Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

COST ESTIMATION OF SMALL HYDRO POWER GENERATION

11,278 views

Published on

R. Montanari [4] in his paper presents an original method for finding the most economically advantageous choice for the installation of micro hydroelectric plants. More precisely, the paper that follows is to be considered in a context defined as “problematic” by those who have the job of constructing water-flow plants with only small head and modest flow rates. Traditional plant solutions using Kaplan or Francis type turbines must be rejected because of the high levels of initial investments. Much more simple configurations must be analyzed, such as plants with propeller turbines or Michel–Banki turbines, in order to reduce the investment costs. The general methodology applied provides a powerful decision-making instrument which is able to define the best plant configuration. The method is based on the use of economic profitability indicators, such as the Net Present Value (NPV), calculated using the plant project parameters, the nominal flow rate and head, and the particular hydrologic characteristics of the site, such as the type of distribution, the average value and the standard deviation of the flow rates in the course of water supplying the plant
S.M.H. Hosseinia, F. Forouzbakhshb, M. Rahimpoor [6] in their paper a method to calculate the annual energy has presented, as is the program developed using Excel software. This program analyzes and estimates the most important economic indices of a small hydro power plant using the sensitivity analysis method. Another program, developed by Mat lab software, calculates the reliability indices for a number of units of a small hydro power plant with a specified load duration curve using the Monte Carlo method. Ultimately, comparing the technical, economic and reliability indices will determine the optimal installation capacity of a small hydro power plant.
S.K. Singal and R.P.Saini [9] has presented methodology to determine the correlations for the cost of different components of canal based small hydro power schemes. The cost based on the developed correlations, having different head and capacity, has been compared with the available cost data of the existing hydropower stations. It has been found that these correlations can be used reasonably for the estimation of cost of new canal-based SHP schemes.

Published in: Engineering
  • Increasing Sex Drive And Getting Harder Erections, Naturally ♥♥♥ https://tinyurl.com/yy3nfggr
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

COST ESTIMATION OF SMALL HYDRO POWER GENERATION

  1. 1. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars MINOR PROJECT REPORT ON COST ESTIMATION OF SMALL HYDRO POWER GENERATION Submitted in partial fulfilment of the award of Degree of Master of Technology in Energy Management SUBMITTED BY SANJAY KUMAR GUIDED BY Dr. S.P.SINGH PROFESSOR & HEAD S E E S SCHOOL OF ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (FACULTY OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES) DEVI AHILYA VISHWA VIDYALAYA, INDORE 452 017 Project Report By Sanjay Kumar
  2. 2. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I avail this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude and profound thanks to my Project guide Dr. S.P.Singh, Professor & Head, School of Energy & Environmental Studies (SEES), DAVV, Indore and Mr.Rajesh Singadiya, Lecturer, SEES for giving me constant guidance to work on Minor Project on cost estimation of small hydro power generation. He has been a guiding source by providing continuous suggestions and advice throughout the study period of the Project. With heartfelt gratitude, I acknowledge the cooperation and support rendered to me by Dr. R.N.Singh, Professor, SEES and Dr. (Mrs) Rubina Choudhary, of SEES from time to time. I would also take this opportunity to thank my family members, close friend Mr.Sachin Mishra and classmates, who have been a source of moral support and continuous encouragement in undertaking this Project work. Project Report By Sanjay Kumar Sanjay Kumar
  3. 3. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Project titled “COST ESTIMATION OF SMALL HYDRO POWER GENERATION” being submitted by me to the School of Energy & Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishawavidyalaya, Indore is a record of the original bonafide project work carried out by me and the results presented in this Project Report have not been submitted in part or full to any other University or Institution for the award of any degree. Date: SANJAY KUMAR Project Report By Sanjay Kumar
  4. 4. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars SCHOOL OF ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (FACULTY OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES) DEVI AHILYA VISHWA VIDYALAYA INDORE 452 017 CERTIFICATE The Project titled “COST ESTIMATION OF SMALL HYDRO POWER GENERATION” Submitted by Mr. Sanjay Kumar, who has worked under my guidance, is approved for the submission for the partial fulfillment of the degree of Master of Technology in Energy Management. Project Report By Sanjay Kumar Date: Dr S.P.Singh Professor & Head School of Energy &
  5. 5. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars Project Report By Sanjay Kumar Environmental Studies CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1 INTRODUCTION Hydropower is a renewable, non-polluting and environmentally benign source of energy. It is perhaps the oldest renewable energy technique known to the mankind for mechanical energy conversion as well as electricity generation. Hydropower represents use of water resources towards inflation free energy due to absence of fuel cost with mature technology characterized by highest prime moving efficiency and spectacular operational flexibility. Hydropower contributes around 22% of the World electricity supply generated from about 7,50,000 MW of installed capacity and in many countries, it is the main source of power generation e.g. Norway – 99%, Brazil- 86%, Switzerland – 76% and Sweden – 50%[25]. Power generating total installed capacity in India is 1, 27,056 MW, which includes 32,442.5 MW from hydro. Despite hydroelectric projects being recognized as the most economic and preferred source of electricity, the share of hydropower in India has been declining since 1963. The hydro share declined from 50% in 1963 to about 26% in 2005. For grid stability the ideal hydro-thermal mix ratio is 40:60. It is therefore, necessary to correct the hydro-thermal mix to meet the grid requirements and peak power shortage. The Government of India has announced, in August, 1998 Policy on Hydro Power Development, followed by 50,000 MW hydro-electric initiatives in May, 2003. About 70% of the population in India lives in rural areas. The rural energy scenario is characterized by inadequate, poor and unreliable supply of energy services. Realizing the
  6. 6. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars fact that small hydropower projects can provide a solution for the energy problem in rural, remote and hilly areas where extension of grid system is comparatively uneconomical and also along the canal systems having sufficient drops, promoting small and mini Hydro projects is one of the objectives of the Policy on Hydro Power Development in India. In addition, 56 number of pumped storage projects have also been identified with probable installed capacity of 94,000 MW .in addition to this, hydro-potential from small, mini& micro schemes has been estimated as 15000 MW. Thus in totality India is endowed with hydro-potential of about 2, 50,000 MW. The status of hydropower potential in India is given in Table1.1 Hydro is many times a cheaper option for the country compared to thermal power due to the following reasons: a. Life of hydro plants is 60 years minimum ,against 30 years that of thermal plants b. Against zero cost input in case of hydro ,constant escalation in cost of coal makes the operational cost of Thermal ever increasing c. Load carrying capacity of the grid and hence its economy improves with the peaking partnership of Hydro,reducing backing down of thermal plants and therefore increasing their PLF and efficiency Project Report By Sanjay Kumar
  7. 7. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars Table No.1.1 Status of Hydro Electric Potential Development [24] ( In terms of Installed capacity) - As on 30.4.2010 Project Report By Sanjay Kumar Region/state Indentified capacity as per re-assessment study Capacity developed Capacity under Construction Capacity developed+ capacity under construction Capacity yet to be developed NORTHERN (MW) (MW) % (MW ) % (MW) % (MW) % Jammu&kashmir 14146 1864.2 13.18 899.0 6.36 2763.2 19.53 11382.9 80.47 Himachal Pradesh 18820 6085.5 32.34 4435.0 23.57 10520.5 55.90 8299.6 44.10 Punjab 971 1297.7 100.00 0.00 0.00 1297.7 133.64 0.00 0.00 Haryana 64 62.4 97.50 0.00 0.00 62.4 97.50 1.6 2.50 Rajasthan 496 430.0 86.69 0.00 0.00 430.0 86.69 66.0 13.31 Uttaranchal 18175 3056.1 16.81 1850.0 10.18 4906.1 26.99 13269.0 73.01 Uttar Pradesh 723 510.2 70.57 0.00 0.00 510.0 70.57 212.8 29.43 Sub Total (NR) 53395 13305.9 24.92 7184.0 13.45 20489.9 38.37 32905.1 61.63 WESTERN (MW) (MW) % (MW ) % (MW) % (MW) % Madhya Pradesh. 2243 2438.5 108.72 400.0 17.83 2838.5 100.00 0.0 0.00 Chhattisgarh 2242 137.0 6.11 0.00 0.00 137.0 6.11 2105.0 93.89 Gujarat 619 555.0 89.66 0.00 0.00 555.0 89.66 64.00 10.34 Maharashtra 3769 2653.3 70.40 0.00 0.00 2653.3 70.40 1115.7 29.60 Goa 55 0.00 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 55.0 100.00 Sub total (WR) 8928 5783.8 64.78 400.0 4.48 6183.8 69.26 2744.2 30.74 SOUTHERN (MW) (MW) % (MW ) % (MW) % (MW) % Andhra Pradesh 4424 2056.5 46.49 605.0 13.68 2661.5 60.16 1762.5 39.84 Karnataka 6602 3448.3 52.23 230.0 3.48 3678.3 55.71 2923.7 44.29 Kerala 3514 1838.5 52.32 160.0 4.55 1998.5 56.87 1515.5 43.13 Tamilnadu 1918 1757.5 91.63 60.0 3.13 1817.5 94.76 100.6 5.24 Sub Total (SR) 16458 9100.8 55.30 1055.0 6.41 10155.8 61.71 6302.3 38.29 EASTERN (MW) (MW) % (MW ) % (MW) % (MW) % Jharkhand 753 237.2 31.50 0.0 0.00 237.2 31.50 515.8 68.50 Bihar 70 44.9 64.14 0.0 0.00 44.9 64.14 25.1 35.86 Orissa 2999 2011.5 67.07 0.00 0.00 2011.5 67.07 987.5 32.93 West Bengal 2841 156.5 5.51 292.0 10.28 448.5 15.79 2392.5 84.21 Sikkim 4286 594.0 13.86 1919.0 44.77 2513.0 58.63 1773.0 41.37 A& Nicobar 0 5.3 Sub Total (ER) 10949 3049.4 27.85 2211.0 20.19 5260.4 48.04 5688.7 51.96 NORTH EASTERN (MW) (MW) % (MW ) % (MW) % (MW) % Meghalaya 2394 185.2 7.74 124.0 5.18 309.2 12.92 2084.8 87.08 Tripura 15 15.0 100.00 0.0 0.00 15.0 100.00 0.0 0.00
  8. 8. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars Manipur 1784 105.0 5.89 0.0 0.00 105.0 5.89 1679.0 94.11 Assam 680 375.0 55.15 0.0 0.00 375.0 55.15 305.0 44.85 Nagaland 1574 99.0 6.29 0.0 0.00 99.0 6.29 1475.0 93.71 Arunachal Pd 50328 423.5 0.84 2600.0 5.17 3023.5 6.01 47304.5 93.99 Mizoram 2196 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 2196.0 100.0 Sub Total (NER) 58971 1202.7 2.04 2724.0 4.62 3926.7 6.66 55044.3 93.34 ALL INDIA 148701 32442.5 21.82 13574.0 9.13 46016.5 30.95 102684.5 69.05 1.2 SMALL HYDRO POWER Small hydro power (SHP) is one of the most common renewable, economic, non-consumptive, non-radioactive, non-polluting and environmentally benign sources of energy. India has a century old history of hydropower and the beginning was from small hydro. The first hydro power plant was of 130 KW set up in Darjeeling during 1897, marked the development of hydropower in the country. With the advancement of technology, and increasing requirement of electricity, the thrust of electricity generation was shifted to large size hydro and thermal power stations. However, during the last 10- 15 years there is a renewed interest in the development of small hydro power projects due to its benefits particularly concerning environment and ability to produce power in remote areas. Small hydro projects are economically viable and have relatively short gestation period. The major constraints associated with large hydro projects are usually not encountered in small hydro projects. The World estimated potential of small hydro is of around 180,000 MW. India has as an estimated potential of about 15,000 MW with perennial flow rivers, streams and a large irrigation canal network with dams & barrages. Of this, 4,861 potential sites with an aggregate capacity of 12841.81 MW have been identified. The advantages and SWOT analysis are given below [27].and state wide identified of small hydropower is given in Table1.2; small hydro scene up to 25 MW is given in table1.3. 1.2.1 Small hydro advantages 1. A fast way to increase rural electrification, improved living standards and simulation of rural industries Project Report By Sanjay Kumar
  9. 9. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars 2. Flexibility of installation and operation in an isolated mode and also in a localized or regional grid system 3. Relatively small investments required as compared to large hydro 4. Low operational cost with cheap and simple maintenance 5. Standard indigenous technologies and maintenance base available which require only minor adaptation to specific site condition 6. Compatible with use of water for other purposes such as irrigation , drinking etc 7. Long life of 30- 40 years 8. Perennial source of income generation 1.2.2 SWOT analysis of Small Hydro Power Strengths  Utilizes highest density renewable energy source  Non-consumptive, non – polluting and environmentally benign  Low gestation schemes  Private sector policy is in position in 14 states of India  Reliable and mature technology available in India Project Report By Sanjay Kumar Weakness  Non – availability of pre- investment study reports of newly identified sites  Single window clearance facility not functional in all states  Non – uniformity of wheeling & banking facility  Non – uniformity of buy back and third party sale  Water royalty charged from private entrepreneurs Opportunities  Estimated potential 15,000 MW of which 12,841MW has been developed  International assistance available  Power deficit / decentralized power requirement  Attractive proposition for captive power Threats  Economics depends on government policies
  10. 10. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars  Hilly hydro face problems of land slides, uplift pressures, differential settlements, Project Report By Sanjay Kumar flash floods etc.  Rapid wear of equipment due to high concentration of sediment in the streams Table 1.2 State wise identified small hydropower sites up to 25 MW capacity (As on 30/04/2010) [24] Sl. No. Name of state Installed SHP Projects Under Construction Projects Identified Potential Sites No. MW No. MW No. MW 1 Andhra Pradesh 75 214.64 45 97.85 376 247.70 2 Arunachal Pradesh 82 48.94 25 40.22 443 1239.53 3 Assam 3 2.11 17 73.70 99 162.88 4 Bihar 8 50.90 13 13.00 74 149.35 5 Chhattisgarh 4 18.00 34 410.70 146 564.41 6 Goa 1 0.05 4 4.45 1 2.00 7 Gujarat 2 7.00 3 3.60 287 186.37 8 Haryana 5 62.70 5 10.80 23 36.55 9 Himachal Pradesh 67 184.78 13 64.00 456 2019.03 10 Jammu & Kashmir 31 114.00 7 9.37 208 1294.43 11 Jharkhand 6 4.05 8 34.85 89 170.05 12 Karnataka 94 592.80 29 123.59 15 31.20 13 Kerala 18 119.27 22 135.30 205 449.53 14 Madhya Pradesh 9 33.15 5 41.10 285 729.39 15 Maharashtra 33 246.63 3 13.50 219 472.50 16 Manipur 11 7.13 4 10.25 99 91.75 17 Meghalaya 3 30.70 8 1.78 90 197.32 18 Mizoram 17 14.81 5 16.20 53 135.93 19 Nagaland 9 20.67 6 19.00 84 149.31 20 Orissa 6 7.30 10 70.18 206 217.99 21 Punjab 33 125.75 0 0.00 204 267.48 22 Rajasthan 9 23.85 2 5.50 55 27.82
  11. 11. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars 23 Sikkim 16 38.82 5 12.40 70 214.33 24 Tamil Nadu 15 100.30 12 77.80 170 481.41 25 Tripura 3 16.01 0 0.00 10 30.85 26 UT (A & N Islands) 1 5.25 6 2.02 0 0.00 27 Uttar Pradesh 9 25.10 0 0.00 242 435.65 28 Uttarakhand 91 85.71 35 56.75 318 1434.99 29 West Bengal 45 101.35 17 81.25 141 213.52 TOTAL 674 2429.77 343 1429.15 5415 14,305.47 Table 1.3 small hydro (up to 25mw) scenario [24] Overall potential 15,000 MW Identified potential 14305.47 MW (5415 sites) Installed capacity 2045.61MW Under construction 1429.15 MW (343 projects) Capacity addition during 2002-2007 Over 500 MW Target capacity addition – 11th Plan 1400 MW (2007-2012) 1.3 DEFINITION OF SMALL HYDRO POWER There is a general tendency all over the world to define Small Hydropower by the power output. Different countries follow different norms, the upper limit ranges between 5 to 50 MW, as given in the Table.1.4 Table 1.4 Worldwide definitions of SHP [23] Country Capacity (MW) UK ≤ 5 UNIDO ≤ 10 Project Report By Sanjay Kumar
  12. 12. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars Sweden ≤ 15 Colombia ≤ 20 Australia ≤ 20 India ≤ 25 China ≤ 25 Philippines ≤ 50 New Zealand ≤ 50 In India, out of 150,000 MW hydropower potential, 15,000 MW potential is estimated as small hydro, of which about 12% has been tapped so far. In India, SHP schemes are classified by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) as given in the Table1.5 Power stations are also classified based on the head available and is given in Table1.6 Table 1.5 Classification of Small Hydro Power schemes in India [23] Type Station capacity Unit rating Micro Up to 100 kW Up to 100 kW Mini 101 to 2000 kW 101 to 1000 kW Small 2001 to 25000 kW 1001 to 5000 kW Table 1.6 Small Hydro Power Classification based on head [23] Type Range of Head Ultra Low Head Below 3 m Project Report By Sanjay Kumar
  13. 13. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars Low Head 3 to 40 m Medium/ High Head Above 40 m 1.4 TYPES OF SHP SCHEMES Small Hydropower can also be broadly categorized in three types as follows: 1. Run of River schemes 2. Canal based schemes 3. Dam toe based schemes 1.4.1 Run-Of River Scheme Run-of-River hydroelectric schemes are those, in which water is diverted towards power house, as it comes in the stream. Practically, water is not stored during flood periods as well as during low electricity demand periods, hence water is wasted. Seasonal changes in river flow and weather conditions affect the plant’s output. After power generation water is again discharged back to the stream. Generally, these are high head and low discharge schemes. The typical run-of river scheme is shown in Fig. 1.1. Fig.1.1 Typical arrangement of run-off river scheme [23] Project Report By Sanjay Kumar 1.4.2 Canal Based Scheme
  14. 14. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars Canal based small hydropower scheme is planned to generate power by utilizing the fall in the canal. These schemes may be planned in the canal itself or in the bye pass channel. These are low head and high discharge schemes. These schemes are associated with advantages such as low gestation period, simple layout, no submergence and rehabilitation problems and practically no environmental problems. The typical canal based scheme is shown in Fig.1.2 Fig.1.2 Typical arrangement of canal based scheme [23] Project Report By Sanjay Kumar 1.4.3 Dam Toe Based Scheme Dam based schemes are those in which water is stored in the river by constructing a dam across the river and the power is generated by controlled flow from the storage.dam toe powerhouse is common in India. In dam toe scheme, the intake system forms the part of the main dam. The typical layout of dam based small hydropower scheme is shown in fig1.3
  15. 15. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars Fig. 1.3 Typical arrangement of dam toe based scheme [23] 1.5 LITERATURE REVIEW Earlier author has carried out work in the past on sizing and cost of small hydro power projects and literature available in journals and other publications has been studied. The important literature is presented as follows 1.5.1 LITERATURE REVIEW ON COST F. Forouzbakhsh, S.M.H. Hosseini, and M. Vakilian [1] in their paper reviews the structure of BOT contracts and through an economic evaluation based on different percentage of investments of private sector in providing the expenses of small and medium hydro-power plants, demonstrates that by increasing the percentage the share of the private sector in the investment, the economic indices B/C and NPV improve substantially. Oliver Paish [8] in his paper summarizes the different small hydro technologies, new innovations being developed, and the barriers to further development Small-scale hydro is in most cases “run-of-river”, with no dam or water storage, and is one of the most cost-effective and environmentally benign energy technologies to be considered both for rural electrification in less developed countries and further hydro developments in Europe. Project Report By Sanjay Kumar
  16. 16. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars R. Montanari [4] in his paper presents an original method for finding the most economically advantageous choice for the installation of micro hydroelectric plants. More precisely, the paper that follows is to be considered in a context defined as “problematic” by those who have the job of constructing water-flow plants with only small head and modest flow rates. Traditional plant solutions using Kaplan or Francis type turbines must be rejected because of the high levels of initial investments. Much more simple configurations must be analyzed, such as plants with propeller turbines or Michel–Banki turbines, in order to reduce the investment costs. The general methodology applied provides a powerful decision-making instrument which is able to define the best plant configuration. The method is based on the use of economic profitability indicators, such as the Net Present Value (NPV), calculated using the plant project parameters, the nominal flow rate and head, and the particular hydrologic characteristics of the site, such as the type of distribution, the average value and the standard deviation of the flow rates in the course of water supplying the plant S.M.H. Hosseinia, F. Forouzbakhshb, M. Rahimpoor [6] in their paper a method to calculate the annual energy has presented, as is the program developed using Excel software. This program analyzes and estimates the most important economic indices of a small hydro power plant using the sensitivity analysis method. Another program, developed by Mat lab software, calculates the reliability indices for a number of units of a small hydro power plant with a specified load duration curve using the Monte Carlo method. Ultimately, comparing the technical, economic and reliability indices will determine the optimal installation capacity of a small hydro power plant. S.K. Singal and R.P.Saini [9] has presented methodology to determine the correlations for the cost of different components of canal based small hydro power schemes. The cost based on the developed correlations, having different head and capacity, has been compared with the available cost data of the existing hydropower stations. It has been found that these correlations can be used reasonably for the estimation of cost of new canal-based SHP schemes. .1.5.2 LITERATURE REVIEW ON SIZING Project Report By Sanjay Kumar
  17. 17. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars John S. Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris E. Papantonis [13] in their paper the sizing of a small hydropower plant of the run-of-river type is very critical for the cost effectiveness of the investment. In the present work, a numerical method is used for the optimal sizing of such a plant that comprises two hydraulic turbines operating in parallel, which can be of different type and size in order to improve its efficiency. The study and analysis of the plant performance is conducted using a newly developed evaluation algorithm that simulates in detail the plant operation during the year and computes its production results and economic indices. A parametric study is performed first in order to quantify the impact of some important construction and operation factors. Next, a stochastic evolutionary algorithm is implemented for the optimization process. Analyzing the results of various optimizations runs, it becomes possible to identify the most advantageous design alternatives to realize the project. It was found that the use of two turbines of different size can enhance sufficiently both the energy production of the plant and the economic results of the investment. Finally, the sensitivity of the plant performance to other external parameters can be easily studied with the present method, and some indicative results are given for different financial or hydrologic conditions K.V.Alexander, E.P.Giddens [5] in their paper an overview of a program that is in the final stages of developing a modular set of cost-effective micro hydro schemes for site heads below those currently serviced by Pelton Wheels. The rationale has been that there is a multitude of viable low-head sites in isolated areas where micro hydro is a realistic energy option, and where conventional economics are not appropriate, especially in Third World countries. The goals of this project have been to provide low-cost, soundly based turbine design solutions that systematically cover the 0.2–20kW supply, that are uniquely resistant to debris blockage and are easily built by tradesmen of medium skills in regional workshops. The paper presents the results as a matrix of the most cost-effective penstocks matched to modular turbines using established electronic controls. It discusses practical issues of site selection and options for sites where exact matches are not achieved. N.G. Voros, C.T. Kiranoudis, Z.B. Maroulis[14] in their paper the problem of designing small hydroelectric plants has been properly analyzed and addressed in terms of maximizing the economic benefits of the investment. An appropriate empirical model Project Report By Sanjay Kumar
  18. 18. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars describing hydro turbine efficiency was developed. An overall plant model was introduced by taking into account their construction characteristics and operational performance. The hydro geographical characteristics for a wide range of sites have been appropriately analyzed and a model that involves significant physical parameters has been developed. The design problem was formulated as a mathematical programming problem, and solved using appropriate programming techniques. The optimization covered a wide range of site characteristics and three types of commercially available hydro turbines. The Methodology introduced an empirical short-cut design equation for the determination of the optimum nominal flow rate of the hydro turbines and the estimation of the expected unit cost of electricity produced, as well as of the potential amount of annually recovered energy. S.K. Singal and Varun [10] in his paper planning and designs of small hydroelectric schemes is an evolving process leading to safe and cost effective refinements in designs. The major factor for high cost of civil works of the these schemes is conventional designs coming out of designers with a mind set, that of miniaturizing a major hydro model for small/mini hydro, there-by including many of the components not required or used in small hydro operation at all. First and foremost step needed is to break this mindset and reduce the civil cost of small hydro projects by innovative and practical designs. The lesson learnt from the experience and use of new technologies make small hydropower plants economically viable. Use of local materials and site-specific design/solutions make the scheme cost effective and reduce the operation and maintenance cost 1.6 OBJECTIVE OF PRESENT STUDY The problem associated with Small Hydro is initial capital cost which becomes the overriding issue. Each proposed site requires individual engineering considerations for civil works as well as for equipment. Therefore, costs become infeasible due to lack of standardization of the system for such a small power generation. Project Report By Sanjay Kumar
  19. 19. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars Cost effective small hydro would depend largely on proper selection of site, good planning of the layout of the scheme on optimization basis, competent hydrological and power potential studies, careful and correct designs of structures, proper estimates with realistic rates and use of construction techniques appropriate to small hydro and efficient execution. In the present study has been carried out to considering following 1. To study various components of SHP schemes 2. To identify cost sensitive parameters 3. To carry out sizing of components of civil works 4. To determine cost of components of civil works based on actual based on actual quantity and prevailing rates. 5. To determine the correlations for cost of components. 6. Using linear optimization optimum layout was selected Project Report By Sanjay Kumar
  20. 20. Technofriendz A community of technical scholars For More About Electrical Engineering visit Technofriendz A community of technical scholars technofriendz.weebly.com Project Report By Sanjay Kumar

×