Like the names of authors who coined words to label particular phenomena.
Referencing styles & Bibliography
P299.SPRING Programme 2013/14
School of Urban and Regional Planning
University of Philippines. Dilimian. Quezon city
December 12, 2013
• What is it?
• Difference between reference and bibliography
• Why we need to reference
• What to reference
• When to reference
• How to reference
• Difference referencing styles
• More Examples about APA
• Referencing tools
Reference and Citing
• REFERENCE: the detailed description of the
document from which you have obtained your
information. Referencing is a way of demonstrating
that you have done that reading.
• CITING: acknowledging within your text the
document from which you have obtained your
Reference Vs. Bibliography
• The terms „References‟ and „Bibliography‟
are often used synonymously, but there is a
difference in meaning between them.
• References are the items you have read and
specifically referred to (or cited) in your work
, and your list of sources at the end of the
assignment will be headed „References‟.
Reference vs. Bibliography
• Bibliography is a list of everything you read -
whether or not you referred specifically to it .
• Normally contain sources that have been cited
and also those found to be influential, but
decided not to cite.
• A bibliography can give a tutor an overview of
which authors have influenced your ideas and
arguments even if you do not specifically refer
Why do we need reference?
• To acknowledge others works
• To allow others (readers) to find the original
sources easily (cited reference)
• To get recognition & authentication of the
• To make the work informative. (Quality)
• To trace the intellectual development of the
ideas you present.
• To avoid plagiarism
• the verbatim copying of others work
• the close paraphrasing of others work by
simply changing a few words of altering the
order of presentation.
• Coping others idea
• the unacknowledged quotation of phrases.
WHAT NEEDS TO BE REFERENCED?
• Has it been presented formally into the public
domain in some way?
• Has it been presented in a tangible form? (Printed
material, the Internet, a public talk/lecture etc).
• Does someone have an ownership of it? Look for
a named author or writer, or
organization, including a website or host?
• Is the information presented in the source in
question outside the realm of „common
• To give the source of tables, pics, statistics and diagrams
which might be copied or have been a source of idea.
• When describing a theory, model or practice associated
with a particular writer.
• To give credibility to an argument presented by you.
• When giving emphasis to a particular idea that has found
a measure of agreement.
• To inform the reader of sources of direct quotations or
• When paraphrasing another person's idea that you feel is
Some commonly used style manuals are….
1. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA)Psychology,education and other social sciences (author/ date) date important
2. Chicago Manual of Style (author/ date)
emphasis on source
3. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (MLA)- literature & arts
(author/ date) authorship important
4. The Harvard system (author/ date)
5. The Vancouver system – used in medical and scientific journal
Author date Vs Numeric Styles
Example of Numeric Styles
• According to Myers the reason for….
The reference is presented as a footnote at the bottom
of the page or at the end of your work:
Myers, D. (2008) Construction economics: a new
approach, 2nd ed., London: Taylor and Francis, p.159
Author date style
Barter (2003, p.258) has shown that…..
Source of References
• Newspaper / magazine
• Conference paper/proceedings
• Annual report
• Institutional / Government publication
• Electronic sources- Website, CD-ROM, Databases
• Theses/ Reports/ unpublished works etc.
Elements in the reference list
• Title of document
• Date ( year of publication)
• Place of publication
• Periodicity (volume/ issue/ part number)
Referencing in APA, Chicago and MLA for
books - Examples
Darwin, C. (2006). On the origin of species: By means of natural
selection. New York: Dover Publications.
Chicago Manual of Style
Darwin, Charles. 2006. On the origin of species: By means of natural
selection. New York: Dover Publications.
Darwin, Charles. On the origin of species: By means of natural
selection. New York: Dover Publications, 2006.
APA, Chicago and MLA for journal articles
Byrne, A. (2008). Web 2.0 strategy in libraries and information
services. Australian Library Journal, 57 (4), 365-376.
Chicago Manual of Style
Byrne, A. 2008. Web 2.0 strategy in libraries and information services.
Australian Library Journal, 57 (4): 365-376.
Byrne, Alex. “Web 2.0 strategy in libraries and information services.”
Australian Library Journal 57.4 (2008): 365-376.
Some basics, APA Style
• APA style requires authors to use the past tense or
present perfect tense when using signal phrases to
describe earlier research,
• for example, Jones (1998) found or Jones (1998) has
• If you are referring to an idea from another work but
NOT directly quoting the material, or making
reference to an entire book -make reference to the
author and year of publication and not the page
number in your in-text reference.
It is good to use quotation when
• You want to analyze or challenge the quotation in
question or if you feel the quotation supports your
own argument or point of view.
• You want to add interest or impact to an introduction
• If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need
to include the author, year of publication, and the
page number for the reference (preceded by "p.").
• According to Jones (1998), "Students often had
difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their
first time" (p. 199).
• Place direct quotations that are 40 words, or longer, in
a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit
quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new
line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin.
• Jones's (1998) study found the following:
Students often had difficulty using APA
style, especially when it was their first time
……… teacher for help. (p. 199)
• If you use quotation or any specific detail its good
have page number in citation
• Secondary Referencing
• “Ivan Illich (1981), as summarised by Sherman and
Judkins (1995 p.121) has suggested that „shadow
• Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).
• In full reference only give your source book
• A Work by Three to Five Authors:
• List all the authors the first time you cite the source.
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)
• In subsequent citations, (Kernis et al., 1993)
• Organization as an Author:
• If the author is an organization or a government
agency, According to the American Psychological
• If the organization has a well-known abbreviation
• First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving
[MADD], 2000) Second citation: (MADD, 2000)
• Two or More Works (Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)
• Authors With the Same Last Name:
• use first initials (E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)
• Personal Communication:
• For interviews, e-mails, and other person-to-person
communication, cite the communicator's name and the
date of the communication. E.g.
• (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).
Do not include personal communication in the reference list.
MacCulloch, D. (1996). Thomas Cranmer: A life.
New Haven: Yale University Press.
(1996, p. 386)
Nelson, D. L., & Cox, M. M. (2005). Principles of
biochemistry (4th ed.).New York: Freeman.
Cox, 2005, p.
United Press International stylebook: The
authoritative handbook for writers, editors, and
news directors (3rd ed.). (1992). Lincolnwood, Il:
Corporat NSW Board of Studies. (2003). Science years 7–10 (NSW Board
e author syllabus. Sydney:Author.
2003, p. 69).
Burchfield, R. W. (Ed.). (1996). The new Fowler’s
modern English usage
(3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1996, p. 707).
Rospond, R. M. (2003). Pain assessment. In R. M.
Jones & R. M. Rospond (Eds.), Patient assessment
in pharmacy practice (pp. 160–170). Baltimore:
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
1. Introduction written by someone other than
the author of the book.
Fuller, R. B. (1971). [Introduction]. In V.
Papanek, Design for the real world (pp. vii–xix).
New York: Pantheon.
One author Crispin, G. (1996). Trial by fire. Pottery in Australia, 35(3),
1996, p. 18)
The volume number is italicized, but the issue number (and its
parentheses) are not.
Charman, R. E., & Vasey, J. R. (2008). Surgical treatment of
article with carpal flexural deformity in 72 horses. Australian
Veterinary Journal, 86(5),
Improving ADR reporting. (2002). The Lancet, 360, 1435.
When no author or editor is named, place the title in the author
Reid, T. (2005, January). Caffeine. National Geographic,
The volume number and the following comma are italicized.
Newspaper Murray, L. (2006, September 26). PM at war with
Telstra’s $9m man. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 1.
The retrieval date is NOT included when the content is in its final form,
and is not likely to be changed.
McDougall, K. L. (2007). Grazing and fire in two
subalpine peatlands. Australian Journal of Botany,
55(1), 42–47. doi:10.1071/BT06096
2007, p. 43)
No further retrieval information is needed to identify or
locate the article. Include the issue no, if available, along
with the vol. number.
Drury, V., Francis, K., & Chapman, Y. (2009). Mature
learners becoming registered nurses: A grounded
theory model. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2009, p. 41)
26(2), 39–45. Retrieved from http://www.ajan.com.au/
Grant, G. (2008). Family wars: Classic conflicts in family
business and how to deal with them. Retrieved from EBook
O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values.
book was found on a publicly website, so the URL is given.
Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The
encyclopae Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved from
If the author of the entry is not named, place the title in the author
position. See the following example.
Pluperfect. (2009). In Oxford English Dictionary online.
Retrieved from http://dictionary.oed.com/
The author of the entry is not named, so the title is placed in the
Effects of global warming on whales. (n.d.). Retrieved
Begin the reference with the title of the document.
n.d., para. 3).
Ogilvie, D. (n.d.). Why I don’t eat honey. In Why be vegan. (Ogilvie, n.d.)
Retrieved from http://www.vnv.org.au/WhyBeVegan.htm
(n.d.) means that the date of publication was
unavailable. The name of the site, Why be vegan, is in
italics.The article, or section (Why I don’t eat honey), is
not in italics.
Referencing tools/ software
Name of the
Features of these referencing tools
• Web based
• Import from online databases/web pages
• Create bibliographies
• Create footnotes, in-text references etc
• Referencing are important part of research work.
• It is a way of acknowledging others work and helps to avoid
• There are several referencing style manuals.
• Which style to follow depends on the field of research and
• The most important thing is to be consistent with a particular
• There are several referencing tools and software available
(which makes things simpler!) but still manual checking for
their correctness is necessary.