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PROJECT

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PROJECT

  1. 1. PROJECT REPORT ON “MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT” PRESENTED BY TEJENDRA ANARSE (B80480804) PRAJWAL CHOUGULE (B80480811) AMEYA DESHPANDE (B80480812) RUPESH LUNAWAT (B80480846) UNDER GUIDANCE OF Mr. P. T. KHARAT DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TSSM’s PADMABHOOSHAN VASANTDADA PATIL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PUNE 2014-15
  2. 2. TSSM’s PADMABHOOSHAN VASANTDADA PATIL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PUNE CERTIFICATE This is to certify that TEJENDRA ANARSE (B80480804) PRAJWAL CHOUGULE (B80480811) AMEYA DESHPANDE (B80480812) RUPESH LUNAWAT (B80480846) Have satisfactorily completed their project entitled “MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT” Under our supervision and guidance in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING From SAVITRIBAI PHULE PUNE UNIVERSITY Mr. P.T. KHARAT Mr. P.L. SHINDE PROJECT GUIDE PROJECT CO ORDINATOR Mr. M.V. KHOT Prof. Dr. Y.V. CHAVAN H.O.D. PRINCIPAL EXTERNAL EXAMINER PLACE- PUNE DATE-
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGMENT With all respect and gratitude, we would like to thank our Principal Prof. Y.V. CHAVAN H.O.D. Mr. M.V. KHOT for providing us with all the facilities and for permitting us to complete this project. We are very grateful to Mr. P.T. KHARAT and our Project coordinator Mr. SHINDE for their constant enthusiasm and encouragements throughout the project. We are aware that without the keen interest of all our guides, our project couldn’t have been completed in a better manner. Also we would like to thank Mr. MANGESH ASHTEKAR (Manager, FORBES MARSHALL PUNE) for letting us take on this project and provide us with necessary guidance and resources for the same. All those who have knowingly and unknowingly helped us in the completion of our project by their valuable suggestion deserve a word of thanks. TEJENDRA ANARSE (B80480804) PRAJWAL CHOUGULE (B80480811) AMEYA DESHPANDE (B80480812) RUPESH LUNAWAT (B80480846)
  4. 4. ABSTRACT The Industrial and Manufacturing department of a company is responsible for the functioning of its Production Facility and to inculcate the necessary changes over time. As for a company to keep on functioning smoothly over time, it has to meet the growth in production in future and also work upon creating a better work environment for its workers. To fulfil these criteria’s a company must frequently revise its methods of working to cater for the future needs also it needs to upgrade and adapt to the rapidly changing technologies and standards in working. The work methods of the company can be improved by improving its Production Process and Process Layout in such a way as to minimise the overall travel time from the raw material to finished product. Also meeting the future demands in production by the optimal use of current resources and minimum cost of up gradation. In our project at the FORBES MARSHALL, Pune we have made a similar attempt at designing the company’s production facility using concepts of LEAN Manufacturing, for it to minimise wastage of time and resources and all the while working towards meet the exceeding Industrial demand of the next Five years. Hence, in a way we have worked towards obtaining an optimum solution for their growing needs and eliminating the challenges faced in the path, working towards creating a better work environment for the workers too.
  5. 5. INDEX CH. NO. TITLE PAGE NO. LIST OF FIGURES ii LIST OF TABLES iv 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 About Company 1.2 Kronhe Marshall 1.3 Problem Statement 1.4 Objective of Project 1 2 2 4 4 2 LITERATURE SURVEY 2.1 Plant Layout 2.2 Need of Plant Layout 2.3 Importance of Plant Layout 5 6 7 8 3 ACTUAL DATA ACQUISITION 3.1 Types of Layout Design approach 3.2 Selection of suitable design approach 3.3 definitions 3.4 Formulae 3.5 Process Flow Chart 3.6 Relationship Chart 3.7 Relationship Diagrams 3.8 Space Relationship Diagrams 3.9 Value added and Non Value Added Activity Planning 3.10 Material Distance Travel 9 10 13 14 15 16 20 23 25 31 40 4 DESIGN PHASE 4.1 Brain Storming 4.2 Selection of Suitable Layout 4.3 Why Product Layout 4.4 Rough Layout 4.5 First Iteration 4.6 Second Iteration 4.7 Third Iteration 42 43 44 48 50 52 53 54 5 IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION 5.1 Validation 5.2 Material Distance Travel 56 57 65 6 ADVANTAGES 68 7 CONCLUSION 76 8 REFERENCES 78
  6. 6. ii LIST OF FIGURES SR. NO. TITLE PAGE NO. 1.1 Krohne Marshall Products 2 1.2 Magflow Meter 3 1.3 Vortex Flow Meter 3 1.4 VA Flow Meter 3 3.1 Systematic Layout Planning Flow Chart 13 3.2 Magflow Process Flowchart 17 3.3 Vortex Flow Meter Process Flowchart 18 3.4 VA Flow Meter Process Flowchart 19 3.5 Closeness Rating 20 3.6 Relationship Chart Magflow Meter 21 3.7 Relationship Chart Vortex Flow Meter 21 3.8 Relationship Chart VA Flow Meter 22 3.9 Relationship Diagram Magflow Meter 24 3.10 Relationship Diagram Vortex Flow Meter 24 3.11 Relationship Diagram VA Flow Meter 25 3.12 Space Relationship Diagram Magflow Meter 28 3.13 Space Relationship Diagram Vortex Flow Meter 29 3.14 Space Relationship Diagram VA Flow Meter 30 3.15 VA & NVA Percentage Utilisation for Magflow Meter 33 3.16 VA & NVA Percentage Utilisation for Vortex Flow Meter 36 3.17 VA & NVA Percentage Utilisation for VA Flow Meter 39 4.1 Process Layout 44 4.2 Fixed Position Layout 45 4.3 Cellular Layout 46 4.4 Product Layout 47 4.5 Rough Layout Cutouts-I 51 4.6 Rough Layout Cutouts-II 51 5.1 5.2 5.3 Actual Layout Plotting- I, II, III 59, 60 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Magflow Coil Winding Area Magflow Welding Area Magflow Hydro Test Area Overview- Magflow Floor Area 62 62 63 63
  7. 7. iii 5.8 5.9 5.10 Overview- Vortex Floor Area Vortex Welding Area Vortex Potting and Assembly Stations 64 64 64 6.1 Material Flow Path Existing Magflow Meter 70 6.2 Material Flow Path Existing Magflow Meter 70 6.3 Material Flow Path Existing VA Flow Meter 71 6.4 Material Flow Path New VA Flow Meter 71 6.5 Material Flow Path Existing Vortex Flow Meter 72 6.6 Material Flow Path New Vortex Flow Meter 72
  8. 8. iv LIST OF TABLES SR. NO. TABLE PAGE NO. 3.1 TAKT time calculation for Magflow Meter 31 3.2 Time Observation of Value added and Non Value added Activities for Magflow Meter 32 3.3 TAKT Time Calculation for Vortex Flow Meter 34 3.4 Time Observation of Value added and Non Value added Activities for Vortex Flow Meter 35 3.5 TAKT Time Calculation for VA Flow Meter 37 3.6 Time Observation of Value added and Non Value added Activities for VA Flow Meter 38 3.7 Material Distance Travel for Magflow Meter 40 3.8 Material Distance Travel for Vortex Flow Meter 41 3.9 Material Distance Travel for VA Flow Meter 41 5.1 Material Distance Travel for New Magflow Meter Layout 65 5.2 Material Distance Travel for New Vortex Flow Meter Layout 66 5.3 Material Distance Travel for New VA Flow Meter Layout 67
  9. 9. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
  10. 10. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 2 1.1 ABOUT COMPANY Forbes Marshall group of companies is a leading manufacturer and supplier of engineering products, energy management systems and high technology electronic instrumentation. Their customers include chemical, petrochemical, pulp and paper, pharmaceutical, textile, sugar, steel and automobile industries. Today, the company employs over 700 group members and has a number of branches. It has its corporate office at Kasarwadi (Pune) and two other manufacturing units at M.I.D.C. Pimpri and Hyderabad respectively. Their seven divisional companies together specialize in every aspect of steam engineering and control instrumentation. In fact, Forbes Marshall is probably the only company in the world to have extensive expertise in both steam and electronic instrumentation. 1.2 KROHNE MARSHALL KROHNE Marshall in joint venture with KROHNE Messtechnik, Germany, manufactures an extensive range of flow meters, level and density instruments. KROHNE Messtechnik, Germany, is a world leader in flow and level applications, with worldwide manufacturing, research and calibration facilities. KROHNE Marshall is one of the few flow metering organizations that have a versatile, accurate, in- house calibration facility traceable to NMI, Holland. These products are backed up by prompt, effective and efficient service. Providing customers with technically competent and cost effective solutions and achieving complete customer satisfaction. Their Products are as follows:- 1.) MAGFLOW (Electro-Magnetic Flow meter) 2.) VORTEX 3.) ROTAMETER Fig. 1.1 KROHNE Marshall Products
  11. 11. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 3 Fig.1.2 Magflow Meter Fig.1.3 Vortex Flow Meter Fig. 1.4 VA Flowmeter
  12. 12. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 4 1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT In recent year, manufacturing and service industries witnessed several development in the facilities design. The problem statement is to study the old production layout that has been used for years. Customer demand for the product changed rapidly with time. After years, the company has to improve the facility layout in order to compete with other competitors. The factory has to adapt changes to remain with other competitors. When changing the production layout, there are several things to consider. In order to achieve the effective layout, certain method has been used. There will be a step by step procedure to improve the layout. The plant layout problem, that is, finding the most efficient and effective arrangement of inseparable departments with differing space requirements within a facility. The objective of the facility layout problem is to minimize the material handling costs inside a facility subject to two sets of constraints: firstly department and floor area requirements and secondly department location restrictions. Material handling cost is calculated based on the amounts of material that flow between the departments and the distances between the departments. It is not possible to separate the layout design and the material handling system design. It is seldom the case that one can be considered not including other case. The key is to optimize the material flow through the operation investigated and expand the work area to accommodate new machinery required for new processes. 1.4 OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT There are few objectives that must be achieved in this project: a) To study the problems that occurs in the production layout. b) Improve the plant layout using the right approach. c) To propose a new improved production layout
  13. 13. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY
  14. 14. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 6 2.1 PLANT LAYOUT Plant layout is the most effective physical arrangement, either existing or in plans of industrial facilities i.e. arrangement of machines, processing equipment and service departments to achieve greatest co-ordination and efficiency of 4 M’s (Men, Materials, Machines and Methods) in a plant. Layout problems are fundamental to every type of organization/enterprise and are experienced in all kinds of concerns/undertakings. The adequacy of layout affects the efficiency of subsequent operations. It is an important pre-requisite for efficient operations and also has a great deal in common with many problems. Once the site of the plant has been decided, the next important problem before the management of the enterprise is to plan suitable layout for the plant. Types of Plant Layout: (i) Process Layout. (ii) Product Layout. (iii) Fixed Layout. (iv) Cellular Layout. (v) Flexible Layout. (vi) Hybrid Layout.
  15. 15. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 7 2.2 NEED OF PLANT LAYOUT Many situations give rise to the problem of plant layout. Two plants having similar operations may not have identical layout. This may be due to size of the plant, nature of the process and management’s calibre. The necessity of plant layout may be feeling and the problem may arise when. (i) There are design changes in the product. (ii) There is an expansion of the enterprise. (iii) There is proposed variation in the size of the departments. (iv) Some new product is to be added to the existing line. (v) Some new department is to be added to enterprise and there is reallocation of the existing department. (vi) A new plant is to be set up.
  16. 16. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 8 2.3 IMPORTANCE OF PLANT LAYOUT The layout of a plant is quite important in view of the above definition but the importance of a layout may greatly vary from industry to industry. The possibility of attaining the best possible layout is directly proportional to following factors: 1. The Weight, Volume or Mobility of the Product: If the final product is quite heavy or difficult to handle involving costly material handling equipment or a large amount of labour, important consideration will be to amount the product minimum possible e.g. boiler, turbines, locomotive industries and hip building companies etc. 2. Complexity of the Final Product: If the product is made up of a very large number of components and parts i.e. large number of people may be employed for handling the movement of these parts from shop to shop or from machine to machine or one assembly point to another e.g. automobile industry. 3. The Length of the Process in relation to Handling Time: If the material handling time represents an appreciable proportion of the total time of manufacturing, any reduction in handling time of the product may result in great productivity improvement of the industrial unit e.g. Steam Turbine Industry. 4. The Extent to which the Process Tends towards Mass Production: With the use of automatic machines in industries for adopting mass production system of manufacturing the volume of production will increase. In view of high production output, larger percentage of manual labour will be engaged in transporting the output unless the layout is good.
  17. 17. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 9 CHAPTER 3 ACTUAL DATA ACQUISITION
  18. 18. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 10 3.1 TYPES OF LAYOUT DESIGN APPROACH 3.1.1 Immer’s Basic Layout Planning Steps This approach entails the three basic steps in the analysis of a layout, which are 1. Put the problem on paper. 2. Show lines of flow. 3. Convert flow lines to machine lines. This approach by Immer focuses on and thus works best, when you have an existing layout that needs to be improved or adjusted to meet new objectives and requirements. It does not make provision for the planning of new facilities. 3.1.2 Nadler’s Ideal System Approach 3.1.3 Reed’s Plant Layout Procedure In “planning for and preparing the layout,” Reed recommended that the following steps be taken in his “systematic plan of attach”: 1. Analyze the product to be produced. 2. Determine the process required to manufacture the product. 3. Prepare layout planning charts. 4. Determine work stations. The ideal system approach is based on the following hierarchical approach toward design: 1. Aim for the “theoretical ideal system.” 2. Conceptualize the “ultimate deal System.” 3. Design the “Technologically workable Ideal system.” 4. Install the “recommended system.”
  19. 19. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 11 5. Analyze storage area requirements. 6. Establish minimum aisle widths. 7. Establish office requirements. 8. Consider personnel facilities and services. 9. Survey plant services. 10. Provide for future expansion. 3.1.4 Apple’s Plant Layout Approach Apple recommended that the following detailed sequence of steps be used in designing a plant layout. 1. Procure the basic data. 11. Determine storage requirements 2. Analyze the basic data. 12. Plan service and auxiliary activities. 3. Design the productive process. 13. Determine space requirements 4. Plan the material flow pattern 14. Allocate activities to total space. 5. Consider the general material handling plan. 15. Consider building type 6. Calculate equipment requirements. 16. Consider master layouts. 7. Plan individual work stations. 17. Evaluate, adjust and check the layout 8. Select specific material handling equipment. 18. Obtain approval. 9. Coordinate groups of related operations 19. Install the layout. 10. Design activity relationships 20. Follow up on implementation
  20. 20. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 12 3.1.5 Systematic layout planning by Muther This layout procedure that was developed by Muther in 1973 is very popular and is frequently used. It is also in short referred to as SLP. A framework for SLP can be seen on the following page. According to Tompkins (Tompkins et al, 2003), the process involved in executing SLP is fairly uncomplicated. This does not necessarily mean that no complexities will occur in the application of SLP. When using the SLP approach a block layout is first developed before there can be continued to a detailed layout for each department. This process requires the facility planner to develop many different charts and diagrams. This can be seen as an advantage of this process since people tend to understand a process more easily if they can visualize it. The charts and diagrams that are constructed during this procedure, as well as the function of each, are listed below: 1. From-to chart: used to quantitatively measure flows in terms of the amount moved between departments. 2. Activity relationship chart: determine the relationship between departments and the importance thereof. 3. Relationship diagram: positions activities where they are actually located in a two-dimensional space. 4. Space relationship diagram: same as relationship diagram, only with the space of each department included.
  21. 21. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 13 Figure 3.1 Systematic layout planning flowchart 3.2 SELECTION OF SUITABLE DESIGN APPROACH The “Systematic Layout Planning by Muther has distinct guidelines to be followed during planning. These guidelines help the planner to visualize the processes and thus make it easy to understand them. The charts and diagrams developed during the planning highlight the relationship between respective departments clearly. Immer’s and Nadler’s approaches are not suitable as they are mainly used to improve the layout to meet the new objectives and not to facilitate the different new layout. Though the SLP approach is not easy it is fairly uncomplicated. The basic block layout developed leads the path to detailing of each department
  22. 22. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 14 layout in the future. By considering all these factors “Systematic Layout Planning approach by Muther” is thus selected for designing the given plant layout. 3.3 DEFINITIONS OF THE TERMS USED DURING DATA ACQUISITION 1. Value Added Activity: It is the activity in a process that actually adds value into the raw material for its conversion to the end product. The customer can be charged for such a process. 2. Non-Value Added Activity: It is an activity in a process that adds no value into the raw material during its conversion into the final product. It is the waste in the system. For example during a milling operation, the value is added only during the material removal process whereas time taken for loading, unloading, set up, inspection etc. is non-value added time. 3. TACT Time: It is the time available to complete one job, calculated on the basis of the demand of that product. TACT time is also known as TAKT time. TAKT is a Japanese word which means rhythm. 4. Lead Time: It is the time required to produce one completely finished product from the raw material in a system. 5. Bottleneck: It is the machine or operator whose capacity is less than demand placed on it.
  23. 23. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 15 6. Cycle time: It is the time required by a machine to complete one job. 7. Effective Cycle Time: It is the total time required to complete one operation. It comprises of the value added as well as the non-value added time. 8. Inventory: Inventory can be classified as under: • Raw Material Inventory: It is the total amount of raw material stacked in the system. • Work-In-Progress Inventory: It is the total number of unfinished products stocked at each workstation in the system. • Finished Goods Inventory: It is the number of finished goods stocked in the business unit/system before delivering to the customer/assemb 3.4 FORMULAE USED FOR ANALYSIS 1. Time Available to Complete Task (TACT): = / ℎ / ℎ 2. Percentage Utilization: / = / × 100 Where, VA Time = Value Added Time. U/T = Machine Utilization.
  24. 24. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 16 C/T = Cycle Time. 3. Manpower Requirements: = 3.5 PROCESS FLOW CHART The process flow chart is a process mapping tool that provides a visual representation of the steps in a process. Based on the process observations done in the first few weeks, process flow chart for each of the three products is developed. This has given more clear understanding about the following points: 1. To develop understanding of how a process is done. 2. To study a process for improvement. 3. To communicate to others how a process is done. 4. When better communication is needed between people involved with the same process. 5. To document a process. 6. When planning a project
  25. 25. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 17 Fig. 3.2 Magflow Process Flowchart
  26. 26. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 18 Fig. 3.3 Vortex Flowmeter Process Flowchart
  27. 27. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 19 Fig. 3.4 VA Flowmeter Process Flowchart
  28. 28. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 20 3.6 RELATIONSHIP CHART Relationship values are used when measuring qualitative flow closeness. The value and the reason behind the value can be recorded in a so-called relationship chart. The relationship chart shows which activities that have a relationship to each other. Each cell is split so it shows the importance of the closeness and this can be supported with one or several reasons. Relationship chart is according to Muther (1974) the best way to integrate supporting activities in the process investigated. The closeness values are rated according a vowel scale. If the facility planner is unfamiliar with this method it can result in over assigning of A ratings. Muther (1974) suggests a range of frequency of rating occurrences for each vowel. A should be presented about 2 to 5% in a relationship chart, 3 to 10% for E, 5 to 15% for I, and 10 to 25% for O. In most projects almost half of the boxes checked with a U. This is a reason why this closeness is not marked in the relationship diagram which is drawn from a relationship chart. The frequency of X depends on what project that is investigated. Fig 3.5 Closeness Rating
  29. 29. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 21 3.6.1 MAGFLOW RELATIONSHIP CHART Fig 3.6 Relationship Chart – Magflow Meter 3.6.2 VORTEX RELATIONSHIP CHART Fig 3.7 Relationship Chart – Vortex Flowmeter
  30. 30. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 22 3.6.3 VA METER RELATIONSHIP CHART Fig 3.8 Relationship Chart – VA Flowmeter
  31. 31. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 23 3.7 RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM The reason for making a relationship diagram is to get a visual picture of the data gathered. There are many ways of how to construct a relationship diagram. The common goal for each technique is to allocate each activity according to the ratings been made. The highest closeness rating should be closest and so on. A common way to make the diagramming is to start with the most important relationships from the activity chart, to get this closest. Then continue the process for the second most important relationship and then it is continued to expand the diagram until it is completed. It is important to draw the relationship lines clearly between the activities in the diagram. This can also be done in various ways. The figure which is given below shows an activity diagram where the closeness ratings are illustrated by having different types of lines. Next to the diagram is there an explanation box for the closeness lines, so anyone can understand the coding. For better understanding, the colour codes are used to indicate the closeness rating associated with each line.
  32. 32. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 24 3.7.1 MAGFLOW RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM Fig 3.9 Relationship Diagram – Magflow Meter 3.7.2 VORTEX RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM Fig. 3.10 Relationship Diagram – Vortex Flowmeter
  33. 33. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 25 3.7.3 VA METER RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM Fig. 3.11 Relationship Diagram – VA Flowmeter 3.8 SPACE RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM A space relationship diagram is a continuation of the activity relationship diagram with the space required for each department needed. In order to draw a space diagram, space requirements of the facility is to be determined first. 3.8.1 Space Requirements According to Tompkins, space requirement is the determination of how much space that is required in the facility. As the space requirement is in accordance with the production demand of year 2020, there is always a much uncertainty how the future will look, in terms of technology, product mix, assembly processes etc. In the layout development, space requirements are found in order to add space to the predetermined flow and/or activity relationship diagram that has worked out the geographical arrangements.
  34. 34. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 26 Richard Muther mentions five basic ways to determine space requirements. Each of the methods has its place and sometimes it is necessary to use more than one method for the same project. The five basic ways that can be used are: 1. Calculations 2. Converting 3. Space Standard 4. Roughed out layout 5. Ratio Trend and Projections 3.8.2 Combination of Calculations and Roughed out layout method When planning for the production areas, the need for space for individual workstations is determined first. Then for the departments with help of the knowledge of how many workstations that are needed in each department. The space for a workstation is composed of space for personnel, equipment and materials` 1. Manpower Requirements - Manpower Required= !"#$% &' #()* +*,-(+*. #" /+".-0* .$(%1 .*)$2.*. ,-$2#(#1 344*0#(5* #()* $5$(%$6%* 4"+ #7* /+".-0#("2 /*+ .$1 Based on the formula, manpower required to meet the demand of the year 2020 for respective products are- Magflow= 17 personnel Vortex= 10 personnel VA Meter= 6 personnel 2. Number of machines required - Based on the excess quantity to be produced to meet the production demand of the year 2020, the extra machines required are decided. This number is then added to the existing number of machines to determine the total machined required to meet the demand of year 2020.
  35. 35. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 27 3. Floor area needed for the machines - Total width • total depth + maintenance and service requirements The width includes the static width and maximal movements to the left and the right. The total depth is the static depth and the machines maximal movement to and away from the operator. The space needed for materials at a workstation consists the following: • In process materials. • Receiving and storing incoming materials. • Storing outward materials and shipping. • Storing and transporting waste and scrap. • Fixtures, jigs, tools, dies and maintenance materials Another thing that is considered while designing is the space considerations of the personnel space, which consists of space for operators, material handling and space for operator to move easily with the load in hands. The motion-study has been done on this to find the optimum personnel space required. The space relationship diagrams are developed considering all the factors that has mentioned above. The activity relationship diagram is modified by putting space required for the each departments to draw the final space relationship diagram.
  36. 36. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 28 3.8.3 MAGFLOW SPACE RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM Fig 3.12 Space Relationship Diagram – Magflow Meter
  37. 37. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 29 3.8.4 VORTEX SPACE RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM Fig. 3.13 Space Relationship Diagram – Vortex Flowmeter
  38. 38. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 30 3.8.5 VA METER SPACE RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM Fig 3.14 Space Relationship Diagram – VA Flowmeter
  39. 39. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 31 3.9 VALUE ADDED AND NON VALUE ADDED ACTIVITY PLOTTING 3.9.1 MAGFLOW VA AND NVA ACTIVITIES The product MAGFLOW has been divided into three ranges according to the internal diameter of the product. The three ranges are – 1. DN < 150mm 2. 150mm < DN < 450mm 3. DN > 450mm As the demand for the range DN < 150mm is highest, the priority to plot VA-NVA activities is given to the same range. Yearly demand considering a growth of 7% Year 2014 2020 Pieces 6557 9840 Net working time/shift Shift/Hour 9.5 Kaizen Meeting/min 10 1st Coffee/Tea Break/min 10 Lunch Break/min 30 2nd Coffee/Tea Break/min 10 Cleaning/min 10 Result/min/day 510 Customer Demand Monthly Demand/Piece 820 Working days/Month 22 Result/Piece/Day 38 Takt Time/min/Piece 13.4 Operators(optimal) 17 Table 3.1 TAKT Time Calculations for Magflow Meter
  40. 40. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 32 MAGFLOW DN<150 Sr No Process Description VA NVA Workers/st ation Time/s/worker TOTAL TIME % UTILIZ ATION 1 Material issue/Structure welding 5 50 0.38 13.2 55 9.09 2 Structure Welding 25 10 1.92 13.4 35 71.43 3 PTFE lining 20 5 1.54 13.3 25 80.00 4 HR lining(OSP) 0.00 0 0 5 Electrode assembly 16 1 1.23 13.3 17 94.12 6 Hydro test 3.5 1 0.27 13 4.5 77.78 7 Coil winding 12 1.5 0.92 13.3 13.5 88.89 8 Coil assembly 7 10 0.54 13.2 17 41.18 9 Wiring 14 2.5 1.08 13.3 16.5 84.85 10 Housing welding 15 0.67 1.15 13.4 15.67 95.72 11 Leak test 1 3 0.08 12.5 4 25.00 12 Connection box assembly 24 2 1.85 13.4 26 92.31 13 Blasting 7 12 0.54 13.2 19 36.84 14 Painting 12 185 0.92 13.3 197 6.09 15 Potting/IP68 5.5 230 0.42 13.4 235.5 2.34 16 Electronic assembly and testing 27 2 2.08 13.3 29 93.10 17 Calibration 12 49 0.92 13.3 61 19.67 18 Finishing 8 18 0.62 13.4 26 30.77 19 Packing 7 3 0.54 13.2 10 70.00 TOTAL 221 585.67 17.00 806.67 27.40 Table 3.2 Time Observations of VA-NVA Activities for Magflow Meter
  41. 41. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 33 Fig 3.15 VA-NVA Percentage Utilization - Magflow Meter 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Material issue/Structure welding Structure Welding PTFE lining HR lining(OSP) Electrode assembly Hydro test Coil winding Coil assembly Wiring Housing welding Leak test Connection box assembly Blasting Painting Potting/IP68 Electronic assembly and testing Calibration Finishing Packing TOTAL VA NVA
  42. 42. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 34 3.9.2 VORTEX VA and NVA activities The product Vortex has been divided into twe ranges according to the internal diameter of the product. The two ranges are – 1. DN 15mm to DN 50mm 2. DN 80mm to DN 300mm As the demand for the range DN 80mm to DN 300mm is highest, the priority to plot va-nva activities is given to the same range. Table 3.3 TAKT Time Calculations for Vortex Flowmeter Yearly demand considering a growth of 7% Year 2014 2020 Pieces 1093 1640 Net working time/shift Shift/Hour 9.5 Kaizen Meeting/min 10 1st Coffee/Tea Break/min 10 Lunch Break/min 30 2nd Coffee/Tea Break/min 10 Cleaning/min 10 Result/min/day 510 Customer Demand Monthly Demand/Piece 137 Working days/Month 22 Result/Piece/Day 7 Takt Time/min/Piece 72.9 Operators(optimal) 10
  43. 43. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 35 VORTEX DN80-DN300 Sr No Process Description VA NVA Worker s/station Time/s/ worker TOTAL TIME % UTILIZ ATION 1 Issue of Material to m/c shop 5 14 0.08 71.4 19 26.32 2 M/C shop processing (OSP) 0 0 0.00 0 0 3 Structure Welding (primary head) 270 180 4.08 72.8 450 60.00 4 Radiography + Machining 10 4320 0.15 71.4 4330 0.23 5 Potting 25 4320 0.38 71.4 4345 0.58 6 Mech. Primary Head Ass. 15 45 0.23 71.4 60 25.00 7 Hydro Test 10 30 0.15 71.4 40 25.00 8 calibration 45 150 0.68 72.6 195 23.08 9 Nozzle Ass. With Pressure Sensor 30 30 0.45 71.4 60 50.00 10 Welding of conduit pipe 5 10 0.08 71.4 15 33.33 11 Hydrotest of Primary head 10 30 0.15 71.4 40 25.00 12 Assembly of long neck with primary head 5 5 0.08 71.4 10 50.00 13 Store to electronics (load/Unload) 0 40 0.00 0 40 0.00 14 Programming and calibration 30 8 0.45 0 38 78.95 15 Electronic Fit,Blower test,Data Entry 30 5 0.45 71.4 35 85.71 16 Configuration Label Print 14 10 0.21 70 24 58.33 17 PDC Ass,Potting,HV test,Oven Heating (Optiswirl) 148 1480 2.24 72.5 1628 9.09 18 Packing 10 10 0.15 71.4 20 50.00 TOTAL 662 10687 10.00 11349 5.83 Table 3.4 Time Observations of VA-NVA Activities for Vortex Flowmeter
  44. 44. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 36 Fig. 3.16 VA-NVA Percentage Utilization - Vortex Flowmeter 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Issue of Material to m/c shop M/C shop processing (OSP) Structure Welding (primary head) Radiography + Machining Potting Mech. Primary Head Ass. Hydro Test calibration Nozzle Ass. With Pressure Sensor Welding of conduit pipe Hydrotest of Primary head Assembly of long neck with primary head Store to electronics (load/Unload) Programming and calibration Electronic Fit,Blower test,Data Entry Configuration Label Print PDC Ass,Potting,HV test,Oven Heating… Packing TOTAL VA NVA
  45. 45. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 37 3.9.3 VA METER VA and NVA activities The product VA METER has been divided into three categories. The three categories are – 1. DW Flow Switch 2. BM-26 3. H-250 As the demand for the category H-250 is highest, the priority to plot va-nva activities is given to the same category. Yearly demand considering a growth of 7% Year 2014 2020 Pieces 3999 6000 Net working time/shift Shift/Hour 9.5 Kaizen Meeting/min 10 1st Coffee/Tea Break/min 10 Lunch Break/min 30 2nd Coffee/Tea Break/min 10 Cleaning/min 10 Result/min/day 510 Customer Demand Monthly Demand/Piece 500 Working days/Month 22 Result/Piece/Day 23 Takt Time/min/Piece 22.2 Operators(optimal) 6 Table 3.5 TAKT Time Calculations for VAFlowmeter
  46. 46. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 38 H 250 Sr No Process Description VA NVA Workers/ station Time/s/ worker TOTAL TIME % UTILIZA TION 1 Flow tube welding 3.2 9 0.20 21.3 12.2 26.23 2 Cone OSP 0.00 0 3 Stud welding 0.5 5 0.03 16.7 5.5 9.09 4 Float welding 4 2.15 0.25 21.1 6.15 65.04 5 Heating jacket welding 20.3 2 1.26 22.1 22.3 91.03 6 HJ stud welding 4 4 0.25 21.1 8 50.00 7 PTFE flow tube welding 7 5 0.43 21.9 12 58.33 8 PTFE flow tube OSP 0.00 0 9 Blasting 8 2 0.49 21.6 10 80.00 10 Hydro test 5 3 0.31 21.7 8 62.50 11 Flow tube + indiactor ass. 4 1 0.25 21.1 5 80.00 12 PTFE flow tube ass. 12 3 0.74 21.8 15 80.00 13 Calibration M25 9 17 0.56 22.0 26 34.62 14 ESK 8 1 0.49 21.6 9 88.89 15 K1 K2 2 3 0.12 20.0 5 40.00 16 Final finishing 10 2 0.62 21.7 12 83.33 TOTAL 97 59.15 6.00 156.15 62.12 Table 3.6 Time Observations of VA-NVA Activities for VA Flowmeter
  47. 47. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 39 Figure 3.17 VA-NVA Percentage Utilization – VA Flowmeter 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Flow tube welding Cone OSP Stud welding Float welding Heating jacket welding HJ stud welding PTFE flow tube welding PTFE flow tube OSP Blasting Hydro test Flow tube + indiactor ass. PTFE flow tube ass. Calibration M25 ESK K1 K2 Final finishing TOTAL VA NVA
  48. 48. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 40 3.10 MATERIAL DISTANCE TRAVEL 3.10.1 MAGFLOW Process Description Distance Travelled in mm Sr.NO From To 1 Welding work Table Assembly Storage Rack 8757.79 2 Assembly Storage Rack PTFE Cutting 503.63 3 PTFE CUTTING PTFE Crowning Table 4358.81 4 PTFE Crowning Table Hydraulic Press 1665.326 5 Hydraulic Press PTFE Coning 2650.87 6 PTFE Coning PTFE Cooling 4957.31 7 PTFE Cooling Assembly Storage Rack 3011.96 8 Assembly Storage Rack Electrode Assembly 12776.45 9 Electrode Assembly Hydro Testing 1415.35 10 Hydro Testing Twin Spot Welding 2062.15 11 Twin spot welding Coil Fitting 1677.63 12 Coil Fitting Coil Wiring 1179.42 13 Coil Wiring O Housing Welding 1620.35 14 O Housing Welding Pallets Station 15480.36 15 Pallets Station Sand Blasting 3213.51 16 Sand Blasting Paint Kitchen 8874.41 17 Paint Kitchen Heating Oven 6490.85 18 Heating Oven Connection Box Ass-1 12533.8 19 Connection Box Ass-1 Calibration Rig 10948.52 20 Calibration Rig Connection Box Ass-2 21091.55 21 Connection Box Ass-2 Final Finishing 5440.87 130710.916 TOTAL 130.71 meters Table 3.7 Material Distance Travelled – Magflow Meter
  49. 49. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 41 3.10.2 VORTEX Sr.NO. Process Description Distance Travelled in mm From To 1 vortex compo rack Assembly and Rotor 1890.73 2 Assembly and Rotor Welding Worktable 1583.14 3 Welding Worktable Automatic Welding Machine 1903.85 4 Automatic Welding Machine Vortex Trolley 3250.27 5 Vortex Trolley Primary Assembly Worktable 19530 6 Primary Assembly Worktable Hydro Test 3879.09 7 Hydro Test Calibration 15930.39 8 Calibration Final Assembly 14819.47 9 Final Assembly Elex Assembly 12295 10 Elex Assembly FGS / Inspection Rack 4383.74 79465.68 TOTAL 79.46 meter Table 3.8 Material Distance Travelled – Vortex Flowmeter 3.10.3 VA METER Sr.No Process Description Distance Travelled in mm From To 1 VA component rack Assembly and Rotor 8687 2 Assembly and Rotor Automatic Welding m/c 5076 3 Automatic Welding m/c STUD Welding 5340 4 STUD Welding VA Trolley 369.73 5 VA Trolley Sand Blasting 45000 6 Sand Blasting Hydro Test 2359 7 Hydro Test Assembly Table 58000 8 Assembly Table Calibration 5485 9 Calibration Manual Plotting Table 3412 10 Manual Plotting Table Calibration 3412 11 Calibration ESK Assembly 6785 12 ESK Assembly Final Finishing 1804 13 Final Finishing Number Punching 3438 14 Number Punching FGS/Final Rack 3487 152654.73 TOTAL 152.65 meter Table 3.9 Material Distance Travelled – VA Flowmeter
  50. 50. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 42 CHAPTER 4 DESIGN PHASE
  51. 51. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 43 4.1 BRAINSTORMING 4.1.1 WHAT IS BRAINSTORMING? Brainstorming is a group or individual creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its member(s). The term is used as a catch all for all group ideation sessions. Osborn envisioned groups of around 12 participants, including both experts and novices. Participants are encouraged to provide wild and unexpected answers. Ideas receive no criticism or discussion. The group simply provides ideas that might lead to a solution and apply no analytical judgment as to the feasibility. The judgments are reserved for a later date. 4.1.2 APPLICATION Brainstorming works by the method of association in Team Idea Mapping method. It may improve collaboration and increase the quantity of ideas, and is designed so that all attendees participate and no ideas are rejected. The process begins with a well-defined topic. Each participant brainstorms individually, then all the ideas are merged onto one large idea map. During this consolidation phase, participants may discover a common understanding of the issues as they share the meanings behind their ideas. During this sharing, new ideas may arise by the association, and they are added to the map as well. Once all the ideas are captured, the group can prioritize and/or take action. The main topic of brainstorming was the Growth in Demand of products in the near future and planning for it. Based on the growth trend the demand for the next five years i.e. up to the year 2020 is calculated. As a result of the process analysis and time study data obtained earlier, the number of workers and machines required to suffice the production needs for the next five years is determined.
  52. 52. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 44 4.2 SELECTION OF SUITABLE LAYOUT TYPE 4.2.1 TYPES OF LAYOUTS (1) PROCESS LAYOUT Drilling D D D D Grinding G G G G G G Milling M M M M M M Assembly A A A A Lathing Receiving and shipping L L L L L L L L Fig. 4.1 Process Layout Process layouts are found primarily in job shops, or firms that produce customized, low-volume products that may require different processing requirements and sequences of operations. Process layouts are facility configurations in which operations of a similar nature or function are grouped together. As such, they occasionally are referred to as functional layouts. Their purpose is to process goods or provide services that involve a variety of processing requirements. A manufacturing example would be a machine shop. A machine shop generally has separate departments where general-purpose machines are grouped together by function (e.g., milling, grinding, drilling, hydraulic presses, and lathes). Therefore, facilities that are configured according to individual functions or processes have a process layout. This type of layout gives the firm the flexibility needed to handle a variety of routes and process requirements. Services that utilize process layouts include hospitals, banks, auto repair, libraries, and universities. Used in Industries where a large variety of products are manufactured.
  53. 53. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 45 (2) FIXED-POSITION LAYOUT Fig. 4.2 Fixed-Position Layout A fixed-position layout is appropriate for a product that is too large or too heavy to move. In this case, material remains fixed or stationary at one place, men and equipment are taken to the site of material. Other fixed-position layout examples include construction e.g., buildings, dams, and electric or nuclear power plants, shipbuilding, aircraft, aerospace, farming, drilling for oil, home repair, and automated car washes. In order to make this work, required resources must be portable so that they can be taken to the job for "on the spot" performance. Used in Industries such as Ship Building, Aircraft Manufacturing, etc. where the product/raw material cannot be moved around.
  54. 54. (3) CELLULAR Cellular manufacturing according to the process requirements f require similar processing. These groups are called cells. Therefore, a cellular layout is an equipment layout configured to support cellular manufacturing. Processes are grouped into cells using a technique (GT). Group technology involves identifying parts with similar design characteristics (size, shape, and function) and similar process characteristics (type of processing required, available machinery that performs this type of pro sequence). Workers in cellular layouts are cross equipment within the cell and take responsibility for its output. Sometimes the cells feed into an assembly line that produces the final product formed by dedicating certain equipment to the production of a family of parts without actually moving the equipment into a physical cell (these are called virtual or nominal cells). In this way, the firm avoids the burden of rearr However, physical cells are more common. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| LAYOUT Fig. 4.3 Cellular Layout Cellular manufacturing is a type of layout where machines are grouped according to the process requirements for a set of similar items (part families) that require similar processing. These groups are called cells. Therefore, a cellular layout is an equipment layout configured to support cellular manufacturing. Processes are grouped into cells using a technique known as group technology (GT). Group technology involves identifying parts with similar design characteristics (size, shape, and function) and similar process characteristics (type of processing required, available machinery that performs this type of process, and processing Workers in cellular layouts are cross-trained so that they can operate all the equipment within the cell and take responsibility for its output. Sometimes the cells feed into an assembly line that produces the final product. In some cases a cell is formed by dedicating certain equipment to the production of a family of parts without actually moving the equipment into a physical cell (these are called virtual or nominal cells). In this way, the firm avoids the burden of rearranging its current layout. However, physical cells are more common. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 46 is a type of layout where machines are grouped or a set of similar items (part families) that require similar processing. These groups are called cells. Therefore, a cellular layout is an equipment layout configured to support cellular manufacturing. known as group technology (GT). Group technology involves identifying parts with similar design characteristics (size, shape, and function) and similar process characteristics (type of processing cess, and processing trained so that they can operate all the equipment within the cell and take responsibility for its output. Sometimes the cells . In some cases a cell is formed by dedicating certain equipment to the production of a family of parts without actually moving the equipment into a physical cell (these are called virtual or nominal anging its current layout.
  55. 55. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 47 (4) PRODUCT LAYOUT Fig. 4.4 Product Layout Product or Line Layout is the arrangement of machines in a line (not always straight) or a sequence in which they would be used in the process of manufacture of the product. This type of layout is most appropriate in case of continuous type of industries where raw materials is fed at one end and taken out as finished product at the other end. For each type of product a separate line of production will have to be maintained. This type of layout is most suitable in case of metal extraction industry, chemical industry, soap manufacturing industry, sugar industry and electric industry. It should be noted that this method is most suitable in case of mass production industries. According to Shubin and Madeheim, product layout is suitable where: (i) Large quantity of standardized products are produced. (ii) The standardized products are to be processed repetitively or continuously on the given production facilities. (iii) There must be sufficient volume of goods processed to keep the production line actively occupied. (iv) There should be greater interchange ability of the parts, and
  56. 56. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 48 (v) To maintain good equipment balance each work station must employ machines or equipment’s of approximately equal capacities. Similarly to maintain good labour balance, each work station must require an equal amount of work to be performed. 4.3 WHY PRODUCT LAYOUT? Earlier Process Layout was implemented in the organisation for over a decade. Considering the growth in production (or demand) over the next five years (until 2020) and the as an output of brainstorming earlier type of layout proved in sufficient for the following reasons:- (1) Usage of more floor area: Under this method, more floor space would have been needed for the same quantum of work as compared to product layout. (2) Higher cost of material handling: Material moves from one department to another under this method, leading to the higher cost of material handling. The mechanical devices of material handling cannot be conveniently employed under this method on account of functional division of work. Material has to be carried by applying other methods from one department to another, resulting into higher cost of material handling. (3) Higher labour skills: As there is functional division of work, specialised workers are to be appointed in different departments for carrying specialised operations. The appointment of skilled worker leads to higher labour costs. (4) Longer production time: Production takes longer time for completion under this method and this leads to higher inventories of work-in-progress. (5) Difficulties in production, planning and control: Due to large variety of products and increased size of the plant, there are practical difficulties in bringing about proper coordination among various areas (departments) and processes of production. The process of production, planning and control becomes more complex and costly.
  57. 57. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 49 (6) Increased inspection costs: Under this type of layout more supervisors are needed and work is to be checked after every operation which makes the process of supervision costlier. Hence, change was required in the type of layout as for the future growth of the company owing to the variety of the products and the rise in demand; the process type layouts were not feasible. After Studying the entire Layout types the most feasible of them all, considering the company’s needs and availability of resources, proved to be the Product type Layout, for the following reasons:- (1) Removal of obstacles in production: Product layout ensured unrestricted and continuous production thereby “minimising bottlenecks” in the process of production, this is because work stoppages are minimum under this method. (2) Economies in material handling: Under this method there are direct channels for the flow of materials requiring lesser time which considerably eliminate back-tracking of materials. On account of this, cost of material handling is considerably reduced. This is greatly helpful in achieving desired quality of the end product. (3) Lesser manufacturing time: Under this method, backward and forward handling of materials is not involved; it leads to considerable saving in manufacturing time. (4) Lesser accumulation of work: On account of continuous uninterrupted mass production, there is lesser accumulation of work in progress or semi-finished goods. (5) Optimum use of floor space: This method facilitates proper and optimum use of available floor space. This is due to non- accumulation of work in progress and overstocking of raw materials. (6) Economy in inspection: Inspection can be easily and conveniently undertaken under this method and any defect in production operations can be easily located in
  58. 58. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 50 production operations. The need for inspection under this method is much less and can be confined at some crucial points only. (7) Lesser manufacturing cost: On account of lesser material handling, inspection costs and fullest utilisation of available space, production costs are considerably reduced under this method. (8) Lesser labour costs: Due to specialisation and simplification of operations and use of automatic simple machines, employment of unskilled and semi-skilled workers can carry on the work. The workers are required to carry routine tasks under this method. This leads to lesser labour costs. (9) Introduction of effective production control: Effective production control on account of simple operation of this method can be employed successfully. Production control refers to the adoption of measures to achieve production planning. 4.4 ROUGH LAYOUT The data obtained from the brainstorming represents the needs and functions of a new layout, thus provides a base to start designing a new layout. Based on the ideas shared and the conclusions reached in the brainstorming session the outcome is a rough layout. In this phase Importance is given mainly to maintain the product flow in a single direction and avoid bottlenecks or idle times in the flow, as much as possible. Using cut-outs of machines and assembly tables, etc. all the possible arrangements can be tried and discussed to reach an approved pattern of the new layout.
  59. 59. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 51 Fig. 4.5 Rough Layout Cut-outs - 1 Fig. 4.6 Rough Layout Cut-outs - 2
  60. 60. PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
  61. 61. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT
  62. 62. PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
  63. 63. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT
  64. 64. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 52 4.5 FIRST ITERATION & THEIR SHORTCOMINGS The first iteration involves digitization of the rough layout using software like AutoCAD. This way it becomes easier to keep the data in record and also to manipulate it to our liking. The changes made in the first iteration are mentioned below department wise: (1)MAGFLOW (a) PTFE Lining Area modification- The orientation and arrangement of the machines in the PTFE lining section are modified such that the process flow is maintained in one direction, also so that only one worker can operate all the machines swiftly and without moving around much. This benefitted in a way saving the extra labor needed per machine and improving the productivity time all the while making it comfortable to work for the operator owing to the proper use of work area. (b) Welding area for units up to 160mm (in dia.) modified- Using the principles of a product layout the products were divided into three parts based on the diameters (0-160 mm; 160-450 mm; 450-2000 mm) and also based on the demand of each product. The demand for 160mm. product is the most and hence the welding area for it was modified in orientation and arrangement so as to accommodate two welders for future use with work load distributed equally amongst them to meet the production demand. (2)VORTEX METERS (a) Calibration Rig moved towards the wall by 500mm.- The calibration Rig used for the calibration of vortex flow meters was interfering with the gangway leaving very little space for the flow materials/products which would approach the rig after finishing. Hence, it was decided to move the rig towards the wall by 500mm. to allocate more space for the gangway and the racks used to store the upstream downstream pipes.
  65. 65. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 53 (b) Rack of Upstream Downstream pipes moved towards the Calibration Rig as a result of the free space available after moving the rig and allocating space for the gangway.
  66. 66. PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
  67. 67. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT
  68. 68. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 54 4.6 SECOND ITERATION & THEIR SHORTCOMINGS (1) MAGFLOW (a) LHS 1.2m Gangway removed- The LHS gangway which was proposed for the water spider manufacturing was interfering with the rest of the layout and pushing it into OHC’s (Over Head Crane) shadow area. Thus the crane’s 25-30% usable area was not being used. Hence the feasible option was to remove the proposed gangway for the water spider. This put the over head crane back to complete usage. (b) As a result of removing the water spider gangway the entire production line was moved towards the outer wall which facilitated the use of over head crane for material handling. (c) Detailed components of the Coil Assembly Area were added to check for the process flow and arrangement. (2) VORTEX (a) Welding area arrangement and orientation changed- The welding area in the earlier iteration was proving to be very clumsy as observed in actual plotting of the layout. Hence to provide adequate space for each of the welder to comfortably work in the given area their orientation was rotated through 90 degree clockwise. This provided sufficient area too move around in the welding section to reach out the RMS racks and also to perform welding. (b) Cabins and Cubicles of the officials overlooking the production were placed strategically on the floor so that they could easily supervise the production without having to leave their workspace. (c) After the proper arrangement of the racks and end material storage the remaining space was assigned for the DP test, dark room and storage racks for chemicals, for which no provision was made earlier.
  69. 69. PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
  70. 70. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT
  71. 71. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT
  72. 72. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 55 4.7 THIRD ITERATION & THEIR SHORTCOMINGS (1) MAGFLOW (a) Internal gangway removed- Internal gangway which was proposed earlier for material handling and RMS handling was not proving that advantageous after further iterations and was observed that its absence would not make any substantial change in the production but its presence would unnecessarily eat up the useful area, which could have been utilized for any other production process. Hence, it was decided to remove the internal gangway. (b) Sand blasting machine No.-2 which was not used anymore was removed from the layout as it was no longer needed. (c) Machines in the coil winding area which were out dated or not needed further were removed and the load is distributed amongst the rest of the machines evenly. This saved a lot of space. (d) Welding area redefined- The welding area for each of the components separated by size is changed to make certain improvements such as arranging the machines priority wise and providing trolleys and tables at right position for easy access. (2) VA METER (a) Welding area rearranged as per production flow ease of access and providing ample space to move around and work. (b) RMS unit storage is provided in the unutilized space making a central room for every need /issuance of raw material. This removed the stationary racks of RMS away from the work area keeping it accessible all the while.
  73. 73. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 56 (c) Some free space was allotted to visitor room; visitors are the customers who visit the facility to witness the product testing so as to confirm the quality of the product.
  74. 74. PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
  75. 75. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT PRODUCEDBYANAUTODESKEDUCATIONALPRODUCT
  76. 76. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 57 CHAPTER 5 IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION
  77. 77. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 58 5.1 VALIDATION As seen in earlier chapters, designing of layouts isn’t a one step process. It is a combination of all the data gathered from flow analysis of the processes and obtaining the required goals of production, maintaining the standards also considering the constraints such as area assigned, feasible number of labours, maximum productivity, minimum NVA (Non Value Added) Time, ease of material handling, orientation machines and their arrangements, maintaining process flow, etc. The iterations obtained each time need to be validated or confirmed of their potent, whether they fulfil all the requirements with optimum feasibility. We need validation as a form of evaluation, for every design iteration. In simple terms Validation is the analysis of data gathered throughout the design and implementation of a layout in order to confirm that the process can reliably output products of a determined standard and quantity. It basically determines the pros and cons of your design so that you can work towards a better one until a suitable (optimum) layout is designed. There are various methods for validation that we have made use whilst designing and moving towards the Final layout. They are as follows: 1. Seek input and adjust 2. Seek approvals 3. Install- Start Up- Follow Up 4. Cardboard city 5. Actual Plotting 6. Simulation (1) Seek Input and Adjust This is the first type of validation. The plans that you design are shown to the people who actually work on the production floor, people such as the welders, assembly station workers or the authorities supervising the processes daily. These people have a lot of experience working there and are the best resource of attaining any information to improve your designs. Some minor things that
  78. 78. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 59 are missed out generally by us while designing can be spotted by them such as for example a welding machine is best placed behind the welder and within his arms reach for comfortable working but sometimes the preferences may also vary person to person. Hence, it is always advisable to reach out to the people who are going to work in your designed environment to seek out for inputs. The inputs obtained by this method need to be evaluated and if really essential they can be inculcated in the layout and related adjustments can be made. (2) Seek approvals This method works similar to the earlier one just that here you need to seek approvals from the higher authorities related to the changes you have made or the designs you have made. They are the ones you need to justify every aspect of your layout and any design is not approved unless and until they are completely satisfied with the output. These authorities are answerable to the management for every change that is made in the process and every penny spent. For example when we observed that there was a need to switch on to the product type layout for the future needs it was understood after observing all the data that some extra machinery and work force need to be added in the process to get the required results. The idea alone would not have worked without some approvals as it was a major change for the company and we had to know the feasibility of our suggestions that whether the company would be ready to allot funds for the necessary machinery and work force. Without their approvals we cannot move forward, if the idea is discarded a new alternative needs to be found out every time. Thus approvals are a form of validation saying that we can proceed with a certain idea. (3) Install- Start up- Follow Up In this form of validation we actually Install the layout design and start work on it and maintain a record of production to see whether the said results are
  79. 79. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 60 obtained or not. In our case as the new facility was still under construction, implying actual installation was not possible. (4) Cardboard City As the name suggests in this type we make a scaled model of the facility to check for the production flow and arrangement and check for its feasibility. It is a very expensive method. (5) Actual Plotting In this type we can actually plot the layout in a free space and check for the orientation of machines their arrangements and space for transportation of materials and moving around. It can give a realistic idea of how a layout will look and feel after its installation. It is cheaper than the making a cardboard model of the layout. Although this method is very much useful if the availability of free space is limited we cannot make use of this method. For example in our case we were able to plot the vortex meters layout but the plotting of magflow layout seemed difficult as it required large space which wasn’t available. Fig. 5.1 Actual Layout Plotting -1
  80. 80. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 61 Fig. 5.2 Actual Layout Plotting - 2 Fig. 5.3 Actual Layout Plotting - 3
  81. 81. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 62 (6) Computer Simulation A computer simulation (or "sim") is an attempt to model a real-life or hypothetical situation on a computer so that it can be studied to see how the system works. By changing variables in the simulation, predictions may be made about the behaviour of the system. It is a tool to virtually investigate the behaviour of the system under study. Computer simulation has become a useful part of modelling in engineering to gain insight into the operation of those systems. Computer simulation is often used as an adjunct to, or substitution for, modelling systems for which simple closed form analytic solutions are not possible. There are many different types of computer simulation; the common feature they all share is the attempt to generate a sample of representative scenarios for a model in which a complete enumeration of all possible states would be prohibitive or impossible. Modern usage of the term "computer simulation" may encompass virtually any computer-based representation. This method is better compared to the actual installation, plotting or making cardboard models as it very economical also you can simulate the production environment and calculate production, outputs distance travel of material. You can also check for any bottle necks in your design or idle times and make necessary changes instantly. If changes were to be made in actual installation, plotting or cardboard models it would require a lot of time and money and also generating multiple iterations for validation in these processes is not at all feasible. Hence, simulation is the best solution for data validation. There are many software’s available in market for simulation, in our project we made use of Autodesk’s Factory Design Suite (FDS) to simulate our designs. In magflow where space was becoming a primary concern for actual plotting and actual installation was not possible computer simulation proved very helpful for us to analyse our designs and make necessary improvements.
  82. 82. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 63 Fig. 5.4 Magflow Coil Winding Area Fig. 5.5 Magflow Welding Area
  83. 83. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 64 Fig. 5.6 Magflow Hydro Test Area Fig. 5.7 Overview - Magflow Floor Area
  84. 84. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 65 Fig. 5.8 Overview - Vortex Floor Area Fig. 5.9 Vortex Welding Area Fig. 5.10 Vortex Potting And Assembly Station
  85. 85. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 66 5.2 MATERIAL DISTANCE TRAVELLED FOR NEW LAYOUTS 5.2.1 MAGFLOW Process Description Distance Travelled in mm Sr.N O From To 1 RMS Welding work Table NIL 2 Welding work Table Welding Positioner 830.59 3 Welding Positioner Welding work Table 830.59 4 Welding work Table PTFE cutting 2987.07 5 PTFE cutting PTFE Crowning Table 1227.94 6 PTFE Crowning Table Hydraulic Press 2241 7 Hydraulic Press Coning and Forming 1622.67 8 Coning and Forming PTFE Cooling 1567.59 9 PTFE Cooling Electrode Assembly 2191.41 10 Electrode Assembly Hydro Testing 1559.39 11 Hydro Testing Twin Spot Welding 1728.46 12 Twin Spot Welding Coil Fitting 1669.26 13 Coil Fitting Housing Welding Area 2883.74 14 Housing Welding Area Masking Table 5997.58 15 Masking Table Sand Blasting 4426.8 16 Sand Blasting Connection Box Ass-I 15948.7 17 Connection Box Ass-I Paint Kitchen 5825.45 18 Paint Kitchen Connection Box Ass- II 5825.45 19 Connection Box Ass- II Calibration Rig 20488.8 20 Calibration Rig Final Finishing 25029 21 Final Finishing Packaging 2096 22 Packaging FGS NIL TOTAL 106.97 meter Table 5.1 Material Distance Travelled – New Magflow Meter Layout
  86. 86. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 67 5.2.2 VORTEX FLOW METER Sr.N o Process Description Distance Travelled in mm From To 1 RMS Material Storage Rack NIL 2 Material Storage Rack Welding Table 775.55 3 Welding Table Rotor 1010.47 4 Rotor OSP (till lift) 11454.42 5 OSP (till lift) Primary Ass Workstation 6403.7 6 Primary Ass Workstation Hydro Testing M/c 1620.3 7 Hydro Testing M/c Calibration Rig 7077.69 8 Calibration Rig Final Assembly 8106.04 9 Final Assembly Elex Assembly 617.94 10 Elex Assembly FGS / Inspection Rack NIL TOTAL 37.06 meter Table 5.2 Material Distance Travelled – New Vortex Flowmeter Layout
  87. 87. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 68 5.2.3 VA FLOW METER Sr.No Process Description Distance Travelled in mm From To 1 RMS Material Storage Rack NIL 2 Material Storage Rack Assembly and Rotor 962.2 3 Assembly and Rotor Automatic Welding m/c 1744.77 4 Automatic Welding m/c Stud Welding 1825.09 5 Stud Welding Sand Blasting 3358.88 6 Sand Blasting Hydro Testing m/c 1220 7 Hydro Testing m/c Assembly table 2798 8 Assembly table Press 907.47 9 Press Calibration Rig 4810.74 10 Calibration Rig-I Foba Plotter 1198.26 11 Foba Plotter Calibration Rig-II 1198.26 12 Calibration Rig-II Rack-1 1759.46 13 Rack-1 Esk assembly 3249.61 14 Esk assembly Final Finishing 1700 15 Final Finishing Number Punching 764.96 16 Number Punching Rack-2 1084.55 17 Rack-2 FGS NIL 28582.25 TOTAL 28.58 meter Table 5.3 Material Distance Travelled – New VA Meter Layout
  88. 88. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 69 CHAPTER 6 ADVANTAGES
  89. 89. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 70 1. PRODUCT DISTANCE TRAVELLED MINIMISED The comparison between distance travelled in the existing and new layout is given below MAGFLOW: Distance Travelled Reduction in distance travelled Existing Layout New Layout 130.71 meters 106.97 meter 18.16% VORTEX: Distance Travelled Reduction in distance travelled Existing Layout New Layout 79.46 meter 37.06 meter 53.30% VA METER: Distance Travelled Reduction in distance travelled Existing Layout New Layout 152.65 meter 28.58 meter 81.27% Due to the strategic placements of the machines and workstations and priority given to the material flow, this reduction in distance travelled could be achieved. This has given following benefits: 1. Reduced transportation cost 2. Reduced transportation time 3. Non value added activity is minimized, hence total activity cycle time has come down. 4. Physical and mental fatigue for the operators has been alleviated.
  90. 90. 2. SIMPLIFIED MATERIAL FLOW DIAGRAM 1) MAGFLOW Fig. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| SIMPLIFIED MATERIAL FLOW DIAGRAM MAGFLOW Fig. 6.1 Material Flow Path – Existing Magflow Meter Fig. 6.2 Material Flow Path – New Magflow Meter MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 71
  91. 91. 2) VA METER Fig. 6.3 Material Flow Path MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| VA METER Fig. 6.3 Material Flow Path – Existing VA Flow Meter Fig. 6.4 Material Flow Path – New VA Flow Meter MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 72
  92. 92. 3) VORTEX Fig. Fig. 6.6 A spaghetti plot (also known as a model) is a method of viewing data to visualize possible flows through systems. Flows depicted in this manner appear like noodles, hence the coining of this term. This method of statistics was first used to diagrams we can observe the change in the material flow in the new layouts as compared to the existing (old) ones. The flow is smoother and move in one direction as opposed to earlier layouts where the flow is very much random. Thus extra or unnecessary travel and time wastage in material handling is saved. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| VORTEX Fig. 6.5 Material Flow Path – Existing Vortex Flowmeter Fig. 6.6 Material Flow Path – New Vortex Flowmeter (also known as a spaghetti chart, spaghetti diagram ) is a method of viewing data to visualize possible flows through systems. Flows depicted in this manner appear like noodles, hence the coining of this term. This method of statistics was first used to track routing through factories diagrams we can observe the change in the material flow in the new layouts as compared to the existing (old) ones. The flow is smoother and move in one direction pposed to earlier layouts where the flow is very much random. Thus extra or unnecessary travel and time wastage in material handling is saved. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 73 spaghetti diagram, or spaghetti ) is a method of viewing data to visualize possible flows through systems. Flows depicted in this manner appear like noodles, hence the coining of this term. track routing through factories. In the above diagrams we can observe the change in the material flow in the new layouts as compared to the existing (old) ones. The flow is smoother and move in one direction pposed to earlier layouts where the flow is very much random. Thus extra or
  93. 93. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 74 3. Centralized FGS and RMS For all the three products, finished goods store (FGS) and raw materials store (RMS) has been located centrally in the facility. This has led to easy tracking and invoicing of the materials in FGS and RMS. There will be no obstruction to the production activities during procurement and delivery of the materials, which is there in the existing layout. 4. Provision for installation of ‘Water Spider’ concept in near future Water spider is a lean concept, in which a person does out a cycle work of getting materials for manufacturing, to remove finished goods and assisting the setups. With this concept taken into place, the workers would not need to move away from their workstations for non-production activities. As the internal and main gangways are provided into the new layout, installation of the ‘water spider’ would be easy. 5. Unidirectional flows in most of the production areas The main aim while designing the layout is to keep the flow unidirectional. Though there have been some exceptions to this due the process and machine placement constraints, most of the intra and inter department material flow has been kept unidirectional. This removes the obstruction in material movement and has avoided the complex cross flows. 6. Adequate space provided around the machines and workstations for maintenance activities and free movement of the operators.
  94. 94. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 75 From the process study of the existing layout, it had been observed that few critical production areas were congested. This restricts the operator movement and hampers the productivity. In the new layout, such areas are identified and ample space has been allocated for maintenance and movement of the workers. 7. Considerations for safety against electrical hazards. High voltage appliances such as automatic welding machines, new PTFE lining setup, sand blasting machines are placed adjacent to the walls to minimise the wirings risks and ultimately reducing the electrical hazards. This has given another benefit of reduction in cost for the setups due short wire arrangements. 8. Reduced WIP inventory storages The unnecessary work in progress (WIP) inventory storages such as racks, trollies are removed. Only the optimum space for the WIP inventory is allocated which will facilitate the day’s or in some cases week’s production demand. This facilitates the ease in the production activities. During the brainstorming session for layout designing, it had been decided to keep the shop floor clear strictly for the production activities not the inventory activities. With the adherence to this decision, WIP inventory storages are minimised. 9. Considerations for emergency exits At least two exits are provided for each of the production floors. The arrangement of the gangways is such that the internal gangways are connected to the main gangways which lead to the exit ways towards main entrances.
  95. 95. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 76 10. Documentation and data creation With this project taking place, the documentations of following entities is created, which was not into existence before – detailed measurements of the workstations and the machines, 3D CATIA models for the same, material distance travel, 3D layouts of the shop floors. This documentation would be helpful to implement the improvement activities in near future. 11. Strategic prepositioning of the tools near workstations The tools needed for various activities are positioned such as it won’t affect the movement of the material flow but their location is adjacent to the workstations. Such Prepositioning of the tools reduces the mental as well as physical fatigue caused to the operator to find and fetch the tools.
  96. 96. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 77 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION
  97. 97. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 78 7.1 CONCLUSION The new layout designed for the organisation has extended their capacity to suffice the needs in the future, for the next five years the company can take up new orders without having to worry about the production. The production facility is designed to take up loads without failing and compromising their quality standards. We have designed and developed a new layout in minimum time and without any major costs incurred, this is the most important part concerning to any industry where every minute and every penny spent makes an impact on the Company as a whole. This new production layout has reduced the material handling as compared to the earlier models which is beneficial for the company, the time saved in material handling can be further utilised to keep up the production. Basically we have become quite successful to achieve the objectives required by the company and in the process we have had opportunities to learn about the Industries and their working. Studying a production facility working on this big scale has helped us obtain a better perspective of things. Also, we have had opportunity to apply our skills and knowledge from Engineering on a large scale and to verify them.
  98. 98. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 79 REFERENCES
  99. 99. MODIFICATION AND EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION LAYOUT P.V.P.I.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering| 80 • Plant location and layout, Equipment selection, Maintenance planning: A Muhlemann, J Oakland and K Lockyer, Productions and Operations Management, Macmillan. Chapter 11, 12, 13 and 14 • Value analysis and value engineering: Yoshihiko Sato and J. J. Karufman; Value analysis tear-down: a new process for product development and innovation • Tompkins, J. A., 2003. Facilities planning. New York: John Willey and Son. • A Proposed Study on Facility Planning and Design in Manufacturing Process, Proceedings of International Multi Conference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2010 VOL III , IMECS 2010, March 17-19,2010,HK • Layout Redesigning Using The Approach Of Lean Line Design In A Manufacturing Industry, THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT, ISSN 2277-5846 • A model for effective development of plant layouts and material handling systems, vaxjo university, Daniel Bäck, Peter Johansson, Department of Terotechnology • Facility Planning: An approach to optimize a distribution network at Clover SA by ILSE GRASSIE,26033942 • Hassan, M.M.D., (2002), “A framework for the design of warehouse layout”, • Facilities, Vol. 20, No. 13/14, pp. 432-440 • Kerns, F., (1999), “Strategic facility planning”, Work Study, Vol. 48, No. 5, pp. 176-181. • Chien, T., (2004), “An empirical study of facility layout using a modified SLP • Procedure”, Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 455-465.

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