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LAURIE BAKER
(THE BRICK MASTER OF KERALA)
Submitted By:-
Pragyaa
Vashishtha
Trishanjit Singh
Submitted To:-
Ar. J. M. Dugg...
:
:
 LAURIE BAKER WAS AN AWARD-WINNING BRITISH-BORN INDIAN ARCHITECT, RENOWNED
FORHIS INITIATIVES IN COST-EFFECTIVE ENERGY-EF...
• BAKERSTUDIED ARCHITECTUREAT BIRMINGHAMINSTITUTE OF
ART AND DESIGNAND GRADUATED IN 1937,AGE 20.
• HISINITIAL COMMITMENT T...
 BAKERFOUND HISENGLISHCONSTRUCTIONEDUCATIONTOBE INADEQUATE FORTHE
TYPESOF ISSUESANDMATERIALS HE HAS FACEDWITHTERMITESANDT...
 1938 ASSOCIATE OFTHEROYALINSTITUTE OFBRITISH
ARCHITECTS.
 1970 FELLOW OFINDIAN INSTITUTE OFARCHITECTS
 1983 MEMBEROF B...
 “ A SITEIS IDEAL ONLY INTHE UNDISTURBEDNATURALSTATEAND A BUILDING
MUSTRENEWAND REINFORCETHE ORIGINALSITE CONDITIONSINORD...
 ALWAYS STUDY YOUR SITE , SOIL, TOPOGRAPHY, WATER CLIMATE &
NEIGHBOURS (NOISY TEMPLES, SMELLY FACTORIES, ETC.)
 SEE POTE...
 ONE OF HIS INFLUENCESHAS BEENMAHATMA GANDHI, FOR
HIMPROPER DEVELOPMENTCAN BEDONE IF RAW MATERIAL IS
BROUGHTFROMA PLACE I...
A MAN WITHOUT BORDERS
THE MAINCHARACTERISTICSOF BAKER
ARCHITECTUREISTHAT “SMALLISNOT ONLY
BEAUTIFULBUT ISOFTENESSENTIALAND...
THROUGHOUTHIS PRACTICE,BAKER BECAME WELL KNOWN
FORDESIGNING AND BUILDING LOW COST,HIGH
QUALITY,BEAUTIFULHOMES,WITH A GREAT...
• HE USESEXTREMELYECONOMICALPRACTICES
WHICHTIMEHAS PROVEDTO BEGOODEFFECTIVE
ANDDURABLEANDALSOITISSENSIBLETO USE
ECONOMICAL...
• HE DESIGNSEVERY HOUSEGIVINGMINUTE
DETAILSTOALL THE CHARACTERSOF EACH
PERSONLIVINGINTHATHOUSE.FOR
EXAMPLEHE DESIGNANOPENI...
ANOTHERSIGNIFICANTBAKER FEATUREIS IRREGULAR, PYRAMID-LIKE
STRUCTURESON ROOFS,WITH ONESIDELEFT OPENAND TILTINGINTO
THE WIND...
 THE DESIGNOF THE CENTREFOR DEVELOPMENT
STUDIESDEMONSTRATESHOW BAKERISABLETO
TRANSFORMVERNACULARARCHITECTURETO
SUITTHE RE...
FILLER SLAB :
– 20-35% LESS MATERIALS
– DECORATIVE, ECONOMICAL & REDUCED SELF-LOAD
– ALMOST MAINTENANCE FREE
– 25-30% COST...
BAKER’S ARCHITECTURAL CREATIONS EXPANDS FROMA REMARKABLY
VARIED SPECTRUM OF PROJECTS RANGING FROMFISHERMEN’S VILLAGES
TO I...
WORKS
 The Hamlet (his residence)
 Fishermen’s village
 Centre for Development Studies, Ulloor
 Loyola Chapel and Audi...
Works
• Key features of his house are:
 All the walls are made of mud bricks.
 Timber salvaged from anold boat jetty
 One of ...
 These tiles, which normally would be thrown away, contribute to the strength of the roof, allow less of
the expensive co...
DRAWINGS
GROUND FLOOR
FIRST FLOOR
STEPS LEADING UP TO
FRONT DOOR A VIEWFROM THEOPPOSITE
SIDE
STEPS DIRECTLY CUT IN ROCK
ENTRANCE HAS SMALL
SITTING AREA FORGUESTS
THE WALL IS DECORATED
FROMBROKEN POTTERY,
PENS, GLASS
A CALLING BELL FOR
VISITOR...
USE OF NATURAL LIGHT
INNER COURTYARD …CLOSE TO NATURE
NEVERCUTTREESINSTEADADAPTED HISDESIGN
ACCORDINGLY
BAKER’S FONDNESS OF ARCHES
COURTYARD HAS MANY
GARDENS AND PONDS
Pitched roof made of
Mangalore tiles
GABLES FORPROPER AIR
CIRCULATION AND
VENTILATION
GRILL MADE OF
BITS AND PIECES
COST EFFECTIVE BAKER’S
WINDOW
Louveredwindow typical of baker’s
type
STAINED GLASS
EFFECT
WATER TANKFOR
STORINGRAIN
HARVESTED WATER
CHALLENGES:
 Severity of environment in which the tribal's live.
 Limitation of resources
 Conventional architects stay...
 Exposedbrickworkandstructure
 Slopedconcreteroof
 Opennessindesignandindividualunitsoffseteachother
 Continuouslattic...
• Low sloped roofs and courts serve as wind catchers
• Open walls functionto dispel it
• Long row of housingreplaced by ev...
• Little private rectangle of land in between houses for drying nets , kids
play,
• Provides sleeping lofts within and ade...
PLAN
CENTRE FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES
ULLOOR, TRIVANDRUM, 1971
Themostimportantprojectof baker’scareer.The
significanceofthis ass...
Here, atthesummit, thelibrarydominatesthecentre witha seven-storeytower;theadministrative
officesandclassroomsarescattered...
Building textures,configurationsandspanningelements demonstrateBaker’seasymanipulationof
brick,all ofwhich weremadeclose t...
LOYOLA CHAPEL AND AUDITORIUM
SREEKARAYAM, 1971
TheLoyolacomplex containsa high schoolandapost-graduate
complex, bothsharin...
Windowless cavity wall
Boththe walls werepiercedwitha continuousfloor-to-roofpatternofjalis,sothatthechapelwas
adequately,...
Thetotalcoveredareaofthe chapeland
auditoriumandthegallery is approximately930
squaremeters.Thecostin 1970-71,including th...
Laurie Baker
Laurie Baker
Laurie Baker
Laurie Baker
Laurie Baker
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Laurie Baker

Laurie Baker and his famous works

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Laurie Baker

  1. 1. LAURIE BAKER (THE BRICK MASTER OF KERALA) Submitted By:- Pragyaa Vashishtha Trishanjit Singh Submitted To:- Ar. J. M. Duggal
  2. 2. : :
  3. 3.  LAURIE BAKER WAS AN AWARD-WINNING BRITISH-BORN INDIAN ARCHITECT, RENOWNED FORHIS INITIATIVES IN COST-EFFECTIVE ENERGY-EFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE AND FORHIS UNIQUE SPACE UTILIZATION AND SIMPLE BUT BEAUTIFUL AESTHETIC SENSIBILITY. IN TIME HE MADE A NAME FORHIMSELF BOTH IN SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE AS WELL AS IN ORGANIC ARCHITECTURE.  HE WENT TO INDIA IN 1945 IN PART AS A MISSIONARY AND SINCE THEN LIVED AND WORKED IN INDIA FOR OVER50 YEARS. HE OBTAINED INDIAN CITIZENSHIP IN 1989 AND RESIDED IN TRIVANDRUM, KERALA, SINCE 1970, WHERE HE LATER SET UP AN ORGANIZATION CALLED COSTFORD (CENTRE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FORRURAL DEVELOPMENT), FOR SPREADING AWARENESS FORLOW COST HOUSING.
  4. 4. • BAKERSTUDIED ARCHITECTUREAT BIRMINGHAMINSTITUTE OF ART AND DESIGNAND GRADUATED IN 1937,AGE 20. • HISINITIAL COMMITMENT TO INDIA HADHIMWORKINGAS AN ARCHITECTFOR WORLDLEPROSYMISSION, AN INTERNATIONAL AND INTERDENOMINATIONAL MISSION DEDICATED TO THE CAREOFTHOSESUFFERING FROMLEPROSY IN1945. • AS NEW MEDICINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF THE DISEASE WERE BECOMING MOREPREVALENT, HIS RESPONSIBILITIES WERE FOCUSED ONCONVERTINGOR REPLACING ASYLUMS ONCEUSED TOHOUSE THE OSTRACIZEDSUFFERERS OF THE DISEASE - "LEPERS".
  5. 5.  BAKERFOUND HISENGLISHCONSTRUCTIONEDUCATIONTOBE INADEQUATE FORTHE TYPESOF ISSUESANDMATERIALS HE HAS FACEDWITHTERMITESANDTHE EARLY MONSOONASWELL ASLATERITECOWDUNGANDMUD WALLS  BAKERHADNOCHOICEBUT TOOBSERVEANDLEARNFROM THE METHODSAND PRACTICESOF THE VERNACULARARCHITECTURE.  HE SOONLEARNEDTHATTHE INDIGENOUSARCHITECTUREANDMETHODSOF THESE PLACESWEREINFACTTHE ONLY VIABLEMEANSTO DEALWITH HISONCE DAUNTING PROBLEMS.  INSPIREDBY HIS DISCOVERIESHE BEGANTO TURNHIS STYLEOF ARCHITECTURETOWARDS ONETHAT RESPECTEDTHE ACTUALCULTUREANDNEEDSOF THOSEWHO WOULD ACTUALLYUSEHIS BUILDINGS,RATHERTHAN JUSTPLAYINGTO THE MORE "MODERNISTIC"TUNESOF HIS PAYINGCLIENTS.
  6. 6.  1938 ASSOCIATE OFTHEROYALINSTITUTE OFBRITISH ARCHITECTS.  1970 FELLOW OFINDIAN INSTITUTE OFARCHITECTS  1983 MEMBEROF BRITISHEMPIRE.  1987 FIRST INDIAN NATIONAL HABITAT AWARD  1989 I.I.A. MEDAL FOROUTSTANDING ARCHITECTOF THEYEAR  1990 GREAT MASTERS ARCHITECTOFTHE YEAR. PADMA SHREE  1992 U.N.O. HABITATSAWARD U.N. ROLLOF HONOR  1993 INTERNATIONAL UNION OFARCHITECTS(I.U.A.) AWARD  1994 PEOPLE OF THEYEAR AWARD I.I.A. BABU RAO MAITRE GOLDMEDAL  1995 DOCTORATEOFUNIVERSITY OFCENTRAL ENGLAND.  2003 BASHEERPURASKARAM.
  7. 7.  “ A SITEIS IDEAL ONLY INTHE UNDISTURBEDNATURALSTATEAND A BUILDING MUSTRENEWAND REINFORCETHE ORIGINALSITE CONDITIONSINORDER TOBE ACCOMMODATED”  “ THE ARCHITECTURESHOULD MERGE WITH THE SURROUNDINGLANDSCAPE, RATHERTHAN STANDINGOUT.ITSHOULD NOTBE IN COMPETITIONWITHTHE NATURE,BUTIN HARMONYWITHIT”  “ THE ARCHITECTUREAT A PLACE SHOULD BE RESPONSIVETO THE CLIMATE, CONTEXTAND THE AVAILABLE RESOURCES– ITSHOULD BE FORTHE PEOPLE, THEIR NEEDS AND HOPES, IRRESPECTIVEOFTREND ORSTYLE".  “ THE OUTERFORM ALONE IS MEANINGLESS, ITHAS TOBE COMPLEMENTED OR OVERSHADOWED BYTHE INNERCONTENTSSINCE, THE SPATIALEXPERIENCE OF AN INHABITANTIS MORE IMPORTANTTHAN PUREVISUAL FORMS”.
  8. 8.  ALWAYS STUDY YOUR SITE , SOIL, TOPOGRAPHY, WATER CLIMATE & NEIGHBOURS (NOISY TEMPLES, SMELLY FACTORIES, ETC.)  SEE POTENTIAL SERVICES – WATER, DRAINAGE,ACCESS, POWER, FUEL, PHONE, ETC. IF NOT POSSIBLE OR AVAILABLE,WHAT WILL YOU DO?  EVERY BUILDING SHOULD BE UNIQUE NO TWO PEOPLE, OR FAMILIESETC. ARE ALIKE, SO WHY SHOULD THEIR HOMES ALLBETHE SAME?  STUDY & KNOW LOCAL MATERIALS– THEIR AVAILABILITY,PERFORMANCE, COSTS, TECHNIQUES & WORKMEN WHO KNOW HOW TO USE THEM.  MAKE COST-EFFICIENCY YOUR WAY OF LIFE – NOT MERELY “LOW COST FOR THE POOR”. PRACTICE WHAT YOU PREACH.
  9. 9.  ONE OF HIS INFLUENCESHAS BEENMAHATMA GANDHI, FOR HIMPROPER DEVELOPMENTCAN BEDONE IF RAW MATERIAL IS BROUGHTFROMA PLACE IN A RANGEOF 5-10 KMS.  HE CRITICIZEDTHE WORKSOF LE CORBUSIER,HIS STRUCTURES WERECHARACTERLESS. LAURIE BAKER’SARCHITECTUREWAS A CONTEMPORARY VERSION OF THE VERNACULAR.  ANOTHER INSPIRATION FOR HIMHAS BEENORDINARY MEN.
  10. 10. A MAN WITHOUT BORDERS THE MAINCHARACTERISTICSOF BAKER ARCHITECTUREISTHAT “SMALLISNOT ONLY BEAUTIFULBUT ISOFTENESSENTIALANDEVEN MOREIMPORTANT THAN LARGESTRUCTURES”
  11. 11. THROUGHOUTHIS PRACTICE,BAKER BECAME WELL KNOWN FORDESIGNING AND BUILDING LOW COST,HIGH QUALITY,BEAUTIFULHOMES,WITH A GREAT PORTION OF HISWORK SUITED TOOR BUILT FOR LOWER-MIDDLETO LOWER CLASSCLIENTS. HE DEVISEDHIS OWNSTYLETHAT HADHIS SIGNATUREOF STRUCTURALHONESTY, DESIGN INTEGRITYANDSUSTAINING QUALITY.HIS WORKSAREANACTOF INITIATIONFROM WITHINNOTOF INSTIGATION.
  12. 12. • HE USESEXTREMELYECONOMICALPRACTICES WHICHTIMEHAS PROVEDTO BEGOODEFFECTIVE ANDDURABLEANDALSOITISSENSIBLETO USE ECONOMICALLYAVAILABLEMATERIALSWHICH WOULDGIVEITANORIGINALCHARACTERTO THE ARCHITECTURE.
  13. 13. • HE DESIGNSEVERY HOUSEGIVINGMINUTE DETAILSTOALL THE CHARACTERSOF EACH PERSONLIVINGINTHATHOUSE.FOR EXAMPLEHE DESIGNANOPENINGOF BRICK WORKFOR THE PET INTHAT HOUSE.INTHE GIVENPICTUREWECANSEEADOGCRANING ITSNECKTHROUGH THE OPENINGANDGETS A0.GOODVIEWOF THE SURROUNDINGS.
  14. 14. ANOTHERSIGNIFICANTBAKER FEATUREIS IRREGULAR, PYRAMID-LIKE STRUCTURESON ROOFS,WITH ONESIDELEFT OPENAND TILTINGINTO THE WIND. BAKER'S DESIGNSINVARIABLY HAVE TRADITIONALINDIANSLOPING ROOFS AND TERRACOTTAMANGALORE TILE SHINGLING WITH GABLES AND VENTS ALLOWING RISINGHOT AIR TO ESCAPE.
  15. 15.  THE DESIGNOF THE CENTREFOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIESDEMONSTRATESHOW BAKERISABLETO TRANSFORMVERNACULARARCHITECTURETO SUITTHE REQUIREMENTSOF AMODERN ACADEMICINSTITUION. THISBUILDINGCONSISTSOF ALL THE ELEMENTS CHARACTERISTICOF BAKER’SSTYLE :-  THE JALIS  THE TRADITIONALROOFS  THE STEPPEDARCHES  THE OVERHANGINGEAVES  THE SKYLIGHTS
  16. 16. FILLER SLAB : – 20-35% LESS MATERIALS – DECORATIVE, ECONOMICAL & REDUCED SELF-LOAD – ALMOST MAINTENANCE FREE – 25-30% COSTREDUCTION JACK ARCH : – ENERGY SAVING & ECO-FRIENDLY COMPRESSIVE ROOFING. – DECORATIVE &HIGHLY ECONOMICAL – MAINTENANCE FREE MASONRY DOME : – ENERGY SAVING ECO-FRIENDLY COMPRESSIVE ROOF. – DECORATIVE &HIGHLY ECONOMICAL FOR LARGES SPANS. – MAINTENANCE FREE FUNICULAR SHELL : – ENERGY SAVING ECO-FRIENDLY COMPRESSIVE ROOF. – DECORATIVE &ECONOMICAL – MAINTENANCE FREE MASONRY ARCHES : – TRADITIONAL SPANNING SYSTEM. – HIGHLY DECORATIVE & ECONOMICAL – LESS ENERGY REQUIREMENT.
  17. 17. BAKER’S ARCHITECTURAL CREATIONS EXPANDS FROMA REMARKABLY VARIED SPECTRUM OF PROJECTS RANGING FROMFISHERMEN’S VILLAGES TO INSTITUTIONAL COMPLEXES & FROM LOW COST MUD HOUSING SCHEMES TO LOW COST CATHEDRALS. HIS WORKS INCLUDE FORTYCHURCHES, NUMEROUS SCHOOLS, INSTITUTIONS,RESIDENCES & HOSPITALS
  18. 18. WORKS  The Hamlet (his residence)  Fishermen’s village  Centre for Development Studies, Ulloor  Loyola Chapel and Auditorium, 1971, Sreekaryam  Leprosy homes for Mission to Lepers across India  Pithoragarh house, school and hospital complex  Allahabad Agricultural University  Loyola Women’s Hostel, 1970, Sreekaryam  Neetas House  HUDCO Suresh  International Leprosy Mission, Faizabad
  19. 19. Works
  20. 20. • Key features of his house are:  All the walls are made of mud bricks.  Timber salvaged from anold boat jetty  One of the other signature elements of his design includes the use of circular walls,which use far less brickthan rectangular walls.  In addition, when he does use concrete for a roof, he embeds chipped or broken terra cotta roofing tiles into the mixture. THE HAMLET
  21. 21.  These tiles, which normally would be thrown away, contribute to the strength of the roof, allow less of the expensive concreteto be used, and reducethe structural load of the building.  Heused broken tiles for the outer pavedarea of his garden.  The living room, An integration of new building and salvaged timber from traditional buildings that were being demolished.  Baker's innovative use of discarded bottles, inset in the walls giving a very good effect of light and creating anillusion of stained glass.
  22. 22. DRAWINGS GROUND FLOOR FIRST FLOOR
  23. 23. STEPS LEADING UP TO FRONT DOOR A VIEWFROM THEOPPOSITE SIDE STEPS DIRECTLY CUT IN ROCK
  24. 24. ENTRANCE HAS SMALL SITTING AREA FORGUESTS THE WALL IS DECORATED FROMBROKEN POTTERY, PENS, GLASS A CALLING BELL FOR VISITORS TO ANNOUNCE THEIR PRESENCE
  25. 25. USE OF NATURAL LIGHT
  26. 26. INNER COURTYARD …CLOSE TO NATURE NEVERCUTTREESINSTEADADAPTED HISDESIGN ACCORDINGLY BAKER’S FONDNESS OF ARCHES
  27. 27. COURTYARD HAS MANY GARDENS AND PONDS Pitched roof made of Mangalore tiles
  28. 28. GABLES FORPROPER AIR CIRCULATION AND VENTILATION GRILL MADE OF BITS AND PIECES
  29. 29. COST EFFECTIVE BAKER’S WINDOW Louveredwindow typical of baker’s type STAINED GLASS EFFECT
  30. 30. WATER TANKFOR STORINGRAIN HARVESTED WATER
  31. 31. CHALLENGES:  Severity of environment in which the tribal's live.  Limitation of resources  Conventional architects stayed away from these projects  Dealing with large insular groups, with set ideas and traditions.  Dealing with cyclones FISHERMEN’S VILLAGE POONTHURA ,TRIVANDRUM(1974-75) Area of each unit : 25 sqm
  32. 32.  Exposedbrickworkandstructure  Slopedconcreteroof  Opennessindesignandindividualunitsoffseteachother  Continuouslatticework  intheexposedwalls DESIGN STRATEGIES Construction
  33. 33. • Low sloped roofs and courts serve as wind catchers • Open walls functionto dispel it • Long row of housingreplaced by even staggering • Frontingcourts catch the breeze and also get view of sea DealingWith Cyclones:
  34. 34. • Little private rectangle of land in between houses for drying nets , kids play, • Provides sleeping lofts within and adequate space outside for mending nets and cleaning and drying fish OpenSpaces
  35. 35. PLAN
  36. 36. CENTRE FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ULLOOR, TRIVANDRUM, 1971 Themostimportantprojectof baker’scareer.The significanceofthis assignmenthadless todowithsize andbudget,thanwiththeidea ofexhibiting arange of conceptsappliedto buildings ofvaryingfunctions, scale anddimensions. Anareaofnine acres accommodatesadministrativeoffices, acomputer centre,anamphi-theatre,a library,classrooms, housing andothercomponentsofaninstitutional design. The Computer centre, Centre for Development Studies, Here Baker evolved aninnovative system ofcurved double walls tosave on cost andto conserve the energy that goes into airconditioning a building of this scale andpurpose
  37. 37. Here, atthesummit, thelibrarydominatesthecentre witha seven-storeytower;theadministrative officesandclassroomsarescatteredin arandomnessdeterminedbyeach one'spositionon theslope. However, thebuildings remain tightlyconnectedthroughcorridorsthatsnakeupwardstothe library alongbreezywalkwaysandlandscapedcourts.
  38. 38. Building textures,configurationsandspanningelements demonstrateBaker’seasymanipulationof brick,all ofwhich weremadeclose tothe siteandfiredwithlocally-availablecoconutpalmwood.All surfaces,whetherinsideorout,in the dormitoryorclassroom,areexposedtopatternsshowing varying hondingtechniques andjaliwork.Openingsarearched,corbelledorspannedwithbricklintels.Wall thicknesseschangeon differentfloors,depending onthe loadingandrequirement.
  39. 39. LOYOLA CHAPEL AND AUDITORIUM SREEKARAYAM, 1971 TheLoyolacomplex containsa high schoolandapost-graduate complex, bothsharinga commonchapelandan auditorium.Itwas herethatBaker's skills ofcost-reductionmet theirgreatestchallenge, asitrequired a seating capacityof onethousand.In ordertoincreasethe lateral strength ofthe high brickwall, withoutthe introductionofanysteel or concrete,Bakerdevised awide cavitydoublewallwith cross- bracingbrick.
  40. 40. Windowless cavity wall Boththe walls werepiercedwitha continuousfloor-to-roofpatternofjalis,sothatthechapelwas adequately,thoughsomewhatmysteriously,lit-andventilated.Despiteits tallproportions,the acousticsofthehall wereremarkable-theexposedsurfacesandthe openpatternsofbrickwork controllingthe reverberations.
  41. 41. Thetotalcoveredareaofthe chapeland auditoriumandthegallery is approximately930 squaremeters.Thecostin 1970-71,including the furnitureandappurtenances,lighting and sanitationwaskeptwithin theoriginal gift sumof 1.75lakhrupees 1. Chapel nave 2. Sanctuary 3. Narthex 4. Sacristy 5. Chapel 6. Terrace 7. Auditorium 8. Stage 9. Green room 10. Toilet

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