
Frequently visit classrooms and team meetings and give teacher’s
Take care of yourself, including family, health, exercise, sleep and
Regularly evaluate progress and work on continuous improvement.
Let us watch a video on Time Management
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C9 The Role of the Superintendent
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Principal Evaluation Rubrics
Diagnosis and planning
Priority Management and Communication
Curriculum and Data
Supervision, Evaluation and Professional
Discipline and Family involvement.
Management and external relations
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Kim Marshall brings the wisdom of a seasoned
principal and insights of a scholar/ researcher to this
analysis of instructional leadership. His work is
practical, smart and , most of all , clear and accessible.
This book is a combination of real world experience
and visionary thinking creates a road map that has the
potential to alter the national landscape on teacher
As the core team of LVS, let us work smart, build
collaboration and close the achievement gap.
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