Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
METABOLIC DISORDER;
HYPERTENSION,HYPERLIPIDEMIA,
ATHEROSCLEROSIS
PRAGYA PANDEY
Ph.D 1ST Yr
1
METABOLISM
 Metabolism is the complex set of chemical reactions that our
body uses to maintain life, including energy pro...
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE/ HYPERTENSION
 Blood pressure is a measurement of the force against the walls of your
arteries as you...
 High blood pressure increases chance of having a stroke,
heart attack, heart failure, kidney disease, or early death.
‘M...
RISK FACTORS:
 Factors:
 Amount of water and salt in the body
 The condition of kidneys, nervous system, or blood vesse...
„High blood pressure that is caused by another medical condition
or medication is called secondary hypertension.’
 Second...
SYMPTOMS
 Most of the time, there are no symptoms.
 People can develop heart disease and kidney problems
without knowing...
EXAMS AND TESTS
 All adults should have their blood pressure checked
every 1 to 2 years if their blood pressure was less ...
TREATMENT
 Pre-hypertension: lifestyle changes to bring your blood pressure
down to a normal range.
 Medicines are rarel...
OUTLOOK (PROGNOSIS)
 When blood pressure is not well controlled, you are at risk
for:
 Bleeding from the aorta (the larg...
HYPERLIPIDEMIA
 Hyperlipidemia is a heterogeneous group of disorders
characterized by an excess of lipids in the bloodstr...
LIPOPROTEINS
Based on density:
 Chylomicrons
 very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)
 intermediate-density lipoproteins (...
 Lipids are transported in the blood as large 'lipoproteins'
 Most triglyceride is transported in chylomicrons or
VLDL, ...
14
• genetically based, but the genetic defects are
known for only a minority of patientsPrimary
hyperlipidemia
• may resu...
Synonyms
Hypercholesterolemia
Hypertriglyceridemia
Hyperlipoproteinemia
Dyslipidemia
High serum
cholesterol
15
CAUSES
• COMMON CAUSE
 Familial combined hypercholesterolemia is the most common primary
lipid disorder, characterized by...
 Dietary causes:
 Fat intake per total calories greater than 40%
 Saturated fat intake per total calories greater than ...
TREATMENT
 Treatment will vary based on which type of lipids that
are too high.
 Making healthy diet choices and increas...
 Read food labels and choose foods with low cholesterol and saturated fat
levels.
 Keeping daily cholesterol intake betw...
ATHEROSCLEROSIS
 Atherosclerosis is a potentially serious condition where arteries
become clogged up by fatty substances,...
WHAT CAUSES ATHEROSCLEROSIS?
 Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from the heart throughout
the body.
 Two parti...
 The endothelium layer works to keep the inside of arteries toned and
smooth, which keeps blood flowing.
 "Atheroscleros...
ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND PLAQUE ATTACKS
 Plaques from atherosclerosis can behave in different
ways.
 They can stay within the...
24
The development of arterial atherosclerosis may occur when deposits of
cholesterol and plaque accumulate at a tear in t...
FIGURE A REPRESENTS A HEALTHY ARTERY. FIGURE B SHOWS AN
ARTERY WITH PLAQUE BUILD-UP
25
Cardiovascular disease caused by plaques of
atherosclerosis
Coronary artery disease:
• Stable plaques in the heart's arter...
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS?
 Arteriosclerosis is the stiffening or hardening of ...
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
 The first signs of atherosclerosis can begin to develop during adolescence,
with streaks of white bl...
 Coronary Arteries - these arteries provide blood to the heart, when the
blood supply to the heart is limited it can caus...
 Peripheral arterial disease - the arteries to the limbs, usually the legs, are
blocked.
 The most common symptom is leg...
CAUSES
 smoking
 a high-fat diet
 a lack of exercise
 being overweight or obese
 having either type 1 or type 2 diabe...
 Medication:
 To prevent the build up of plaque or to help prevent blood clots
(anteplatelets).
 Other medications such...
PREVENTION
 Avoid saturated fats, they increase bad cholesterols level .
 Exercise will improve fitness level and lowers...
THANK YOU
34
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

metabolic disorders;hypertension, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis

2,189 views

Published on

Published in: Healthcare, Health & Medicine
  • Steroid Raw Powders: Testosterone, Trenbolone, Nandrolone, Boldenone, Methenolone, Drostanolone, etc. HGH Series: HGH, Hygetropin, Jintropin, Kigtropin, Taitropin, Riptropin, Gettropin, IGF LR3 -1, HCG, etc. Actavis Promethazine with Codeine purple cough syrup. What is your order? pharmaceuticalpharmacy@hotmail.com
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

metabolic disorders;hypertension, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis

  1. 1. METABOLIC DISORDER; HYPERTENSION,HYPERLIPIDEMIA, ATHEROSCLEROSIS PRAGYA PANDEY Ph.D 1ST Yr 1
  2. 2. METABOLISM  Metabolism is the complex set of chemical reactions that our body uses to maintain life, including energy production.  Special enzymes break down food or certain chemicals so our body can use them right away for fuel or store them.  When these chemical processes don't work properly due to a hormone or enzyme deficiency, a metabolic disorder occurs.  Some metabolic disorders can be diagnosed by routine screening tests done at birth.  Others are identified only after a child or adult shows symptoms of a disorder. 2
  3. 3. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE/ HYPERTENSION  Blood pressure is a measurement of the force against the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps blood through your body.  Blood pressure readings are usually given as two numbers The top number is called the systolic blood pressure. The bottom number is called the diastolic blood pressure.  Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure, sometimes called arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated. 3 CATEGORY BLOOD PRESSURE(mm/Hg) NORMAL <120/80 PRE-HYPERTENSION 120/80-140/90 HIGH B.P. ≥140/90
  4. 4.  High blood pressure increases chance of having a stroke, heart attack, heart failure, kidney disease, or early death. ‘Most of the time, no cause of high blood pressure is found. This is called essential hypertension.’ 4
  5. 5. RISK FACTORS:  Factors:  Amount of water and salt in the body  The condition of kidneys, nervous system, or blood vessels  hormone levels  Age: Blood vessels become stiffer as you age and thus blood pressure goes up.  Obesity  Stress  Too much alcohol (more than one drink per day for women and more than two drinks per day for men).  Too much salt in your diet  Family history of high blood pressure  Diabetes  Smoking 5
  6. 6. „High blood pressure that is caused by another medical condition or medication is called secondary hypertension.’  Secondary hypertension may be due to:  Chronic kidney disease  Disorders of the adrenal gland (such as Cushing syndrome)  Hyperparathyroidism  Pregnancy or preeclampsia  Medications such as birth control pills, diet pills, some cold medicines, and migraine medicines  Narrowed artery that supplies blood to the kidney (renal artery stenosis) 6
  7. 7. SYMPTOMS  Most of the time, there are no symptoms.  People can develop heart disease and kidney problems without knowing they have high blood pressure.  If you have a severe headache, nausea or vomiting, bad headache, confusion, changes in your vision, or nosebleeds you may have a severe and dangerous form of high blood pressure called malignant hypertension. 7
  8. 8. EXAMS AND TESTS  All adults should have their blood pressure checked every 1 to 2 years if their blood pressure was less than 120/80 mmHg at their most recent reading.  If you have high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, kidney problems, or certain other conditions, have your blood pressure checked more often -- at least once every year. 8
  9. 9. TREATMENT  Pre-hypertension: lifestyle changes to bring your blood pressure down to a normal range.  Medicines are rarely used.  Eat a heart-healthy diet, including potassium and fiber, and drink plenty of water.  Exercise regularly.  Quit Smoke.  Limit alcohol.  Limit the amount of sodium (salt) -- aim for less than 1,500 mg per day.  Reduce stress  Stay at a healthy body weight 9
  10. 10. OUTLOOK (PROGNOSIS)  When blood pressure is not well controlled, you are at risk for:  Bleeding from the aorta (the large blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs)  Chronic kidney disease  Heart attack and heart failure  Poor blood supply to the legs  Problems with your vision  Stroke 10
  11. 11. HYPERLIPIDEMIA  Hyperlipidemia is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by an excess of lipids in the bloodstream, especially excess LDL-C and/or excess triglycerides.  These lipids include  Cholesterol  Cholesterol esters  Phospholipids  Triglycerides.  Two better-known terms:  high cholesterol  high triglycerides 11
  12. 12. LIPOPROTEINS Based on density:  Chylomicrons  very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)  intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL)  low-density lipoproteins (LDL)  high-density lipoproteins (HDL) 12
  13. 13.  Lipids are transported in the blood as large 'lipoproteins'  Most triglyceride is transported in chylomicrons or VLDL, and most cholesterol is carried in LDL and HDL  Our bodies make and use a certain amount of cholesterol every day, but sometimes that system gets out of whack, either through genetics or diet.  The “good cholesterol” – known as high-density lipoprotein, or HDL – helps coat the arteries like a protective oil, helping to prevent blockages.  The “bad cholesterol,” low-density lipoprotein, or LDL – can lead to blockages if there‟s too much in the body. 13
  14. 14. 14 • genetically based, but the genetic defects are known for only a minority of patientsPrimary hyperlipidemia • may result from diseases such as diabetes, thyroid disease, renal disorders, liver disorders, and Cushing's syndrome, as well as obesity, alcohol consumption, estrogen administration, and other drug-associated changes in lipid metabolism Secondary hyperlipidemia • is a major, modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease. Hyperlipidemia TYPES
  15. 15. Synonyms Hypercholesterolemia Hypertriglyceridemia Hyperlipoproteinemia Dyslipidemia High serum cholesterol 15
  16. 16. CAUSES • COMMON CAUSE  Familial combined hypercholesterolemia is the most common primary lipid disorder, characterized by moderate elevation of plasma triglycerides & cholesterol and reduced plasma HDL-C  Familial hypertriglyceridemia  Contributory or predisposing factors  Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus  Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus  Hypothyroidism  Cushing's syndrome  Renal failure and nephrotic syndrome  Cholestatic disorders  Dysproteinemias 16
  17. 17.  Dietary causes:  Fat intake per total calories greater than 40%  Saturated fat intake per total calories greater than 10%  Cholesterol intake greater than 300 mg per day  Habitual excessive alcohol use • Lifestyle contributing factors include:  Habitual excessive alcohol use  Obesity  Lack of exercise 17
  18. 18. TREATMENT  Treatment will vary based on which type of lipids that are too high.  Making healthy diet choices and increasing exercise are important first steps in lowering your high cholesterol.  Avoid fatty foods and lower your overall daily calorie intake.  Medication is also an effective tool  For people with high triglycerides, alcohol can be dangerous.  Those with high cholesterol, a daily glass of wine or other alcohol, along with healthy eating and exercise, may actually help.  1% reduction in the level of LDL-C, there is a 1-1.5% reduction in the risk of major cardiovascular events. 18
  19. 19.  Read food labels and choose foods with low cholesterol and saturated fat levels.  Keeping daily cholesterol intake between 250 and 300 milligrams and make sure to limit saturated fat intake.  Limit your intake of red meat and eggs to reduce your saturate fat and cholesterol.  Choose skim milk, low fat or fat-free dairy products.  Limit fried food, and use healthy oils in cooking, such as vegetable oil.  Increase the amount of fiber you eat.  A diet high in fiber can help lower cholesterol levels by as much as 10 percent  Lose extra weight.  A weight loss of 10 percent can go a long way to reversing, or lowering your risk of hyperlipidemia  Check your family history of high cholesterol 19
  20. 20. ATHEROSCLEROSIS  Atherosclerosis is a potentially serious condition where arteries become clogged up by fatty substances, such as cholesterol. These substances are called plaques or atheromas.  It is characterized by irregularly distributed lipid deposits in the intima of large and medium-sized arteries, causing narrowing of arterial lumens and proceeding eventually to fibrosis and calcification.  The plaques cause affected arteries to harden and narrow which is potentially dangerous for two reasons:  restricted blood flow can damage organs and stop them functioning properly  if a plaque ruptures, it can cause a blood clot that blocks the blood supply to the heart – triggering a heart attack, or the brain – triggering a stroke . 20
  21. 21. WHAT CAUSES ATHEROSCLEROSIS?  Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from the heart throughout the body.  Two particularly important arteries are:  coronary arteries – which provide blood to the heart  carotid arteries – which supply blood to the brain  The blood passes into tiny blood vessels, known as capillaries, where the oxygen in the blood is transferred into the cells of your body's tissues and organs. The blood then returns to the heart through the veins.  If a blood clot occurs in the coronary artery it can trigger a heart attack. Similarly a blood clot in the carotid artery can trigger a stroke. 21
  22. 22.  The endothelium layer works to keep the inside of arteries toned and smooth, which keeps blood flowing.  "Atherosclerosis starts when high blood pressure, smoking, or high cholesterol damage the endothelium, At that point, cholesterol plaque formation begins."  Cholesterol invasion. Bad cholesterol, or LDL, crosses damaged endothelium. The cholesterol enters the wall of the artery.  Plaque formation. White blood cells stream in to digest the LDL cholesterol. Over years, the accumulating mess of cholesterol and cells becomes a plaque in the wall of the artery. 22
  23. 23. ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND PLAQUE ATTACKS  Plaques from atherosclerosis can behave in different ways.  They can stay within the artery wall.  They can grow in a slow, controlled way into the path of blood flow. Eventually, they cause significant blockages. Pain on exertion (in the chest or legs) is the usual symptom.  The worst-case scenario: plaques can suddenly rupture, allowing blood to clot inside an artery. In the brain, this causes a stroke; in the heart, a heart attack. 23
  24. 24. 24 The development of arterial atherosclerosis may occur when deposits of cholesterol and plaque accumulate at a tear in the inner lining of an artery. As the deposits harden and occlude the arterial lumen, blood flow to distant tissues decreases and a clot may become lodged, completely blocking the artery.
  25. 25. FIGURE A REPRESENTS A HEALTHY ARTERY. FIGURE B SHOWS AN ARTERY WITH PLAQUE BUILD-UP 25
  26. 26. Cardiovascular disease caused by plaques of atherosclerosis Coronary artery disease: • Stable plaques in the heart's arteries cause angina (chest pain on exertion). • Sudden plaque rupture and clotting causes heart muscle to die. • This is a heart attack, or myocardial infarction. Cerebrovascular disease: • Ruptured plaques in the brain's arteries causes strokes, with the potential for permanent brain damage. • Temporary blockages in an artery can also cause transient ischemic attacks (TIAs),however, there is no brain injury. Peripheral artery disease: • Narrowing in the arteries of the legs caused by plaque. • Peripheral artery disease causes poor circulation. • This causes pain on walking and poor wound healing. Severe disease may lead to amputations 26
  27. 27. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ARTERIOSCLEROSIS AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS?  Arteriosclerosis is the stiffening or hardening of the artery walls.  Atherosclerosis is the narrowing of the artery because of plaque build-up.  All patients with atherosclerosis have arteriosclerosis, but those with arteriosclerosis might not necessarily have atherosclerosis. 27
  28. 28. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:  The first signs of atherosclerosis can begin to develop during adolescence, with streaks of white blood cells appearing on the artery wall.  Arteries affected:  Carotid Arteries - these arteries provide blood to the brain, when the blood supply is limited patients can suffer stroke and may experience:  Weakness  Difficulty breathing  Headache  Facial numbness  Paralysis 28
  29. 29.  Coronary Arteries - these arteries provide blood to the heart, when the blood supply to the heart is limited it can cause angina and heart attack, symptoms include:  Vomiting  Extreme anxiety  Chest pain  Coughing  Feeling faint  Renal Arteries- these supply blood to the kidneys; if the blood supply becomes limited, there is a serious risk of developing chronic kidney disease, and the patient may experience:  Loss of appetite  Swelling of the hands and feet  Difficulty concentrating 29
  30. 30.  Peripheral arterial disease - the arteries to the limbs, usually the legs, are blocked.  The most common symptom is leg pain, either in one or both legs, usually in the calves, thighs or hips.  The pain may be described as one of heaviness, cramp, or dullness in the leg muscles.  Other symptoms may include:  Hair loss on legs or feet  Male impotence (erectile dysfunction)  Numbness in the legs  The color of the skin on the legs change  The toenails get thicker  Weakness in the legs 30
  31. 31. CAUSES  smoking  a high-fat diet  a lack of exercise  being overweight or obese  having either type 1 or type 2 diabetes  having high blood pressure (hypertension)  having high cholesterol  Diabetes  Genetics  Air pollution - exposure to diesel exhaust particles in air pollution leads to a higher risk of bad cholesterol build-up in the arteries.(in 2007, researchers from the University of California in Los Angeles) 31
  32. 32.  Medication:  To prevent the build up of plaque or to help prevent blood clots (anteplatelets).  Other medications such as statins may be prescribed to lower cholesterol, and Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to lower blood pressure.  Surgery - Severe cases of atherosclerosis may be treated by surgical procedures, such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).  Angioplasty involves expanding the artery and opening the blockage, so that the blood can flow through properly again.  CABG is another form of surgery that can improve blood flow to the heart by using arteries from other parts of the body to bypass a narrowed coronary artery. 32 Treatment
  33. 33. PREVENTION  Avoid saturated fats, they increase bad cholesterols level .  Exercise will improve fitness level and lowers blood pressure.  Stop Smoking  Flu vaccine - Flu vaccination may reduce the risk of heart attack by 50% in middle-aged individuals with narrowed arteries. 33
  34. 34. THANK YOU 34

×